Lepeule J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Lepeule J.,University of Nantes |
Bareille N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Bareille N.,University of Nantes |
And 7 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2013
The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for the severity of Juvenile OsteoChondral Conditions (JOCC) in limbs of French foals. Twenty-one farms in Normandy, France, were sampled and enrolled in a cohort study including 378 foals from three breeds, followed from the 8th month of pregnancy of the mares until the foals were approximately 6. months old. Data on growth, feeding practices and exercise conditions were regularly collected. The carpus, the front and hind digits, the hock and the stifle of the foals were radiographed at the end of follow-up. JOCC severity in each foal was described using a global appraisal of its osteoarticular status (OAS) depending on the number and the severity of radiographic findings.Of the 378 foals, 53% had a good OAS, 34% had an intermediate OAS and 13% had a poor OAS. The breed (Selle Français and French Trotter Standardbred vs. Thoroughbred), a high girth perimeter at early age and an irregular exercise were significantly associated with a poor OAS. This study contributes to the understanding of the development of JOCC. An increased growth and reduced or irregular physical activity during the first weeks of life would be responsible for more severe lesions. Growth and exercise conditions should be carefully monitored to reduce the prevalence of severe JOCC in foals. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Jammes H.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Productions Animales | Year: 2010
Epigenetics refers to the inheritable changes of genomic activities that do not alter DNA sequences. It deals with the molecular mechanisms orchestrating chromatin remodelling, which leads to gene transcription or silencing. Here, we provide evidence from the published scientific literature that the epigenetic marks are apposed onto the genome in a sequential, reversible and/or inheritable manner. These marks can be finely measured to characterise the epigenome. The functional analysis of the epigenetic processes provides support to the two associated concepts of genome flexibility and robustness. Genome flexibility is involved in the acquisition of cell identity during differentiation (Why do not the various cellular types of an organism use the same genetic information in a similar manner?), and in the adaptation to environmental cues as illustrated by the mechanism underlying the fate of honeybees that become fertile queens or sterile workers. But the epigenome is also crucial for the development of individuals that requires the robustness of epigenetic marks as exemplified from parental imprinting studies. The flexibility of epigenetic marks is associated with transitory adaptation to environmental changes while robustness reveals long term processes associated with more stable marks that in some instances can pass over several generations. This review points to the importance of epigenetic processes for genome functions and proposes that the integration of the molecular data describing the epigenomic states could be considered as new variables in selection to preserve the sustainability of animal breeding.
Nuttinck F.,ENVA |
Gall L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Ruffini S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Laffont L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
And 6 more authors.
Biology of Reproduction | Year: 2011
During the periovulatory period, the induction of prostaglandin G/H synthase-2 (PTGS2) expression in cumulus cells and associated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production are implicated in the terminal differentiation of the cumulus-oocyte complex. During the present study, the effects of the PTGS2/PGE2 pathway on the developmental competence of bovine oocytes were investigated using an in vitro model of maturation, fertilization, and early embryonic development. The specific inhibition of PTGS2 activity with NS-398 during in vitro maturation (IVM) significantly restricted mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in oocytes at the germinal vesicle breakdown stage and reduced both cumulus expansion and the maturation rate after 22 h of culture. In addition, significantly higher rates of abnormal meiotic spindle organization were observed after 26 h of culture. Periconceptional PTGS2 inhibition did not affect fertilization but significantly reduced the speed of embryo development. Embryo output rates were significantly decreased on Day 6 postfertilization but not on Day 7. However, total blastomere number was significantly lower in embryos obtained after PTGS2 inhibition. The addition of PGE2 to IVM and in vitro fertilization cultures containing NS-398 overrode oocyte maturation and early embryonic developmental defects. Protein and mRNA expression for the prostaglandin E receptor PTGER2 were found in oocytes, whereas the PTGER2, PTGER3, and PTGER4 subtypes were expressed in cumulus cells. This study is the first to report the involvement of PGE2 in oocyte MAPK activation during the maturation process. Taken together, these results indicate that PGE2-mediated interactions between somatic and germ cells during the periconceptional period promote both in vitro oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryonic development in cattle. © 2011 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.
Breard E.,Laboratoire Of Sante Animale |
Belbis G.,ENVA |
Hamers C.,MERIAL S.A.S. |
Moulin V.,Schering |
And 11 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2011
Bluetongue serotype 8 has become a major animal health issue in the European Union and the European member States have agreed on a vaccination strategy, which involves only inactivated vaccines. In this study, the efficacy of two inactivated vaccines against bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) used in Europe since 2008, BTVPUR ALSAP ® 8 (MERIAL) and BOVILIS ® BTV8 (Intervet/SP-AH), was evaluated in goats immunized and challenged with BTV-8 field isolates under experimental conditions. Serological, virological and clinical examinations were conducted before and after challenge. Three groups of 10 goats each (groups A, B and C) were randomly constituted and 2 groups (A and C) were subcutaneously vaccinated twice with one dose of the two commercial vaccines BTVPUR ALSAP 8 (group A) or BOVILIS BTV8 (group C) respectively. Animals of the groups A, C and B (B: controls) were challenged with a virulent inoculum containing BTV-8. During the experiment, it was found out that the BTV-8 challenge inoculum was contaminated with another BTV serotype. However, results demonstrated that vaccination of goats with two injections of BTVPUR ALSAP 8 or BOVILIS BTV8 provided a significant clinical protection against a BTV-8 challenge and completely prevented BTV-8 viraemia in all vaccinated animals. Qualitative data showed no difference in the kinetics and levels of the humoral response induced by these two inactivated vaccines. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Bellingham M.,University of Glasgow |
Fowler P.A.,University of Aberdeen |
Amezaga M.R.,University of Aberdeen |
Whitelaw C.M.,University of Glasgow |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Neuroendocrinology | Year: 2010
Animals and humans are chronically exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are ubiquitous in the environment. There are strong circumstantial links between environmental EDC exposure and both declining human/wildlife reproductive health and the increasing incidence of reproductive system abnormalities. The verification of such links, however, is difficult and requires animal models exposed to 'real life', environmentally relevant concentrations/mixtures of environmental contaminants (ECs), particularly in utero, when sensitivity to EC exposure is high. The present study aimed to determine whether the foetal sheep reproductive neuroendocrine axis, particularly gondotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and galaninergic systems, were affected by maternal exposure to a complex mixture of chemicals, applied to pasture, in the form of sewage sludge. Sewage sludge contains high concentrations of a spectrum of EDCs and other pollutants, relative to environmental concentrations, but is frequently recycled to land as a fertiliser. We found that foetuses exposed to the EDC mixture in utero through their mothers had lower GnRH mRNA expression in the hypothalamus and lower GnRH receptor (GnRHR) and galanin receptor (GALR) mRNA expression in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Strikingly, this, treatment had no significant effect on maternal GnRH or GnRHR mRNA expression, although GALR mRNA expression within the maternal hypothalamus and pituitary gland was reduced. The present study clearly demonstrates that the developing foetal neuroendocrine axis is sensitive to real-world mixtures of environmental chemicals. Given the important role of GnRH and GnRHR in the regulation of reproductive function, its known role programming role in utero, and the role of galanin in the regulation of many physiological/neuroendocrine systems, in utero changes in the activity of these systems are likely to have long-term consequences in adulthood and represent a novel pathway through which EC mixtures could perturb normal reproductive function. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
PubMed | ENVA, CNRS Developmental Biology Laboratory and French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Type: | Journal: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases | Year: 2015
Transplacental transmission of Bartonella spp. has been reported for rodents, but not for cats and has never been investigated in cattle. The objective of this study was to assess vertical transmission of Bartonella in cattle. Fifty-six cow-calf pairs were tested before (cows) and after (calves) caesarean section for Bartonella bacteremia and/or serology, and the cotyledons were checked for gross lesions and presence of the bacteria. None of the 29 (52%) bacteremic cows gave birth to bacteremic calves, and all calves were seronegative at birth. Neither placentitis nor vasculitis were observed in all collected cotyledons. Bartonella bovis was not detected in placental cotyledons. Therefore, transplacental transmission of B. bovis and multiplication of the bacteria in the placenta do not seem likely. The lack of transplacental transmission may be associated with the particular structure of the placenta in ruminants or to a poor affinity/agressiveness of B. bovis for this tissue.
Deguillaume L.,ENVA |
Deguillaume L.,CNRS Developmental Biology Laboratory |
Geffre A.,ENVT |
Desquilbet L.,ENVA |
And 7 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012
In contrast to endometritis, now diagnosed by cytological examination, the effect of endocervical inflammation on reproductive performance has been inadequately investigated. In this study, endocervical and endometrial cytological specimens were collected from 168 Holstein cows between 21 and 60 days in milk (DIM) to investigate the prevalence of endocervical inflammation and effect on days to conception. Statistical analyses were stratified based on DIM at examination (<35 vs ≥35 DIM). Endocervical inflammation with ≥5% neutrophils before 35 DIM (disregarding the level of endometrial inflammation) was associated with decreased hazard of pregnancy within 300 DIM (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval: 0.3-0.8). A decrease in hazard of pregnancy was observed when >6% neutrophils were counted in endometrial smears (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval: 0.2-0.7). The study suggested an additive effect of combined endocervical and endometrial inflammation on the hazard of pregnancy within 300 DIM. Using the thresholds of 5% neutrophils for the cervix and 6% neutrophils for the uterus, 11% of the cows examined before 35 DIM presented cervicitis only, 13% were affected by endometritis only, and 32% suffered from both endometrial and endocervical inflammation. The presence (absence) of cervicitis was not indicative of the presence (absence) of endometritis. This study showed that in addition to uterine inflammation, endocervical inflammation in early lactation affects conception. Thus, the global evaluation of genital tract health may be more beneficial for reproductive performance than that of endometrial inflammation. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.
News Article | December 8, 2016
FORT WORTH, Texas--(BUSINESS WIRE)--FirstCash, Inc. (the “Company”) (NYSE: FCFS), the leading international operator of retail pawn stores in the U.S. and Latin America, today announced that it completed the sale of its entire holding in Enova International, Inc. (“Enova”) (NYSE: ENVA). The Company had owned approximately 6 million shares of Enova stock as a result of its merger with Cash America International, Inc. (“Cash America”) on September 1, 2016. All of the shares were sold in open market transactions at an average price of $10.40 per share, with the final sales completed on December 6, 2016. “ The Enova holding represented a non-core asset that the Company was required to sell by September 15, 2017 in conjunction with Cash America’s tax free spin-off of Enova in 2014. Through the sale of these Enova shares, we generated net proceeds of $62.1 million, which has been used to pay down the balance on the unsecured revolving bank credit facility,” commented Rick Wessel, FirstCash chief executive officer. This release contains forward-looking statements about the business, financial condition and prospects of FirstCash, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries. Forward-looking statements, as that term is defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “believes,” “projects,” “expects,” “may,” “estimates,” “should,” “plans,” “targets,” “intends,” “could,” or “anticipates,” or the negative thereof, or other variations thereon, or comparable terminology, or by discussions of strategy, objectives, estimates or guidance. Forward-looking statements can also be identified by the fact these statements do not relate strictly to historical or current matters. Rather, forward-looking statements relate to anticipated or expected events, activities, trends or results. Because forward-looking statements relate to matters that have not yet occurred, these statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements are made to provide the public with management’s current assessment of the Company’s business. Although the Company believes the expectations reflected in forward-looking statements are reasonable, there can be no assurances such expectations will prove to be accurate. Security holders are cautioned such forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties. Certain factors may cause results to differ materially from those anticipated by the forward-looking statements made in this release. Such factors may include, without limitation, the risks, uncertainties and regulatory developments discussed and described in (i) the Company’s 2015 annual report on Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) on February 17, 2016, including the risks described in Part 1, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” of the Company’s annual report, (ii) with respect to the risks associated with the Cash America merger, the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-4 filed with the SEC and that was declared effective by the SEC on July 29, 2016, including the risks described under the heading “Risk Factors” of such Registration Statement, and (iii) the other reports filed with the SEC, including the Company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on November 9, 2016. Many of these risks and uncertainties are beyond the ability of the Company to control, nor can the Company predict, in many cases, all of the risks and uncertainties that could cause its actual results to differ materially from those indicated by the forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements contained in this release speak only as of the date of this release, and the Company expressly disclaims any obligation or undertaking to report any updates or revisions to any such statement to reflect any change in the Company’s expectations or any change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statement is based, except as required by law. With over 2,000 retail pawn and consumer lending locations in the U.S., Mexico, Guatemala and El Salvador, FirstCash is the leading international operator of pawn stores. FirstCash focuses on serving cash and credit constrained consumers through its retail pawn locations, which buy and sell a wide variety of jewelry, consumer electronics, power tools, household appliances, sporting goods, musical instruments and other merchandise, and make small consumer pawn loans secured by pledged personal property. Approximately 97% of the Company’s revenues are from pawn operations. FirstCash is a component company in both the Standard & Poor’s SmallCap 600 Index® and the Russell 2000 Index®. FirstCash’s common stock (ticker symbol “FCFS”) is traded on the NYSE, home to many of the world’s most iconic brands, technology business leaders and emerging growth companies shaping today’s global economic landscape. For additional information regarding FirstCash and the services it provides, visit FirstCash’s websites located at http://www.firstcash.com and http://www.cashamerica.com.
News Article | November 16, 2016
CHICAGO, Nov. 16, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- Enova International (NYSE: ENVA), a leading financial technology company offering consumer and small business loans and financing, today announced that Steve Cunningham, Chief Financial Officer, will be conducting one-on-one institutional investor...
Malandain E.,CNRS Developmental Biology Laboratory |
Rault D.,ENVA |
Froment E.,ENVA |
Baudon S.,ENVA |
And 3 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2011
Follicular growth in the feline ovary is usually detected indirectly, through behavior observation, vaginal smears, or more invasively, by estradiol assay in blood. This study was designed to describe follicular dynamics by transabdominal ultrasonography. Secondly, the stage of follicular growth was associated to behavioral and vaginal changes. Ovarian ultrasonography was performed during nine anovulatory and 12 ovulatory cycles. Forty-eight follicles were followed during anovulatory cycles: on the first day of estrus behavior, 4.8 ± 0.2 follicles (2 to 7 per female) of 2.3 ± 0.01 mm mean diameter were present. Follicular growth continued at a rate of 0.2 ± 0.04 mm per day. At least one follicle in the cohort reached a diameter greater than 3.0 mm. Maximal follicular growth (when one follicle of the cohort reached the maximal diameter observed for the whole estrus) was reached 3.8 ± 0.3 days after the onset of estrus with the largest follicle reaching a diameter of 3.5 ± 0.04 mm. Growth of the various follicles within a cohort was not exactly synchronous. When no ovulation took place, the follicular diameter decreased by 0.1 ± 0.01 mm per day until the end of estrus. The first day after the end of behavioral estrus, the diameter of the largest follicle in each cohort was 2.7 ± 0.05 mm. No correlation was found between follicular development and either vaginal smear characteristics, or time elapsed since the onset of estrus. When ovulations were mechanically induced after one follicle had reached 3.0 mm in diameter, artificial insemination produced normal pregnancy rate and litter size: four pregnant females out of nine, and 2 to 4 kittens per litter. Ultrasonography proved thus to allow the monitoring of follicular growth in the female cat, with low correlation with behavior and vaginal smear modifications. Further studies are needed to evaluate the interest of an ultrasonographic ovarian follow-up to determine the optimal moment for ovulation induction prior to artificial insemination. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.