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Maisons-Alfort, France

Arsevska E.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Roche M.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Lancelot R.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Hendrikx P.,Anses | Dufour B.,ENVA
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2014

In recent years as a complement to the traditional surveillance reporting systems there is a great interest in developing methodologies for early detection of potential health threats from unstructured text present on the Internet. In this context, we examined the relevance of the combination of expert knowledge and automatic term extraction in the creation of appropriate Internet search queries for the acquisition of disease outbreak news. We propose a measure that is the number of relevant disease outbreak news detected in function of the terms automatically extracted from a set of example Google and PubMED corpora. Due to the recent emergence we have used the African swine fever as a disease example. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014.

Jammes H.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Renard J.-P.,ENVA
Productions Animales | Year: 2010

Epigenetics refers to the inheritable changes of genomic activities that do not alter DNA sequences. It deals with the molecular mechanisms orchestrating chromatin remodelling, which leads to gene transcription or silencing. Here, we provide evidence from the published scientific literature that the epigenetic marks are apposed onto the genome in a sequential, reversible and/or inheritable manner. These marks can be finely measured to characterise the epigenome. The functional analysis of the epigenetic processes provides support to the two associated concepts of genome flexibility and robustness. Genome flexibility is involved in the acquisition of cell identity during differentiation (Why do not the various cellular types of an organism use the same genetic information in a similar manner?), and in the adaptation to environmental cues as illustrated by the mechanism underlying the fate of honeybees that become fertile queens or sterile workers. But the epigenome is also crucial for the development of individuals that requires the robustness of epigenetic marks as exemplified from parental imprinting studies. The flexibility of epigenetic marks is associated with transitory adaptation to environmental changes while robustness reveals long term processes associated with more stable marks that in some instances can pass over several generations. This review points to the importance of epigenetic processes for genome functions and proposes that the integration of the molecular data describing the epigenomic states could be considered as new variables in selection to preserve the sustainability of animal breeding.

Lepeule J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Lepeule J.,University of Nantes | Bareille N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bareille N.,University of Nantes | And 7 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for the severity of Juvenile OsteoChondral Conditions (JOCC) in limbs of French foals. Twenty-one farms in Normandy, France, were sampled and enrolled in a cohort study including 378 foals from three breeds, followed from the 8th month of pregnancy of the mares until the foals were approximately 6. months old. Data on growth, feeding practices and exercise conditions were regularly collected. The carpus, the front and hind digits, the hock and the stifle of the foals were radiographed at the end of follow-up. JOCC severity in each foal was described using a global appraisal of its osteoarticular status (OAS) depending on the number and the severity of radiographic findings.Of the 378 foals, 53% had a good OAS, 34% had an intermediate OAS and 13% had a poor OAS. The breed (Selle Français and French Trotter Standardbred vs. Thoroughbred), a high girth perimeter at early age and an irregular exercise were significantly associated with a poor OAS. This study contributes to the understanding of the development of JOCC. An increased growth and reduced or irregular physical activity during the first weeks of life would be responsible for more severe lesions. Growth and exercise conditions should be carefully monitored to reduce the prevalence of severe JOCC in foals. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Nuttinck F.,ENVA | Gall L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Ruffini S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Laffont L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 6 more authors.
Biology of Reproduction | Year: 2011

During the periovulatory period, the induction of prostaglandin G/H synthase-2 (PTGS2) expression in cumulus cells and associated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production are implicated in the terminal differentiation of the cumulus-oocyte complex. During the present study, the effects of the PTGS2/PGE2 pathway on the developmental competence of bovine oocytes were investigated using an in vitro model of maturation, fertilization, and early embryonic development. The specific inhibition of PTGS2 activity with NS-398 during in vitro maturation (IVM) significantly restricted mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in oocytes at the germinal vesicle breakdown stage and reduced both cumulus expansion and the maturation rate after 22 h of culture. In addition, significantly higher rates of abnormal meiotic spindle organization were observed after 26 h of culture. Periconceptional PTGS2 inhibition did not affect fertilization but significantly reduced the speed of embryo development. Embryo output rates were significantly decreased on Day 6 postfertilization but not on Day 7. However, total blastomere number was significantly lower in embryos obtained after PTGS2 inhibition. The addition of PGE2 to IVM and in vitro fertilization cultures containing NS-398 overrode oocyte maturation and early embryonic developmental defects. Protein and mRNA expression for the prostaglandin E receptor PTGER2 were found in oocytes, whereas the PTGER2, PTGER3, and PTGER4 subtypes were expressed in cumulus cells. This study is the first to report the involvement of PGE2 in oocyte MAPK activation during the maturation process. Taken together, these results indicate that PGE2-mediated interactions between somatic and germ cells during the periconceptional period promote both in vitro oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryonic development in cattle. © 2011 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

Breard E.,Laboratoire Of Sante Animale | Belbis G.,ENVA | Hamers C.,Merial SAS | Moulin V.,Schering | And 11 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2011

Bluetongue serotype 8 has become a major animal health issue in the European Union and the European member States have agreed on a vaccination strategy, which involves only inactivated vaccines. In this study, the efficacy of two inactivated vaccines against bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) used in Europe since 2008, BTVPUR ALSAP ® 8 (MERIAL) and BOVILIS ® BTV8 (Intervet/SP-AH), was evaluated in goats immunized and challenged with BTV-8 field isolates under experimental conditions. Serological, virological and clinical examinations were conducted before and after challenge. Three groups of 10 goats each (groups A, B and C) were randomly constituted and 2 groups (A and C) were subcutaneously vaccinated twice with one dose of the two commercial vaccines BTVPUR ALSAP 8 (group A) or BOVILIS BTV8 (group C) respectively. Animals of the groups A, C and B (B: controls) were challenged with a virulent inoculum containing BTV-8. During the experiment, it was found out that the BTV-8 challenge inoculum was contaminated with another BTV serotype. However, results demonstrated that vaccination of goats with two injections of BTVPUR ALSAP 8 or BOVILIS BTV8 provided a significant clinical protection against a BTV-8 challenge and completely prevented BTV-8 viraemia in all vaccinated animals. Qualitative data showed no difference in the kinetics and levels of the humoral response induced by these two inactivated vaccines. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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