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Piel S.,Environment and Health Research Laboratory | Baures E.,Environment and Health Research Laboratory | Masclet S.,SAUR Research and Development | Perot J.,SAUR Research and Development | Thomas O.,Environment and Health Research Laboratory
Water Science and Technology: Water Supply | Year: 2012

This study proposes a new approach for improving resource quality management, monitoring and treatment plant management, whatever the environmental and climatic stressors. First trend analysis of water quality at a river basin scale, based on historical water quality data and multivariate exploitation (principal component analysis, PCA), led to a classification of the monitoring stations with regard to the main pressures (land use, urbanization and hydroclimatic impacts). This method was applied to the Vilaine's watershed, the largest river basin in Brittany, western France, and one which is under agricultural and urban pressure. A complementary research using a UV index was proposed for the evaluation of spatial and temporal variations of water quality. This approach may be considered as a useful and relevant tool to quickly assess the variation of water quality and the main explanatory factors. It also points out monitoring stations under specific stressors considered as outliers regarding UV parameters. Finally, PCA and UV index give complementary results. PCA allows factors influencing drinking water resource to be highlighted and the UV index allows global water quality under specific times and impacts to be reflected. Copyright © IWA Publishing 2012.


Delpla I.,Environment and Health Research Laboratory | Baures E.,Environment and Health Research Laboratory | Jung A.-V.,Environment and Health Research Laboratory | Thomas O.,Environment and Health Research Laboratory
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2011

Since a rise in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations has been observed for surface waters at least over the last two decades, a change in weather conditions (temperature and precipitations) has been proposed to partly explain this increase. While the majority of DOC delivery from soils to stream occurs during rainfall events, a better understanding of the rainfall influence on DOC release is needed. This study has been conducted in Brittany, western France, on agricultural experimental plots receiving either cattle manure (CM) or pig slurry (PS) as fertilizers in accordance with local practices. Each plot was instrumented with a flow meter and an auto sampler for runoff measurements. The results show that export of DOC during high intensity events is higher than during lower intensity rainfalls. Fertilization has a noticeable impact on total organic carbon (TOC) fluxes with an increase of five to seven folds for PS and CM respectively. If TOC shock load occurs shortly after the rainfall peak, DOC maximum appears with the first flush of the event. Organic carbon (OC) is mainly under colloidal (41.2%) and soluble (23.9%) forms during the first stage of a rainfall event and a control of rainfall intensity on OC colloidal transport is suggested. These findings highlight the potential risk of receiving water quality degradation due to the increase of heavier rainfall events with climate change in temperate areas. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Environment and Health Research Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2011

Since a rise in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations has been observed for surface waters at least over the last two decades, a change in weather conditions (temperature and precipitations) has been proposed to partly explain this increase. While the majority of DOC delivery from soils to stream occurs during rainfall events, a better understanding of the rainfall influence on DOC release is needed. This study has been conducted in Brittany, western France, on agricultural experimental plots receiving either cattle manure (CM) or pig slurry (PS) as fertilizers in accordance with local practices. Each plot was instrumented with a flow meter and an auto sampler for runoff measurements. The results show that export of DOC during high intensity events is higher than during lower intensity rainfalls. Fertilization has a noticeable impact on total organic carbon (TOC) fluxes with an increase of five to seven folds for PS and CM respectively. If TOC shock load occurs shortly after the rainfall peak, DOC maximum appears with the first flush of the event. Organic carbon (OC) is mainly under colloidal (41.2%) and soluble (23.9%) forms during the first stage of a rainfall event and a control of rainfall intensity on OC colloidal transport is suggested. These findings highlight the potential risk of receiving water quality degradation due to the increase of heavier rainfall events with climate change in temperate areas.


PubMed | Environment and Health Research Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of environmental research and public health | Year: 2010

Hand disinfection with alcohols-based hand rubs (ABHRs) are known to be the most effective measure to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare. ABHRs contain on average 70% by weight of one or more alcohols. During the hand rubbing procedure, users are exposed to these alcohols not only through dermal contact, but also via inhalation, due to the physical and chemical properties of alcohols volatilizing from alcoholic solutions or gels into the air. Ethanol ingestion is well known to increase risks of several diseases (affecting the pancreas, liver, cardiovascular system), but there is a lack of knowledge about the effects of exposure to other alcohols (including n- or isopropanol) via inhalation and dermal contact, despite the worldwide use of ABHRs. This work aims at discussing possible health effects related to unintentional alcoholization (via inhalation and dermal contact) from professional ABHR usage to suggest the need for more research in this area (but not to question the value of ABHRs). Based upon an average of 30 hand rubbings per healthcare professional per day, it can be assumed that a healthcare worker may be exposed to a maximum 5,500 mg/m(3) per work shift, five times above the recommended occupational time weighted average limit. Thus, in order to answer the question posed in the title, studies on spatial and temporal variability of alcohol emission from ABHRs in real world situations and studies on certain high risk individuals are needed.

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