Oberhausen, Germany
Oberhausen, Germany

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Brinkmann U.,University of Paderborn | Kaibel B.,Julius Montz GmbH | Jodecke M.,BASF | MacKowiak J.,ENVIMAC Engineering GmbH | Kenig E.Y.,University of Paderborn
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik | Year: 2012

Sandwich packings represent a new type of structured packings for non-reactive and reactive separation units. A combination of different packing specific surfaces can cause local flooding which brings about an increased liquid holdup and significantly improved separation efficiency. In this work, a model for the description of complex fluid dynamic behavior in sandwich packings is presented. This model can be used for the design of industrial units. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Kunze A.-K.,TU Dortmund | Lutze P.,TU Dortmund | Kopatschek M.,Ruhr University Bochum | Mackowiak J.F.,ENVIMAC Engineering GmbH | And 5 more authors.
Chemical Engineering Research and Design | Year: 2015

The application of rate-based models incorporating mass and energy transfer phenomena for the design of absorption columns is common practice in chemical industry. These models rely on the high accuracy of mass transfer parameters, i.e. the effective interfacial area aeff as well as the gas and the liquid side mass transfer coefficients kG and kL for gas and liquid phase, which result from experiments at meaningful scale (pilot plant scale). These parameters have a significant impact on the design of the absorption column. Currently, the uncertainty in these mass transfer parameters results in the addition of large safety factors. Hence, a general method comprising a standardised measurement procedure and a standardised computer-aided determination of such parameters has been developed. Physical properties determination together with a sensitivity analysis resulting in an identification and evaluation of critical operational variables has been performed to evaluate their influence on the determination of mass transfer parameters. Within this paper the computer-aided parameter determination method is described in detail. Furthermore, the method is exemplified by a case study. © 2015 The Institution of Chemical Engineers.


Mackowiak J.,ENVIMAC Engineering GmbH | Gorak A.,TU Dortmund
AIChE 2013 - 2013 AIChE Spring Meeting and 9th Global Congress on Process Safety, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2013

Vapor condensation in pilot scale packed columns with 0.15 and 0.32 m dia and a packed height of ≤ 1.3 m was studied. The direct contact condensation of pure water vapor using water was studied. Several different packing types and sizes made of stainless steel, ceramics, and plastic were used. Based on the experimental results, a dimensionless empirical correlation considering the packing type was developed for the heat transfer driven process. In a second step, condensation of vapor out of saturated air and from vapor mixtures containing non-condensable CO2 and NH3 was studied. Due to the additional mass transfer resistance in vapor mixtures with non condensable components, the condensation rate decreases compared to the condensation of pure vapor. A comparison of experimental and calculated data showed good agreement for this complex heat and mass transfer process. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2013 AIChE Spring Meeting & 9th Global Congress on Process Safety (San Antonio, TX 4/28-5/2/2013).


Mackowiak J.F.,ENVIMAC Engineering GmbH | Gorak A.,TU Dortmund
Chemical Engineering Research and Design | Year: 2011

In this work modelling and experimental validation of an integrated process for the removal of carbon dioxide from ammonia solutions - the so called decarbonisation - is presented. In this process, carbon dioxide and small amount of ammonia is stripped out from the solution at ambient pressure in a packed column. Recovery of the stripped ammonia can be reached by combining absorption of ammonia and condensation of stripping steam. The integration of stripping, absorption and direct-contact condensation (DCC) can be achieved in one compact unit in which stripping takes place in the lower part of the packed column, and the DCC and ammonia absorption in its upper part. This unit has been modelled in a rigorous way considering heat and mass transfer as well as reaction rates in multicomponent reactive stripping, absorption and direct-contact condensation in packed columns (Maćkowiak et al., 2009). Extensive experimental investigations in a pilot scale packed column with diameters of 0.15 and 0.32. m have been performed for both, the stripping and for DCC. Relevant operation parameters as well as column dimensions were varied during the experiments in order to investigate their influence on the selectivity of the decarbonisation and to achieve a broad data base for the validation. Experimental validation of the two sub-processes and the entire decarbonisation shows good agreement between calculated and experimental values. Based on the validated model a successful optimisation of the decarbonisation process in industrial scale has been performed, leading to increased carbon dioxide removal and reduction of ammonia losses. © 2011 The Institution of Chemical Engineers.


Keller T.,TU Dortmund | Roth T.,TU Dortmund | Mackowiak J.F.,Envimac Engineering GmbH | Kreis P.,TU Dortmund | And 4 more authors.
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik | Year: 2011

Process intensification follows four main goals: to maximize the effectiveness of intra- and intermolecular events, to give each molecule the same processing experience, to optimize the driving forces/maximize specific interfacial areas, and to maximize the synergistic effects of partial processes. These goals can be achieved in four domains: spatial, thermodynamic, temporal and functional. The paper shows how these goals can be reached in fluid separation processes. In doing so, each of the four domains are examined separately moving across all relevant time and length scales, from the molecules to the processing unit plant. © 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Kunze A.-K.,TU Dortmund | Lutze P.,TU Dortmund | Schoenmakers H.,TU Dortmund | Muller S.,Ruhr University Bochum | And 5 more authors.
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik | Year: 2012

Dimensioning of absorption and desorption columns is highly dependent on applied mass transfer parameters, which need to be determined experimentally. However, a partially significant deviation in the value of mass transfer coefficients determined in the past has been observed, thus their comparability is restricted. Therefore, standardization of mass transfer measurements in absorption is essential. The aim of this project is to develop a method for experimental determination of volumetric mass transfer parameters. In addition to the experimental standardization of measurements, a mathematical method is established that gives the opportunity to designate phase specific mass transfer parameters and effective interfacial area. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Mackowiak J.,ENVIMAC Engineering GmbH
Chemical Engineering Research and Design | Year: 2015

The following work presents a generally applicable model for the prediction of the separation efficiency of random packing of different shape with size between 8 and 90 mm for gas-liquid systems in the entire operating range up to the flooding point. The new model was derived on the basis of the droplet flow model and that mass transfer in the gas phase occurs between continuous gas phase and the swarm of droplets falling down in packed bed.The new model was validated with about 5000 experimental distillation, absorption and desorption data of ENVIMAC data bank (EDB) in a very wide range of changing operational and constructive parameters; from low top pressure of 13 mbar up to 2 bar. Satisfactory consistency for practical application was found between experimental values of the separation efficiency for about 115 different types of random packings and calculated values based on the new model. © 2015 The Institution of Chemical Engineers.


Mackowiak J.,ENVIMAC Engineering GmbH
Chemical Engineering Research and Design | Year: 2011

The following work presents a new, generally applicable model for description of the mass transfer in the liquid phase for packed columns filled with random dumped non-perforated and lattice-type packing with size between 12 and 90. mm for gas-liquid systems in operating range up to flooding point.The new equation for evaluation of the volumetric mass transfer coefficient in the liquid phase βL·ae was derived on the basis of the assumption that liquid flows down in packed bed mainly in the form of droplets and that effective interfacial area ae depends on hold-up in packed bed. The relation between the fluid dynamics and the mass transfer is shown based on the channel model with a partly open structure.The experimentally derived values for the effective mass transfer area in different types of random packings ae are in good agreement with the calculation based on the new model. It is therefore possible to separate the product βL·ae into liquid phase mass transfer coefficient βL and effective interfacial area ae. © 2011 The Institution of Chemical Engineers.


Mackowiak J.,ENVIMAC Engineering GmbH
AIChE 2013 - 2013 AIChE Spring Meeting and 9th Global Congress on Process Safety, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2013

A new relationship for the prediction of the efficiency of random packings of various shapes and sizes from 15 to 90 mm for distillation and absorption systems is presented based on the droplet flow model in packed beds. The model was verified by means of > 60 different packings and for a total number of > 4000 experimental mass transfer absorption and distillation data points for the given systems. The new model described the experimental data very well with a mean relative error of ± 15 below the loading line Fv < 0.65 FV,Fl and ± 23% below the flooding point. The satisfactory agreement of calculated data with experiments was confirmed by an additional comparison with the model of Billet and Schultes for the chosen packing types, e.g., metallic and plastic Pallrings and Hiflowrings. This confirmed the general validity of the new relationship. In comparison to other published correlations, the new model did not contain any characteristic, empirical packing specific constants. The limitations of the new model are discussed and the calculation examples and comparisons with other models are presented. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2013 AIChE Spring Meeting & 9th Global Congress on Process Safety (San Antonio, TX 4/28-5/2/2013).

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