Environment Administration

Hanoi, Vietnam

Environment Administration

Hanoi, Vietnam
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Carlsen H.K.,Umeå University | Carlsen H.K.,University of Iceland | Carlsen H.K.,Gothenburg University | Back E.,Environment Administration | And 15 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2017

Few studies have investigated associations between self-reported and modelled exposure to traffic pollution. The objective of this study was to examine correlations between self-reported traffic exposure and modelled (a) NOX and (b) traffic proximity in seven different northern European cities; Aarhus (Denmark), Bergen (Norway), Gothenburg, Umeå, and Uppsala (Sweden), Reykjavik (Iceland), and Tartu (Estonia). We analysed data from the RHINE III (Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, www.rhine.nu) cohorts of the seven study cities. Traffic proximity (distance to the nearest road with >10,000 vehicles per day) was calculated and vehicle exhaust (NOX) was modelled using dispersion models and land-use regression (LUR) data from 2011. Participants were asked a question about self-reported traffic intensity near bedroom window and another about traffic noise exposure at the residence. The data were analysed using rank correlation (Kendall's tau) and inter-rater agreement (Cohen's Kappa) between tertiles of modelled NOX and traffic proximity tertile and traffic proximity categories (0–150 metres (m), 150–200 m, >300 m) in each centre. Data on variables of interest were available for 50–99% of study participants per each cohort. Mean modelled NOX levels were between 6.5 and 16.0 μg/m3; median traffic intensity was between 303 and 10,750 m in each centre. In each centre, 7.7–18.7% of respondents reported exposure to high traffic intensity and 3.6–16.3% of respondents reported high exposure to traffic noise. Self-reported residential traffic exposure had low or no correlation with modelled exposure and traffic proximity in all centres, although results were statistically significant (tau = 0.057–0.305). Self-reported residential traffic noise correlated weakly (tau = 0.090–0.255), with modelled exposure in all centres except Reykjavik. Modelled NOX had the highest correlations between self-reported and modelled traffic exposure in five of seven centres, traffic noise exposure had the highest correlation with traffic proximity in tertiles in three centres. Self-reported exposure to high traffic intensity and traffic noise at each participant's residence had low or weak although statistically significant correlations with modelled vehicle exhaust pollution levels and traffic proximity. © 2017

Sun X.L.,Jiaxing University | Sun X.L.,Kanazawa University | Kido T.,Kanazawa University | Honma S.,Kanazawa University | And 12 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2017

Although Vietnam's massive herbicide exposure in 1960s and 1970s was clearly injurious to health, not all causal relationships have been clarified. We therefore explored associations among dioxins, steroid hormones, age and prostate cancer risk in men. We compared serum levels of dioxin, steroid hormones and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in men aged 56–81 years from herbicide-exposed hotspots (n = 50) with those from non-sprayed regions (n = 48). Mean serum levels of dioxin congeners in the hotspot group were 1.5–11.3 times higher than the non-sprayed group depending on specific compound. Levels of testosterone, estradiol and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) activity in the hotspot group were also significantly higher than in non-sprayed group. Estradiol levels were significantly related to levels of several specific dioxin derivatives in both group. Significant positive correlations were also found between DHT and 1234678-HpCDD or 1234678-HpCDF; and between 3β-HSD activity and 123678-HxCDD, 123478-HxCDF, 123678-HxCDF, or HxCB#169. After adjusting for age, body mass index, and tobacco use, multiple linear regressions showed levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol, testosterone and 3β-HSD activity were not associated with dioxins in the two groups; however, levels of DHT, testosterone and 3β-HSD activity increased significantly with age in the hotspot group. The hotspot and non-sprayed groups did not significantly differ in PSA levels. But six of the hotspot subjects had PSA levels > 3 ng/mL, 3 of whom were suspected to have prostate cancer (PC) after digital rectal examination. Our findings suggest that dioxin exposure can lead to increased levels of several sex steroid hormones with age. The correlation of dioxin with steroid hormone levels and prostate cancer risk should be studied further. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Anh L.T.,Kanazawa University | Kido T.,Kanazawa University | Honma S.,Kanazawa University | Manh H.D.,Kanazawa University | And 11 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2017

Over the past decades, southern Vietnam has been burdened by dioxins from contaminated herbicides sprayed during the Vietnam War. In a previous study, we found that dioxin exposure decreased levels of salivary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an adrenal androgen, in 3-year-old children. In present study, to assess the relationship between adrenal hormones disruption in lactating mothers and in children, we compared mother-child pairs from dioxin- and nondioxin-contaminated regions. In 2010 and 2011, mother-child pairs from a dioxin hotspot region (n = 37) and a non-contaminated region (n = 47) were recruited and donated breast milk and serum samples for dioxin and steroid hormones determination. Mothers were 20–30 years old and had given birth to their first child between 4 and 16 weeks previously. One year later, saliva samples were collected from the children. Dioxin levels in breast milk were determined by gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. Salivary DHEA, cortisol in children and androstenedione (A-dione), estradiol, cortisol, and DHEA in maternal serum were analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of dioxin congeners in the hotspot region were 2- to 5-fold higher than in samples from the non-contaminated region. Salivary DHEA levels in children and serum A-dione levels in mothers were significantly higher in the hotspot region; no difference was found in the levels of other hormones. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between the elevated hormone levels in mothers and children (r = 0.62, p < 0.001). Several dioxin congeners exhibited strong significant dose-response relationships with salivary DHEA and serum A-dione levels. Our findings suggest that dioxin disrupts adrenal androgens in mothers and breastfeeding children through the same mechanism. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Manh H.D.,Kanazawa University | Manh H.D.,Lac Hong University | Kido T.,Kanazawa University | Okamoto R.,Kanazawa University | And 13 more authors.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine | Year: 2013

Objective: Nearly 40 years after Agent Orange was last sprayed, we conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the impact of dioxin exposure on salivary hormones in Vietnamese primiparae. Our previous studies found higher levels of salivary cortisol and cortisone in one of the most highly dioxin-contaminated areas, known as a "hot-spot", than in a non-exposed area. As a result, we suggested that further research with a larger number of participants would be needed to confirm whether dioxin affects steroid hormone levels in Vietnamese primiparae. Methods: The concentration of steroid hormones in saliva was determined by liquid chromatography (electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry), whereas the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in breast milk were determined by gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, for a sample of the population from a "hot-spot" (n = 16) and a non-exposed area (n = 10). All subjects were aged between 20 and 30 years and had children aged between 4 and 16 weeks. Results: The mean toxic equivalence of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCDDs + PCDFs in breast milk in the hot-spot area was found to be significantly higher than in the non-exposed area (p < 0.001). Likewise, salivary cortisol, cortisone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels were significantly higher in the hotspot area than in the non-exposed area (p < 0.05). As a result, herein we report, for the first time, that salivary DHEA levels in primiparae are higher in a hot-spot than in a non-exposed area, and that this may be the result of dioxin exposure. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the long-term effects of Agent Orange/dioxin on steroid hormones in Vietnamese primiparae in the post-war period. © 2012 The Japanese Society for Hygiene.

Manh H.D.,Kanazawa University | Manh H.D.,Lac Hong University | Kido T.,Kanazawa University | Tai P.T.,Vietnam Military Medical University | And 12 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2015

We determined polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in breast milk of 143 primiparae living around the three most dioxin-contaminated areas of Vietnam. The women sampled lived in the vicinity of former U.S. air bases at Bien Hoa (n. =. 51), Phu Cat (n. =. 23), and Da Nang (n. =. 69), which are known as dioxin hotspots. Breast milk samples from Bien Hoa City, where residents live very close to the air base, showed high levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), with 18% of the samples containing >. 5. pg. TCDD/g lipid. However, Phu Cat residents lived far from the air base and their samples showed lower TCDD levels, with none containing >. 5. pg. TCDD/g lipid. In Da Nang, TCDD levels in mothers from Thanh Khe (close to the air base, n. =. 43) were significantly higher than those in mothers from Son Tra (far from the air base, n. =. 26), but not other PCDD and PCDF (PCDD/F) congeners. Although TCDD levels in Bien Hoa were the highest among these hotspots, levels of other PCDD/F congeners as well as the geometric mean concentration of total PCDD/F level in Bien Hoa (9.3. pg toxic equivalents [TEQ]/g lipid) were significantly lower than the level observed in Phu Cat (14.1. pg. TEQ/g lipid), Thanh Khe (14.3. pg. TEQ/g lipid), and Son Tra (13.9. pg. TEQ/g lipid). Our findings indicated that residents living close to former U.S. air bases were exposed to elevated levels of TCDD, but not of other PCDD/F congeners. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

PubMed | Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Hanoi Medical University, Environment Administration, Jiaxing University and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2016

This study aims to evaluate the endocrine-disrupting effect of dioxin congeners on adrenal steroid hormones in mother-child pairs. In our previous study, we found that cortisol and cortisone levels were higher in the blood and the saliva of mothers living in a dioxin hotspot area than in mothers from a non-exposed region in Vietnam. In this follow-up study, we determined the salivary steroid hormone levels in 49 and 55 three-year-old children of these mothers in the hotspot and non-exposed region, respectively. Steroid hormones were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and dioxin in the maternal breast milk was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dioxin levels in the breast milk of mothers from the hotspot (median total toxic equivalents polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans; (TEQ PCDD/Fs) of 11pg/g lipid) were three to four times higher than those of mothers in the non-exposed region (median TEQ PCDD/Fs of 3.07pg/g lipid). Salivary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels in children were found to be significantly lower in the hotspot than in the non-exposed region, while cortisol and cortisone levels were not different between the two regions. Highly chlorinated dioxin congeners, such as octacholorodibenzodioxin (OCDD), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptacholorodibenzodioxin (HpCDD) and 1,2,3,4 (or 6), 7,8-hexachlorodibenzodioxin Hx(CDD), showed stronger inverse associations with the childrens salivary DHEA than other lowly chlorinated dioxin congeners. Glucocorticoid levels in the mothers exhibited a significantly positive correlation with OCDD and HpCDD/F (polychlorinated dibenzofurans). In conclusion, highly chlorinated dioxin congeners are more strongly correlated with endocrine-disrupting effects on adrenal hormones, resulting in high cortisol levels in the mothers and low DHEA levels in their three-year-old children.

Sun X.,Kanazawa University | Kido T.,Kanazawa University | Okamoto R.,Kanazawa University | Manh H.D.,Kanazawa University | And 11 more authors.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine | Year: 2013

Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the impact of Agent Orange exposure for prostate cancer with a comparison of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels between a hotspot and a non-sprayed area. Methods: The study was conducted in Phu Cat district (hotspot) and Kim Bang district (non-sprayed), with a total of 101 men in the hotspot and 97 men in the non-sprayed area older than 50 years of age. About 5 mL of whole blood and a health status questionnaire were collected from each subject in August 2009-2011. Results: The mean age of the subjects in the hotspot (68.0 years old) was significantly higher than that of those in the non-sprayed area (65.0 years old). No significant difference was found between the hotspot area (0.93 ng/mL) and the non-sprayed area (0.95 ng/mL) in terms of PSA levels. Likewise, this was not statistically significant after adjusting for age. The prevalence of high PSA levels (>3 ng/mL) did not differ significantly between the hotspot (14 men; 13.9 %) and non-sprayed area (9 men; 9.3 %). No significant difference was found between the hotspot area and the non-sprayed area in terms of occupation (farmer and others). In control subjects, no significant difference was found between the PSA levels in subjects exposed to Agent Orange and non-exposed subjects. Likewise, no significant difference was found between the PSA levels of combatants and civilians. Conclusion: The PSA levels were not significantly different between the hotspot and the non-sprayed area. © 2013 The Japanese Society for Hygiene.

Grundstrom M.,Gothenburg University | Tang L.,Gothenburg University | Tang L.,IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd | Hallquist M.,Gothenburg University | And 3 more authors.
Atmospheric Pollution Research | Year: 2015

Relationships between urban nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and atmospheric circulation at two spatial scales were studied for Southern Sweden. Lamb Weather Types (LWT) describe the circulation (scale: thousands of kilometers) including non-directional (cyclonic and anticyclonic) and directional types depending on the wind direction. LWTs with low wind speeds (anticyclonic, NW and N) were associated with strongly elevated [NO2], between 46-52% of the daily averages of NO2exceeded the 60 μg m-3air quality standard (AQS) when occurring during these LWTs. The lowest fractions of exceedances of NO2AQS were generally observed for LWTs E, S, SW and W. A larger scale circulation (several thousands of kilometers) was represented by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) affecting meteorology over middle and high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. While a negative NAO index (NAOI) favors stagnant high pressure weather over Northern Europe, a positive NAOI is often associated with windy conditions. High [NO2] was found to be frequent under negative NAOI. Additionally, larger fractions of exceedances of NO2AQS were observed for the majority of LWTs occurring at negative NAOI. It’s concluded that both LWTs and NAOI had partly independent effects on the urban air quality in a North European city. These circulation indices can be useful tools for air pollution risk assessment and forecasting. © Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Kido T.,Kanazawa University | Van Dao T.,Hanoi Medical University | Ho M.D.,Kanazawa University | Dang N.D.,Hanoi Medical University | And 10 more authors.
European Journal of Endocrinology | Year: 2014

Objective: Dioxin (polychlorinated dibenzodioxins Cpolychlorinated dibenzofurans) is one of the most toxic chemical substances known. Although it is suspected to cause endocrine disruption, very few epidemiological studies have been carried out on its effects on human steroid hormones. The aim of this study was to elucidate the association of dioxin exposure with steroid hormone levels in the saliva and serum of Vietnamese women. Study design : Two areas, namely Phu Cat (hot spot) and Kim Bang (nonexposed area), were selected for the study. The study subjects consisted of 51 and 58 women respectively. Saliva, blood, and breast milk samples were collected from the subjects in both the areas. Methods: Cortisol, cortisone, DHEA, androstenedione, estrone, and estradiol levels in serum and saliva were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; dioxin concentrations in breast milk were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: Dioxin concentrations in the breast milk of women from the dioxin hot spot were three to four times higher than those in the breast milk of women from the nonexposed area. Good correlations were found between the levels of six steroid hormones in saliva and those in serum respectively. Salivary and serum cortisol and cortisone levels in women from the dioxin hot spot were significantly higher than those in women from the nonexposed area (P<0.001) and those in all the subjects were positively associated with dioxin concentrations in Vietnamese women (P<0.01). Conclusion: These results suggest that dioxin influences steroidogenesis in humans. Saliva samples can be used for hormone analysis and are therefore excellent specimens in epidemiological studies. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

PubMed | Hanoi Medical University, Environment Administration, Kanazawa Medical University and Kanazawa University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2016

We aimed to determine the relationship between dioxin congeners in maternal breast milk and maternal glucocorticoid levels with newborn birth weight after nearly 45years of use of herbicides in the Vietnam War. The study subjects comprised 58 mother-infant pairs in a region with high dioxin levels in the soil (hotspot) and 62 pairs from a control region. Dioxin levels in maternal breast milk were measured by HRGC-HRMS. Salivary glucocorticoid levels were determined by LC-MS/MS. Dioxin congener levels in mothers from the hotspot were found to be two to fivefold higher than those in mothers from the control region. Birth weight was inversely correlated with 2,3,7,8-TeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF congener levels. The rate of newborns whose birth weight was less than 2500g was threefold higher in the hotspot (12%) than in the control region (4%). Salivary glucocorticoid levels in mothers with low birth weight infants were significantly higher than those in the normal birth weight group. Low birth weight of Vietnamese newborns in a hotspot for dioxin levels is related to some dioxin congener levels and high glucocorticoid levels in mothers. This finding in mother-infant pairs suggests that excess maternal glucocorticoid levels are related to dioxin burden and they result in low birth weight.

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