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Manh H.D.,Kanazawa University | Manh H.D.,Lac Hong University | Kido T.,Kanazawa University | Okamoto R.,Kanazawa University | And 13 more authors.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine | Year: 2013

Objective: Nearly 40 years after Agent Orange was last sprayed, we conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the impact of dioxin exposure on salivary hormones in Vietnamese primiparae. Our previous studies found higher levels of salivary cortisol and cortisone in one of the most highly dioxin-contaminated areas, known as a "hot-spot", than in a non-exposed area. As a result, we suggested that further research with a larger number of participants would be needed to confirm whether dioxin affects steroid hormone levels in Vietnamese primiparae. Methods: The concentration of steroid hormones in saliva was determined by liquid chromatography (electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry), whereas the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in breast milk were determined by gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, for a sample of the population from a "hot-spot" (n = 16) and a non-exposed area (n = 10). All subjects were aged between 20 and 30 years and had children aged between 4 and 16 weeks. Results: The mean toxic equivalence of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCDDs + PCDFs in breast milk in the hot-spot area was found to be significantly higher than in the non-exposed area (p < 0.001). Likewise, salivary cortisol, cortisone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels were significantly higher in the hotspot area than in the non-exposed area (p < 0.05). As a result, herein we report, for the first time, that salivary DHEA levels in primiparae are higher in a hot-spot than in a non-exposed area, and that this may be the result of dioxin exposure. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the long-term effects of Agent Orange/dioxin on steroid hormones in Vietnamese primiparae in the post-war period. © 2012 The Japanese Society for Hygiene.


Kido T.,Kanazawa University | Honma S.,Kanazawa University | Nhu D.D.,Vietnam National University, Hanoi | Manh H.D.,Kanazawa University | And 10 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

This study aims to evaluate the endocrine-disrupting effect of dioxin congeners on adrenal steroid hormones in mother-child pairs. In our previous study, we found that cortisol and cortisone levels were higher in the blood and the saliva of mothers living in a dioxin hotspot area than in mothers from a non-exposed region in Vietnam. In this follow-up study, we determined the salivary steroid hormone levels in 49 and 55 three-year-old children of these mothers in the hotspot and non-exposed region, respectively. Steroid hormones were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and dioxin in the maternal breast milk was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dioxin levels in the breast milk of mothers from the hotspot (median total toxic equivalents polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans; (TEQ PCDD/Fs) of 11. pg/g lipid) were three to four times higher than those of mothers in the non-exposed region (median TEQ PCDD/Fs of 3.07. pg/g lipid). Salivary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels in children were found to be significantly lower in the hotspot than in the non-exposed region, while cortisol and cortisone levels were not different between the two regions. Highly chlorinated dioxin congeners, such as octacholorodibenzodioxin (OCDD), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptacholorodibenzodioxin (HpCDD) and 1,2,3,4 (or 6), 7,8-hexachlorodibenzodioxin Hx(CDD), showed stronger inverse associations with the children's salivary DHEA than other lowly chlorinated dioxin congeners. Glucocorticoid levels in the mothers exhibited a significantly positive correlation with OCDD and HpCDD/F (polychlorinated dibenzofurans). In conclusion, highly chlorinated dioxin congeners are more strongly correlated with endocrine-disrupting effects on adrenal hormones, resulting in high cortisol levels in the mothers and low DHEA levels in their three-year-old children. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Manh H.D.,Kanazawa University | Manh H.D.,Lac Hong University | Kido T.,Kanazawa University | Tai P.T.,Vietnam Military Medical University | And 12 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2015

We determined polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in breast milk of 143 primiparae living around the three most dioxin-contaminated areas of Vietnam. The women sampled lived in the vicinity of former U.S. air bases at Bien Hoa (n. =. 51), Phu Cat (n. =. 23), and Da Nang (n. =. 69), which are known as dioxin hotspots. Breast milk samples from Bien Hoa City, where residents live very close to the air base, showed high levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), with 18% of the samples containing >. 5. pg. TCDD/g lipid. However, Phu Cat residents lived far from the air base and their samples showed lower TCDD levels, with none containing >. 5. pg. TCDD/g lipid. In Da Nang, TCDD levels in mothers from Thanh Khe (close to the air base, n. =. 43) were significantly higher than those in mothers from Son Tra (far from the air base, n. =. 26), but not other PCDD and PCDF (PCDD/F) congeners. Although TCDD levels in Bien Hoa were the highest among these hotspots, levels of other PCDD/F congeners as well as the geometric mean concentration of total PCDD/F level in Bien Hoa (9.3. pg toxic equivalents [TEQ]/g lipid) were significantly lower than the level observed in Phu Cat (14.1. pg. TEQ/g lipid), Thanh Khe (14.3. pg. TEQ/g lipid), and Son Tra (13.9. pg. TEQ/g lipid). Our findings indicated that residents living close to former U.S. air bases were exposed to elevated levels of TCDD, but not of other PCDD/F congeners. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Sun X.L.,Jiaxing University | Sun X.L.,Kanazawa University | Kido T.,Kanazawa University | Honma S.,Kanazawa University | And 11 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2016

Most studies on the relationship between Agent Orange and prostate cancer have focused on US veterans of the Vietnam War. There have been few studies focusing on the relationship between levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and dioxins or steroid hormones in Vietnamese men. In 2009–2011, we collected blood samples from 97 men who had resided in a “dioxin hotspot” and 85 men from a non-sprayed region in Vietnam. Then levels of PSA, dioxins, and steroid hormones were analyzed. Levels of most dioxins, furans, and non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls were higher in the hotspot than those in the non-sprayed region. Levels of testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and estradiol differed significantly between the hotspot and the non-sprayed region, but there were no correlations between levels of PSA and steroid hormones and dioxins in either of the two regions. Our findings suggest that PSA levels in Vietnamese men are not associated with levels of dioxin or steroid hormones in these two regions. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Manh H.D.,Kanazawa University | Manh H.D.,Lac Hong University | Kido T.,Kanazawa University | Okamoto R.,Kanazawa University | And 12 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Recent studies have found elevated dioxin levels inside some U.S. military former air bases in Vietnam, known as hotspots. Many studies of Agent Orange have been done in U.S. veterans; however, there is little known about Vietnamese men. In 2010, we collected blood samples from 97 men in a hotspot and 85 men in an unsprayed area in Northern Vietnam. Serum concentrations of not only TCDD but also other dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs), and nonortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were significantly higher in the hotspot than in the unsprayed area. In the hotspot, three subareas were demarcated, based on their proximity to the air base. The total toxic equivalents (TEQ) of PCDDs/PCDFs+PCBs was 41.7 pg/g lipid in the area closest to the air base, while it was around 29 pg/g lipid in the other two subareas. In the unsprayed area, the dioxin levels were no different between men who went to the South during the Vietnam War and those who remained in the North, with TEQs PCDDs/PCDFs+PCBs of around 13.6 pg/g lipid. Our findings suggested that people living close to the former U.S. air bases might have been exposed to both Agent Orange and other sources of dioxin-like compounds. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


PubMed | Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Hanoi Medical University, Environment Administration, Jiaxing University and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2016

This study aims to evaluate the endocrine-disrupting effect of dioxin congeners on adrenal steroid hormones in mother-child pairs. In our previous study, we found that cortisol and cortisone levels were higher in the blood and the saliva of mothers living in a dioxin hotspot area than in mothers from a non-exposed region in Vietnam. In this follow-up study, we determined the salivary steroid hormone levels in 49 and 55 three-year-old children of these mothers in the hotspot and non-exposed region, respectively. Steroid hormones were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and dioxin in the maternal breast milk was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dioxin levels in the breast milk of mothers from the hotspot (median total toxic equivalents polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans; (TEQ PCDD/Fs) of 11pg/g lipid) were three to four times higher than those of mothers in the non-exposed region (median TEQ PCDD/Fs of 3.07pg/g lipid). Salivary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels in children were found to be significantly lower in the hotspot than in the non-exposed region, while cortisol and cortisone levels were not different between the two regions. Highly chlorinated dioxin congeners, such as octacholorodibenzodioxin (OCDD), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptacholorodibenzodioxin (HpCDD) and 1,2,3,4 (or 6), 7,8-hexachlorodibenzodioxin Hx(CDD), showed stronger inverse associations with the childrens salivary DHEA than other lowly chlorinated dioxin congeners. Glucocorticoid levels in the mothers exhibited a significantly positive correlation with OCDD and HpCDD/F (polychlorinated dibenzofurans). In conclusion, highly chlorinated dioxin congeners are more strongly correlated with endocrine-disrupting effects on adrenal hormones, resulting in high cortisol levels in the mothers and low DHEA levels in their three-year-old children.


Sun X.,Kanazawa University | Kido T.,Kanazawa University | Okamoto R.,Kanazawa University | Manh H.D.,Kanazawa University | And 11 more authors.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine | Year: 2013

Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the impact of Agent Orange exposure for prostate cancer with a comparison of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels between a hotspot and a non-sprayed area. Methods: The study was conducted in Phu Cat district (hotspot) and Kim Bang district (non-sprayed), with a total of 101 men in the hotspot and 97 men in the non-sprayed area older than 50 years of age. About 5 mL of whole blood and a health status questionnaire were collected from each subject in August 2009-2011. Results: The mean age of the subjects in the hotspot (68.0 years old) was significantly higher than that of those in the non-sprayed area (65.0 years old). No significant difference was found between the hotspot area (0.93 ng/mL) and the non-sprayed area (0.95 ng/mL) in terms of PSA levels. Likewise, this was not statistically significant after adjusting for age. The prevalence of high PSA levels (>3 ng/mL) did not differ significantly between the hotspot (14 men; 13.9 %) and non-sprayed area (9 men; 9.3 %). No significant difference was found between the hotspot area and the non-sprayed area in terms of occupation (farmer and others). In control subjects, no significant difference was found between the PSA levels in subjects exposed to Agent Orange and non-exposed subjects. Likewise, no significant difference was found between the PSA levels of combatants and civilians. Conclusion: The PSA levels were not significantly different between the hotspot and the non-sprayed area. © 2013 The Japanese Society for Hygiene.


Grundstrom M.,Gothenburg University | Tang L.,Gothenburg University | Tang L.,IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd | Hallquist M.,Gothenburg University | And 3 more authors.
Atmospheric Pollution Research | Year: 2015

Relationships between urban nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and atmospheric circulation at two spatial scales were studied for Southern Sweden. Lamb Weather Types (LWT) describe the circulation (scale: thousands of kilometers) including non-directional (cyclonic and anticyclonic) and directional types depending on the wind direction. LWTs with low wind speeds (anticyclonic, NW and N) were associated with strongly elevated [NO2], between 46-52% of the daily averages of NO2exceeded the 60 μg m-3air quality standard (AQS) when occurring during these LWTs. The lowest fractions of exceedances of NO2AQS were generally observed for LWTs E, S, SW and W. A larger scale circulation (several thousands of kilometers) was represented by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) affecting meteorology over middle and high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. While a negative NAO index (NAOI) favors stagnant high pressure weather over Northern Europe, a positive NAOI is often associated with windy conditions. High [NO2] was found to be frequent under negative NAOI. Additionally, larger fractions of exceedances of NO2AQS were observed for the majority of LWTs occurring at negative NAOI. It’s concluded that both LWTs and NAOI had partly independent effects on the urban air quality in a North European city. These circulation indices can be useful tools for air pollution risk assessment and forecasting. © Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.


Kido T.,Kanazawa University | Van Dao T.,Hanoi Medical University | Ho M.D.,Kanazawa University | Dang N.D.,Hanoi Medical University | And 10 more authors.
European Journal of Endocrinology | Year: 2014

Objective: Dioxin (polychlorinated dibenzodioxins Cpolychlorinated dibenzofurans) is one of the most toxic chemical substances known. Although it is suspected to cause endocrine disruption, very few epidemiological studies have been carried out on its effects on human steroid hormones. The aim of this study was to elucidate the association of dioxin exposure with steroid hormone levels in the saliva and serum of Vietnamese women. Study design : Two areas, namely Phu Cat (hot spot) and Kim Bang (nonexposed area), were selected for the study. The study subjects consisted of 51 and 58 women respectively. Saliva, blood, and breast milk samples were collected from the subjects in both the areas. Methods: Cortisol, cortisone, DHEA, androstenedione, estrone, and estradiol levels in serum and saliva were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; dioxin concentrations in breast milk were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: Dioxin concentrations in the breast milk of women from the dioxin hot spot were three to four times higher than those in the breast milk of women from the nonexposed area. Good correlations were found between the levels of six steroid hormones in saliva and those in serum respectively. Salivary and serum cortisol and cortisone levels in women from the dioxin hot spot were significantly higher than those in women from the nonexposed area (P<0.001) and those in all the subjects were positively associated with dioxin concentrations in Vietnamese women (P<0.01). Conclusion: These results suggest that dioxin influences steroidogenesis in humans. Saliva samples can be used for hormone analysis and are therefore excellent specimens in epidemiological studies. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.


PubMed | Hanoi Medical University, Environment Administration, Kanazawa Medical University and Kanazawa University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2016

We aimed to determine the relationship between dioxin congeners in maternal breast milk and maternal glucocorticoid levels with newborn birth weight after nearly 45years of use of herbicides in the Vietnam War. The study subjects comprised 58 mother-infant pairs in a region with high dioxin levels in the soil (hotspot) and 62 pairs from a control region. Dioxin levels in maternal breast milk were measured by HRGC-HRMS. Salivary glucocorticoid levels were determined by LC-MS/MS. Dioxin congener levels in mothers from the hotspot were found to be two to fivefold higher than those in mothers from the control region. Birth weight was inversely correlated with 2,3,7,8-TeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF congener levels. The rate of newborns whose birth weight was less than 2500g was threefold higher in the hotspot (12%) than in the control region (4%). Salivary glucocorticoid levels in mothers with low birth weight infants were significantly higher than those in the normal birth weight group. Low birth weight of Vietnamese newborns in a hotspot for dioxin levels is related to some dioxin congener levels and high glucocorticoid levels in mothers. This finding in mother-infant pairs suggests that excess maternal glucocorticoid levels are related to dioxin burden and they result in low birth weight.

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