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Gorashf N.E.,Environment and Natural Resources Research Institute | Tripatki M.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Kalia V.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Gujar G.T.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2014

Forty-four isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis like bacteria from various sources in different locations from Sudan were tested for their insecticidal activity. The toxicity of these isolates ranged from 6.6 to 70% to the neonates of cotton bollworrn. Helicoverpa armigera at 10 ppm concentration. The most effective ones are Kb-29. St-6 and Wh-1 comparable withHD-1. Toxicity of isolates to larvae of the red flour beetle. Tribolium castaneum ranged from 20 to 100%. Isolates St-2 and St-23 gave 100% larval mortality within 15 days of exposure and were at par with Ab-8. Ab-12, Kb-26, Kb-30. Om-t. Po-2, Po-5, Po-7. Sa-8 and Wh-5 and were also comparable with E. coli clone expressing Cry3 toxin. The most effective five isolates viz. Kb-29. St-2. St-6. St-23 and Wh-1 belonged to B. thuringiensis. The St-6 isolate, which also showed high toxicity to T castaneum larvae, had cryl genes along with coleopteran active crjQSi genes, but not cryi genes. Of the 25 isolates characterized with 16s DNA sequencing, seven belonged to Paenibacillus spp. one Lysinibacillus sphaericus, one Bacillus pionilus. four Bacillus spp., and rest 12 belonged to B. thuringiensis. Biochemical characterization in each species showed variation. The present study shows potential of some isolates like Kb-29, St-2, St-6, St-23 and Wh-1 as promising bioinsecticides.


Mohammed S.E.A.,Environment and Natural Resources Research Institute | Kabashi A.S.,Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Institute | Koko W.S.,Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Institute | Azim M.K.,University of Karachi
Natural Product Research | Year: 2015

Natural honey contains an array of glycoproteins, proteoglycans and glycopeptides. Size-exclusion chromatography fractionated Ziziphus honey proteins into five peaks with molecular masses in the range from 10 to >200 kDa. The fractionated proteins exhibited in vitro activities against Giardia lamblia with IC50values ≤ 25μg/mL. Results indicated that honey proteins were more active as antiprotozoal agents than metronidazole. This study indicated the potential of honey proteins and peptides as novel antigiardial agents. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


Hassan M.M.,Environment and Natural Resources Research Institute | Yagoub S.O.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Gabouch N.A.,Sudan University of Science and Technology
Bioscience Research | Year: 2010

Green house study was conducted in Shambat area to investigate the effect of chicken manure row or compost at 12 and 24 g/5kg alone or mixed with nitrogen (95.2 kgha -1) on Striga hermonthica growth and development on sorghum Abu Sabien. Chicken manure alone or in combination with nitrogen was effective in reducing and delaying Striga growth and early infestation in comparison with the control. At 10 WAS, compost chicken manure at 24g/5kg mixture with nitrogen displayed the most inhibitory to Striga emergence in comparison with the respective control. It reduced Striga infestation by 62%. Nitrogen alone displayed the most inhibitory to Striga growth as compared with control. It reduced Striga infestation by 83%. Striga free control or infested sorghum treated with compost at 24 g/5kg significantly increased the shoot dry weight as compared with the respective control. This study indicates that combination of chicken manure with nitrogen as urea is an effective weed management practice to control Striga.


Mohammed S.E.A.,Environment and Natural Resources Research Institute | Azim M.K.,University of Karachi
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Characterisation of honey proteins has been considered advantageous for differentiating floral and geographical origin of honey. We analysed protein profiles of multi- and mono-floral honey samples from different regions and harvest dates. The molecular masses of chromatographic peaks were in the range of 10->200kDa. Owing to comparable molecular masses, interesting correlation between profiles of honey proteins reported earlier and observed in this study could be established. Chromatograms of honey proteins revealed three novel peaks of molecular masses ~220, 129 and 26kDa. Statistical analysis of peak areas showed that the 84-kDa peak was different among all honey samples and the 220-kDa peak was important for differentiation between multi- and mono-floral honey samples. Chromatograms of several-year-old honey samples were different from fresh samples because of depletion of high molecular mass peaks that indicated in situ proteolysis. The results supported the notion of applying gel filtration as cost-effective and robust technique for honey protein characterisation. © 2011 Institute of Food Science and Technology.


Hassan M.M.,Environment and Natural Resources Research Institute | Osman M.G.,Commission for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering | Mohammed Ahmed M.M.,Commission for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering | Abdalaleem K.G.,Neelain University | And 2 more authors.
Advances in Environmental Biology | Year: 2011

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of media type, sugars, Ammonium nitrate, Potassium phosphate, auxins and cytokinine in different concentrations on in vitro Striga seed germination. Medium B5 was showed to induce Striga germination after short period of time. Striga germination reached 100% after 10 day of culture. This may be due to chemical components of this media that induced Striga germination. Results indicated that Striga seeds germination was affected by sugars. Sucrose and glucose at 60g/1 were the most inhibitory to Striga seeds germination. It reduced Striga seeds germination by 20 and 60% after 50 and 45 days, respectively. The depressive effects of the Striga germination increased with increasing sugar concentrations. Furthermore, all Ammonium nitrate and Potassium phosphate concentrations tested delayed Striga germination. Different concentrations of auxins and cytokinines were tested to evaluate their effects on seeds germination of Striga. Striga seeds treated with different auxins displayed various results. Both 2, 4-D and NAA auxins, irrespective of concentrations level displayed no Striga seeds germination. However, IAA and IBA displayed 100% germination as compared to the control. Cytokinines (kin and BAP) induced Striga seeds germination. Moreover, it was concluded that morphogenesis of cultured S. hermonthica is influenced by exogenous growth regulators.


Hassan M.M.,Environment and Natural Resources Research Institute | Sugmuto Y.,Kobe University | Babiker A.G.E.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Yamauchi Y.,Kobe University | And 2 more authors.
Bioscience Research | Year: 2010

The parasitic plants Orobanche and Striga spp. are holo- and hemi-parasites respectively, which largely depend on a host plant to obtain their nutrients and water. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of NaCl on Orobanche and Striga seed germination under laboratory condition. Seeds of Orobanche minor were exposed to 50, 75, 100 and 150 mM NaCl solutions during or after conditioning period (for 7 days) and induced to germinate by a synthetic germination stimulant GR24. As a result, seed germination was decreased significantly with the increase in salt solution concentration during conditioning. Significant reduction in O. minor seed germination was observed at highest NaCl level (150 mM). It reduced germination by 92% as compared to the corresponding control. On the other hands, germination response of O. minor seeds conditioned in water and then treated with mixture of GR24 and NaCl 1:1 (v/v) was studied, and results displayed that germination of O. minor seeds was inhibited with increasing NaCl concentrations. Seeds treated with 150 mM, exhibited reduced germination by 77% as compared with control. With respect to O. crenata and Striga, results showed that all concentrations of NaCl decrease seeds germination. Of all NaCl concentration tested, 100 mM displayed the most inhibitory effect. Osmotic potential may significantly affect germination and radicle elongation of parasitic weeds.


PubMed | Environment and Natural Resources Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pakistan journal of biological sciences : PJBS | Year: 2013

The present study investigated effect of salting and drying techniques on nutritive values of treated meat of Khashm El-Banat (Mormyrus niloticus Bloch and Schneider, 1801). Twenty six kilograms of the studied fish were evaluated after dividing them into two main groups named salted fish and non-salted depending on 20% brine used. Each salted fish and non-salted fish were divided into two subgroups and then one subgroup of both salted fish and non-salted fish was exposed directly to sun rays in Open Air (OA) and the other one was exposed indirectly to sun rays in Shade (SH). Results showed that drying technique of Khashm El-Banat in OA was quicker than that in SH. Protein content showed having high significance where non-salted fish had the highest values as 63.9% in OA and 61.4% in SH. Ash content also was highly significant where salted fish had the highest content as 17.8% in OA and 17.9% in SH. Drying technique in OA was not preferable for Khashm El-Banat, because it had a relative fat content which led to accumulate dust particles on the crusted surface of the dried fish.


Elkareem M.M.A.A.,Neelain University | Karrar A.M.H.,Environment and Natural Resources Research Institute | Ali A.K.S.,Neelain University
Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

The objective of the present study was to investigate the nutritive value and heavy metals accumulation in the flesh of Clarias lazera (Cuvier and Valenciennes) reared in the discharge canal of Soba wastewater treatment station, south Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 57 fish were collected from the canal and 52 from the White Nile which served as the control. The proximate composition of fish and concentrations of eight hazardous heavy metals i.e. chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), robidium (Rb), strontium (Sr), and mercury (Hg) in the flesh of C. lazera were measured. The results which were statistically analyzed revealed insignificant differences in moisture, ash, fat contents, energy value, and fat: protein ratio (P>0.05) between the two studied sites. A significant difference (P<0.05) was evident in the protein content of fishes from both locations. Heavy metals accumulation in Clarias tissues differ from one element to another depending on each element characteristics and local environmental conditions e.g. Sr was higher in the White Nile fishes than in treated wastewater fishes (P<0.05). Accumulation of Pb and Hg was comparable in wastewater and White Nile (P>0.05). Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb concentrations were significantly higher in treated wastewater fishes than natural water fishes (P<0.05). Cr was also higher in treated wastewater fishes (P>0.05). Nevertheless, the concentrations of most considered elements were lower than levels recommended by various international agencies. © 2014 Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences.

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