Holopainen S.,Lappeenranta University of Technology |
Nousiainen M.,Lappeenranta University of Technology |
Sillanpaa M.E.T.,Lappeenranta University of Technology |
Anttalainen O.,Environics Oy
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2012
The requirement to monitor the chemical quality of water has become one of the major issues in environmental analytics. Ion-mobility spectrometry (IMS), a fast, sensitive method traditionally used in security and military applications, is also suitable for environmental analysis and detection of organic pollutants from aqueous matrices, when combined with advantageous methods to isolate analytes from the water phase. This article reviews the current literature on the sample-extraction methods most feasible for aqueous samples prior to ion-mobility analysis, and highlights their principles and trends in IMS applications. These partition-based methods include solid-phase microextraction, stir-bar sorptive extraction, single-drop microextraction, hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, pervaporation-membrane extraction and paper spray. We also discuss comparisons of method characteristics and relative performance, and conclude that IMS is a potential method for both on-line and on-site determination of organic pollutants in aqueous matrices. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SEC-2007-4.2-02 | Award Amount: 6.32M | Year: 2008
The Second Generation Locator for Urban Search and Rescue Operations (SGL for USaR) is mission oriented towards solving critical problems following large scale structural collapses in urban locations. The devotion, courage and expertise of rescuers need to be matched by procedures and technology that will enable safe and effective responses. This Integrated Project will combine chemical and physical sensors integration with the development of an open ICT platform for addressing mobility and time-critical requirements of USaR Operations. The project will also focus on medical issues and on the relevant ethical dilemmas. SGL for USaR has marshaled a pan-European interdisciplinary project team to produce a well-balanced consortium of 21 partners including rescue teams, researchers and SMEs along with the support of 15 LOIs. The project is formed by eight sub-projects (work packages) running in parallel. These WPs address the development of simulation environments; the development and validation of portable devices for location operations; the development and validation of smart sensors environment for monitoring the situation under the ruins; the management of medical information, including privacy and bioethics; and finally the development of an ICT platform that will integrate all the previous data, ensure interoperability and control the flow of the information from the field to the operational center. SGL for USaR will deliver methods and guidelines, as well as, tangible prototypes: a stand-alone FIRST responder device that integrates five different location methods (five in one); a networked rapid casualty location system (REDS) equipped with wireless sensor probes; an advanced environmental simulator for training and testing search and rescue units, including canine teams; and a prototype mobile operational command and control platform. These solutions can be also applied in security applications and thus they can create additional commercial opportunities.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SEC-2012.7.2-1 | Award Amount: 2.00M | Year: 2013
Forensic analysis is an essential resource in the battle against organised crime and terrorist attacks. A key challenge in forensics is the detection of trace explosive residues at a post-blast scene or on the hands or clothes of an alleged suspect. Detection of the primer charge (e.g., PETN) is often hampered by higher-concentration residues from the main charge, e.g., ammonium nitrate. Detection of the primer can be essential in order to secure a prosecution, especially if the materials that comprise the main charge are commonly available, e.g., ammonium nitrate is present in fertiliser. ROSFENs goal is to deliver an advanced forensic platform for rapid, on-site direct detection and lab-quality analysis of narcotics, explosives and their precursors. The performance targets are detection limits down to 1 ng/mL, 1% false alarm rate and response time < 10 seconds. ROSFEN combines innovative technology from two leading SMEs: Microsaic Systems chip-based mass spectrometry and Environics ion filter systems. This novel platform removes the need for slow, costly chromatography methods currently used in lab-based analysis. ROSFEN will enable reduction of total analysis time (samples, blanks, controls) from hours to minutes, thus reducing the load on forensic labs and enabling intelligence-led investigations. ROSFEN will also innovate in the rapid analysis of new psychoactive drugs, by coupling the isomer selectivity of the ion filter technique with the detection sensitivity of tandem MS. ROSFEN will thus enable European industry to develop and deliver innovative technologies into key global markets: Analytical instruments for security applications ($2 billion annually) and the $3.3B market for mass spectrometry. The ROSFEN consortium comprises two research-intensive SMEs, two leading research groups and two end users. The end users have decades of expertise in forensic analysis of explosives and narcotics (FSNI), as well as crime scene analysis (PSNI).
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SEC-2009-1.3-01 | Award Amount: 3.96M | Year: 2010
The malevolent use of Anthrax spores on civilians in late 2001 has shown the necessity to protect European citizens from criminal use of biological agents and viruses. Although these attacks had been punctual and crude, more sophisticated attacks on dozens or hundreds of injured or killed people are conceivable. When launching such an attack its success depends on concentrating a sufficient amount of pathogens in a defined area. Hence safeguarding a certain area regarding biological agents demands the detection of pathogenous bacteria, spores and viruses in various matrices (e.g. Anthrax in flour or sugar) or suspicious aerosols. This can only be accomplished by triggering a short-term alarm and its validation as well as the identification of the type of threat. Since most of the bio sensors available are laboratory bound or require special equipment which needs training as well as experience, new systems are needed. The concept of BIO-PROTECT is the development of a fast-alert, easy-to-use device to be applied for detection and identification of airborne bacteria, spores, viruses and toxins . Its technology is based on bioaerosol detection by fluorescence, scattering and background aerosol measurement followed by ionisation of air flow and analysis of the spectrum of relative speed of passage, which, in turns, enables identification of harmful biological agents. This device may also be used for controlling potential accidental release of bio-agents from biotechnology laboratories.
Hakalehto E.,University of Eastern Finland |
Hell M.,Universitatsklinikum Salzburg |
Bernhofer C.,Universitatsklinikum Salzburg |
Heitto A.,Finnoflag Oy |
And 4 more authors.
Pathophysiology | Year: 2010
Simultaneous cultivations in anaerobiosis, aerobiosis and with microaerobic gas mixture were used to clarify the bile (oxgall) effects on the pure and mixed cultures of enterobacterial strains in simulations in Portable Microbe Enrichment Unit (PMEU) linked with ChemPro100i® gas detector. The effects of vancomycin were evaluated in aerobic cultures. Growth and metabolic activity of cultures were also followed by measuring sugar consumption, pH alterations, and colony counts on BD CHROMagar™ Orientation plates. Results showed that the two fermentatively different strains of facultative anaerobes, Escherichia coli E 17 and Klebsiella mobilis ATCC 13048 grew in balance regardless of oxygen level, bile acid concentration or other components of the mixed cultures, Bacillus cereus or Staphylococcus aureus. When the evaporations of the mixed cultures of E. coli, K. mobilis and S. aureus were compared with the emissions of the corresponding pure cultures by ChemPro100i® gas sensing detector, the pure cultures of bile resistant E. coli and K. mobilis produced more gaseous components than the mixed culture indicating that these organisms cooperate and use the substrate more effectively together than separately. A survey of the aseptic bacterial isolations from the bile tract in a big University Hospital, (Salzburg, Austria) during 3 years, showed that these bacterial groups dominated. Only 13.24% of the 287 patient samples were sterile, and around 180 strains of both E. coli and Klebsiella/Enterobacter groups were found amongst 973 isolates from 249 patients (together 35.57%). Enterococcus sp. accounted for 246 isolates being the largest group of strains (24.25% of all the isolates). In anaerobiosis it was shown that Klebsiella neutralized the acids produced in the mixed acid fermentation of the E. coli. The ethanol produced from both groups evaporated in the gas stream of the PMEU culturing step and its formation also removes excess acidity from the cultures. The synergistic behaviour and symbiotic function between E. coli and Klebsiella/Enterobacter strains is suggested. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.