Urban stormwater management fee revealing public action. Analysis of the first French experiences [La taxe pour la gestion des eaux pluviales urbaines, un révélateur de l'action publique: Analyse des premières expériences en France]
Le Nouveau N.,Certu |
Deroubaix J.-F.,ParisTech National School of Bridges and Roads |
Diou G.,ENTPE |
Tardivo B.,Ministere de lEcologie
Techniques - Sciences - Methodes | Year: 2013
In France, since 2011, local authorities have had the possibility to establish a fee for the stormwater management. The introduction of this fee is likely to enable them on one hand to encourage to sealing and stormwater source control and on the other hand to obtain resources to address the challenges of public stormwater management financing. Its input is a priori a milestone in the construction of a public stormwater management service. It is also a special moment to question it from the management of public finances in terms of policy choices, financial constraints and capacity for action. So, a study was initiated to observe and analyze the conditions of entry of this new instrument. Some municipalities have already deliberated to implement it; a number are considering whether to do so. After recalling the construction of this fee in France, a first overview of the conditions of its introduction by municipalities is raised. It helps to understand what taxation reveals about public action in the field of stormwater management today.
Le T.D.,LNCC |
Murad M.A.,LNCC MCT |
Pereira P.A.,LNCC |
Boutin C.,ENTPE |
And 2 more authors.
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium 2015 | Year: 2015
In this paper we construct coupled gas flow models in shale-matrix and hydraulic fractures within the framework of the reiterated homogenization procedure in conjunction with the treatment of fractures as (n-1) interfaces (n = 2, 3) and adsorption isotherm of Langmuir-based monolayer model in the nanopores. At the nanoscale the Langmuir model is applied to reconstruct general monolayer adsorption isotherms of pure methane in the intra-particle porosity of the gas-wet organic matter. The nanoscopic model is upscaled to the microscale where kerogen particles and nanopores are viewed as overlaying continua forming the organic aggregates at thermodynamic equilibrium with the free gas in the water partially saturated interparticle pores. The reaction/diffusion equation for pure gas movement in the kerogen aggregates is coupled with both Fickian diffusion of dissolved gas in water and Darcy free gas flow in the interparticle pores also lying in the vicinity of the inorganic solid phase (clay, quartz, calcite) assumed impermeable. By postulating continuity of fugacity between free and dissolved gas in the interparticle pores and neglecting the bound water movement, we upscale the microscopic problem to the mesoscale, where organic and inorganic matter, and interparticle pores are homogenized. The upscaling gives rise to a new nonlinear pressure equation for gas hydrodynamics in the interparticle pores including a new storage parameter dependent on the total carbon content (TOC) and porosities. The new pressure equation in the shale matrix is coupled with single phase gas flow in the hydraulic fractures. The reduction of dimensionality method is applied to treat fractures as interfaces by averaging the flow equation across the fracture aperture. Combination of the methods give rise to a new matrix/fracture coupled problem. Numerical simulations illustrate the potential of the multiscale approach proposed for computing gas production curves and recovery factor in different gas flow regimes. Copyright © 2015 Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Blanc P.,Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres |
Lassin A.,Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres |
Piantone P.,Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres |
Azaroual M.,Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres |
And 3 more authors.
Applied Geochemistry | Year: 2012
The development of Thermoddem, a thermodynamic database devoted to geochemical modelling for environmental studies in general and, more specifically, to chemical systems involving waste materials, is discussed here. Concerns are also focused on taking into account some specific needs for modellers by proposing different output formats and some important information concerning the solid phases, the transformation path, paragenesis and insights into crystallographic details. This additional information aims to avoid considering phases that may not be "active" under current environmental conditions. The database is especially devoted to environmental applications, ranging from waste material management to pollutant behaviour, including the context of deep underground disposal. Selection rules and conventions are illustrated through the example of the Fe-water system, while a second example details the relationships between low and high ionic strength media, from the point of view of thermodynamic databases. Technical aspects concerning the development of a management information system for Thermoddem and its availability on the web (http://thermoddem.brgm.fr) are also provided. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Osselin F.,Laboratoire Navier |
Fen-Chong T.,Laboratoire Navier |
Fabbri A.,ENTPE |
Dangla P.,Laboratoire Navier |
And 2 more authors.
International Workshop on Geomechanics and Energy: The Ground as Energy Source and Storage | Year: 2013
The aim of this study is to evaluate the mechanical effects of the in-pore crystallization of salts during injection of supercritical carbon dioxide in the context of CCS. Isotropic linear poroelasticity modeling has been used to predict the macroscopic equivalent tensile stress in two cases: a REV linked to an infinite resrevoir of constant concentration, and an isolated REV subjected to an injection of dry supercritical carbon dioxide. Results show that crystallization pressure cannot be neglected while calculating the mechanical behavior of an aquifer during CCS.
Monteil J.,University of Lyon |
Billot R.,IFSTTAR |
Sau J.,University of Lyon |
Armetta F.,LIRIS Laboratory |
And 2 more authors.
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2013
As cooperative systems (connected vehicles) enable communication and the exchange of information between vehicles and infrastructure, the communication capabilities are expected to lead to better active traffic management on urban motorways. Technological constraints must be the basis for any management strategy. If communication has been analytically proved to help stabilize traffic flow at a microscopic level, then realistic communication strategies should be evaluated by taking into consideration multiple perturbations such as sensor faults and driver cooperation. In this study, a three-layer multiagent framework was used to model and control the homogenization of traffic flow. The physical layer coordinated vehicle dynamics on the basis of a cooperative car-following model. This layer included cooperation derived from the communication and trust layers that, respectively, managed information and its reliability. Simulation results highlight the positive impacts of communication and control on the stability of traffic flow.