Santa Croce del Sannio, Italy
Santa Croce del Sannio, Italy

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Brown B.V.,Entomology Section
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology | Year: 2016

Fossil phorid flies display various levels of morphological change that are correlated with myrmecophily (association with ants) and termitophily (association with termites) in the modern fauna. Three discrete episodes in the evolution of limuloidy, a defensive body form, are documented from Eocene Baltic amber. Extinct fossil stem-group taxa of the modern myrmecophilous genus Aenigmatias Meinert are described, with three new species – A. longicornis sp. nov., A. primitivus sp. nov. and A. nigeroticus sp. nov. – recognized and illustrated. Protoplatyphora Brues is synonymized with Aenigmatias, with its single previously described species, A. tertiarius (Brues), considered a new combination. Chaetopleurophora bisetosa Brown, 2007 is transferred to Aenigmatias as A. bisetosus (comb. nov.). An unrelated Aenigmatias-like fossil is described as Pseudaenigmatias ctenitibia gen. et sp. nov., and belongs to a modern termitophilous clade. Limulomyia tyche Brown, 1999 is interpreted as a separate, already highly limuloid lineage not related to either of the other two limuloid groups. A key to fossil Aenigmatias is given, along with a phylogenetic analysis of fossil taxa. Fossil specimens have profound implications for our knowledge of the evolution of the limuloid body form found in modern species of Aenigmatias. http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:DE779D49-7636-4B1D-9F7D-CF3FF6D3CE97 © 2016 The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London 2016. All Rights Reserved.


Brown B.V.,Entomology Section
Annals of the Entomological Society of America | Year: 2013

A new fossil species of the genus Anevrina Lioy is described from 40 million-year-old Baltic amber. It differs from the only other described fossil species of this genus, Anevrina oligocoenica Brues, by the setation of the tibiae and the structure of the male genitalia. The new species is most similar to the extant Anevrina olympiae (Aldrich), from which it differs by the darker color and details of the male genitalia. © 2013 Entomological Society of America.


Brown B.V.,Entomology Section | Smith P.T.,California State University, Bakersfield
Systematic Entomology | Year: 2010

The phylogeny of the bee-killing flies, genus Melaloncha Brues (Diptera: Phoridae) is analysed using six genes - cytochrome oxidase I, 16S ribosomal DNA, 12S ribosomal DNA, NADH1 dehydrogenase, 28S ribosomal DNA and CAD- plus 47 morphological characters. A total of 91 specimens, including eight out-groups and 83 Melaloncha (representing 70 species) were included in the analyses. Parsimony analysis of the combined data set produced a single most parsimonious tree with varied Bremer and bootstrap support of interior nodes. Bayesian analysis of molecules only and of morphology + molecules produced trees largely in agreement with parsimony results, although with a few differences. Supported groups included subfamily Metopininae, genus Melaloncha, and subgenera Melaloncha s.s. and Melaloncha (Udamochiras) Enderlein. Within the subgenera, the previously recognized Melaloncha furcata, Melaloncha cingulata, Melaloncha ungulata and Melaloncha stylata groups were recovered, as well as some new groupings. The M. furcata group was placed as the sister group of other Melaloncha s.s., which is consistent with known host-attacking behaviour. © 2010 The Authors. Systematic Entomology © 2010 The Royal Entomological Society.


Okins K.E.,Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey | Thomas M.C.,Entomology Section
Florida Entomologist | Year: 2010

The ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus andrewesi (Blandford) is recorded from North America for the first time. It was reared from a section of sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) collected in North Fort Myers, Lee Co., Florida.


Minelli A.,University of Padua | Munari L.,Entomology Section
Development Genes and Evolution | Year: 2013

Recording and describing animal 'monsters' collected in the field can still contribute to progress in developmental biology despite the uncontrolled conditions the specimen experienced throughout development. Comparison with model organisms and a sound phylogenetic analysis may offer a tentative explanation for the underlying developmental mechanism and suggest new targets for experimental studies. We describe a female specimen of the anthomyiid fly Hydrophoria sp. with an ectopic macrochaeta in the left eye and suggest tentative interpretations, including one in terms of a local expression, or derepression, of a proneural gene. The anthomyiid lineage has been estimated to have split ca. 65 million years ago from the dipteran clade containing Drosophila and ca. 140 million years ago from the clade containing Megaselia. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Borkent A.,Instituto Nacional Of Biodiversidad | Brown B.V.,Entomology Section
Zootaxa | Year: 2015

A new approach to inventory Diptera species in tropical habitats is described. A 150 x 266 m patch of cloud forest at Zurquí de Moravia, Costa Rica (10.047N, 84.008W) at 1585 meters asl was sampled with two Malaise traps for slightly more than one year (Sept. 12, 2012-Oct. 18, 2013). Further concomitant sampling with a variety of trapping methods for three days every month and collecting during a one-week intensive "Diptera Blitz", with 19 collaborators collecting onsite, provided diverse additional samples used in the inventory. Two other Costa Rican sites at Tapantí National Park (9.720N, 83.774W, 1600 m) and Las Alturas (8.951N, 82.834W, 1540 m), 40 and 180 km southeast from Zurquí de Moravia, respectively, were each sampled with a single Malaise trap to allow for beta-diversity assessments. Tapantí National Park was sampled from Oct. 28, 2012-Oct. 13, 2013 and Las Alturas from Oct. 13, 2012-Oct. 13, 2013. A worldwide group of 54 expert systematists are identifying to species level all 72 dipteran families present in the trap samples. Five local technicians sampled and prepared material to the highest curatorial standards, ensuring that collaborator efforts were focused on species identification. This project, currently in its final, third year of operation (to end Sept. 1, 2015), has already recorded 2,348 species and with many more yet expected. Unlike previous All Taxon Biodiversity Inventories, this project has attainable goals and will provide the first complete estimate of species richness for one of the four megadiverse insect orders in a tropical region. Considering that this is the first complete survey of one of the largest orders of insects within any tropical region of the planet, there is clearly great need for a consistent and feasible protocol for sampling the smaller but markedly more diverse smaller insects in such ecosystems. By weight of their species diversity and remarkable divergence of habit, the Diptera are an excellent model to gauge microhabitat diversity within such systems. Our model appears to be the first to provide a protocol that can realistically be expected to provide a portrayal of the true species diversity of a megadiverse order of insects in the tropics. Copyright © 2015 Magnolia Press.


Brown B.V.,Entomology Section
Entomological News | Year: 2012

A simple light trap for collecting small insects, especially Diptera, is described. Some extraordinary specimens collected by this type of trap are noted.


The species of the New World genus Apocephalus are parasitoids, mostly of ants, and many undescribed species exist. Here, the Apocephalus mucronatus group species are revised, with five new to science described: A. longimanus, A. longimucrus, A. missouriensis, A. setissitergus, and A. weissi. Along with the previously known two species, Apocephalus mucronatus Borgmeier and Apocephalus mesacanthus Brown & Lebrun, these form a well-defined monophyletic group based on the presence of a spinelike protrusion on the oviscape, distinctly sclerotized posterolateral membrane on intersegment 7-8, and other female characters. Life history data are known for only one species, which is a parasitoid of Camponotus carpenter ants. Copyright © 2012 · Magnolia Press.


Brown B.V.,Entomology Section
Annals of the Entomological Society of America | Year: 2012

A new species of phorid fly, Euryplatea nanaknihali (Diptera: Phoridae), is described from Thailand. This is the first Oriental Region record for this genus; it is otherwise known only from the type species from Africa, where it parasitizes ants of the genus Crematogaster Lund. The new species is probably capable of parasitizing the smallest host Crematogaster (Formicidae) ants in its range. At 0.40 mm in body length, it is the smallest known fly in the world. © 2012 Entomological Society of America.


Hydrellia lagarosiphon sp. n. is described from adult male, female, ovum, third instar larva and puparium from cultured material originating from that reared from Lagarosiphon major in South Africa. Its related species, Hydrellia bicolorithorax Giordani Soika, 1956, is partially redescribed from type material from Rwanda.

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