Entomology Laboratory

Belém, Brazil

Entomology Laboratory

Belém, Brazil
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News Article | April 20, 2017
Site: phys.org

Their investigation began when Boe showed Johnson a photo of a cup plant flower teaming with insects, including a large colony of bright red aphids. Boe grows cup plants at two locations near Brookings to evaluate the plant—a member of the sunflower family—as a potential feedstock for biofuel production. The project, which is done in collaboration with the University of Wisconsin-Madison, is funded by the Sun Grant Initiative. "What these researchers are uncovering about the agronomics of cup plant, as well as the insects that affect them, will help us decide how they can be integrated into a bioenergy cropping system," said Vance Owens, director of the North Central Regional Sun Grant Center. "People have not looked closely at these insects—we brought everything together in understanding the biology of this one genus of parasitic wasps," Johnson said. He collaborated with research entomologist Robert Kula of the Systemic Entomology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. The work also involved entomologist Thelma Heidel-Baker, then at Purdue University, who supplied specimens from Indiana. The South Dakota researchers reared two species of parasitic wasps from the aphids, while Heidel-Baker reared five species. "Now we know that all the wasps of the genus Acanthocaudus are specialists on different species of aphids on different host plants," Johnson said. The taxonomy of each wasp species now correlates with the host aphids and their plant hosts. A parasitic wasp identified from Uroleucon aphids in South Dakota cup plants, for instance, had characteristics similar to specimens of a known species, A. tissoti, found in British Columbia and Florida. Kula ascertained that the species from South Dakota was, indeed, A. tissoti. Heidel-Baker reared a new related species of parasitic wasp, now called A. bicolor, on a different host Uroleucon aphid that feeds on asters. Their findings were published in the January 2017 issue of Zootaxa. Parasitic wasps protect the plants against aphid infestations, Johnson explained as he described wasp-aphid interaction on cup plants. What begins as a few dozen aphids per plant in mid-July can become as many as 800 aphids per leaf by the end of July or the first week of August. "The aphids feed on the juices, which can cause deformities and general weakness of the plant," Johnson said. The parasitic wasps sting the aphids to inject their eggs into the aphids' bodies.As these eggs hatch, the larvae feed internally on the aphids, he explained. By the second week in August, nearly 98 percent of the aphids had been parasitized by wasps. "When the larvae become adults, they chew a hole and pop out of the aphids," Johnson said. "It's like an alien movie." The parasitic wasps are beneficial to the cup plant. "If you have wasps around, you don't need to spray the cup plant," Johnson said. Explore further: Cunning super-parasitic wasps sniff out protected aphids and overwhelm their defenses


News Article | April 20, 2017
Site: www.rdmag.com

Entomologists will find it easier to identify parasitic wasps and their host aphids, thanks to the work of South Dakota State University entomologist Paul Johnson and forage breeder Arvid Boe. Both are professors in the Department of Agronomy, Horticulture and Plant Science. Their investigation began when Boe showed Johnson a photo of a cup plant flower teaming with insects, including a large colony of bright red aphids. Boe grows cup plants at two locations near Brookings to evaluate the plant, which is a member of the sunflower family, as a potential feedstock for biofuel production. The project, which is done in collaboration with the University of Wisconsin-Madison, is funded by the Sun Grant Initiative. “What these researchers are uncovering about the agronomics of cup plant, as well as the insects that affect them, will help us decide how they can be integrated into a bioenergy cropping system,” said Vance Owens, director of the North Central Regional Sun Grant Center. “People have not looked closely at these insects—we brought everything together in understanding the biology of this one genus of parasitic wasps,” Johnson said. He collaborated with research entomologist Robert Kula of the Systemic Entomology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. The work also involved entomologist Thelma Heidel-Baker, then at Purdue University, who supplied specimens from Indiana. The South Dakota researchers reared two species of parasitic wasps from the aphids, while Heidel-Baker reared five species. “Now we know that all the wasps of the genus Acanthocaudus are specialists on different species of aphids on different host plants,” Johnson said. The taxonomy of each wasp species now correlates with the host aphids and their plant hosts. A parasitic wasp identified from Uroleucon aphids in South Dakota cup plants, for instance, had characteristics similar to specimens of a known species, A. tissoti, found in British Columbia and Florida. Kula ascertained that the species from South Dakota was, indeed, A. tissoti. Heidel-Baker reared a new related species of parasitic wasp, now called A. bicolor, on a different host Uroleucon aphid that feeds on asters.  Their findings were published in the January 2017 issue of Zootaxa. Parasitic wasps protect the plants against aphid infestations, Johnson explained as he described wasp-aphid interaction on cup plants. What begins as a few dozen aphids per plant in mid-July can become as many as 800 aphids per leaf by the end of July or the first week of August. “The aphids feed on the juices, which can cause deformities and general weakness of the plant,” Johnson said. The parasitic wasps sting the aphids to inject their eggs into the aphids’ bodies. As these eggs hatch, the larvae feed internally on the aphids, he explained.  By the second week in August, nearly 98 percent of the aphids had been parasitized by wasps. “When the larvae become adults, they chew a hole and pop out of the aphids,” Johnson said. “It’s like an alien movie.” The parasitic wasps are beneficial to the cup plant. “If you have wasps around, you don’t need to spray the cup plant,” Johnson said.


News Article | April 20, 2017
Site: www.rdmag.com

Entomologists will find it easier to identify parasitic wasps and their host aphids, thanks to the work of South Dakota State University entomologist Paul Johnson and forage breeder Arvid Boe. Both are professors in the Department of Agronomy, Horticulture and Plant Science. Their investigation began when Boe showed Johnson a photo of a cup plant flower teaming with insects, including a large colony of bright red aphids. Boe grows cup plants at two locations near Brookings to evaluate the plant, which is a member of the sunflower family, as a potential feedstock for biofuel production. The project, which is done in collaboration with the University of Wisconsin-Madison, is funded by the Sun Grant Initiative. “What these researchers are uncovering about the agronomics of cup plant, as well as the insects that affect them, will help us decide how they can be integrated into a bioenergy cropping system,” said Vance Owens, director of the North Central Regional Sun Grant Center. “People have not looked closely at these insects—we brought everything together in understanding the biology of this one genus of parasitic wasps,” Johnson said. He collaborated with research entomologist Robert Kula of the Systemic Entomology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. The work also involved entomologist Thelma Heidel-Baker, then at Purdue University, who supplied specimens from Indiana. The South Dakota researchers reared two species of parasitic wasps from the aphids, while Heidel-Baker reared five species. “Now we know that all the wasps of the genus Acanthocaudus are specialists on different species of aphids on different host plants,” Johnson said. The taxonomy of each wasp species now correlates with the host aphids and their plant hosts. A parasitic wasp identified from Uroleucon aphids in South Dakota cup plants, for instance, had characteristics similar to specimens of a known species, A. tissoti, found in British Columbia and Florida. Kula ascertained that the species from South Dakota was, indeed, A. tissoti. Heidel-Baker reared a new related species of parasitic wasp, now called A. bicolor, on a different host Uroleucon aphid that feeds on asters.  Their findings were published in the January 2017 issue of Zootaxa. Parasitic wasps protect the plants against aphid infestations, Johnson explained as he described wasp-aphid interaction on cup plants. What begins as a few dozen aphids per plant in mid-July can become as many as 800 aphids per leaf by the end of July or the first week of August. “The aphids feed on the juices, which can cause deformities and general weakness of the plant,” Johnson said. The parasitic wasps sting the aphids to inject their eggs into the aphids’ bodies. As these eggs hatch, the larvae feed internally on the aphids, he explained.  By the second week in August, nearly 98 percent of the aphids had been parasitized by wasps. “When the larvae become adults, they chew a hole and pop out of the aphids,” Johnson said. “It’s like an alien movie.” The parasitic wasps are beneficial to the cup plant. “If you have wasps around, you don’t need to spray the cup plant,” Johnson said.


Reddy S.G.E.,Entomology Laboratory | Dolma S.K.,Entomology Laboratory | Verma P.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Singh B.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Toxin Reviews | Year: 2017

Insecticidal activities of Parthenium hysterophorus L. (PH) studied against Plutella xylostella the major insect pest of cruciferous crops and Aphis craccivora Koch on legume crops. Results showed that PH extract found promising toxicity (LC50 = 1140.68 mg L−1) to larvae of P. xylostella after 96 h of treatment as compared to parthenin (LC50 = 1709.42 mg L−1). Parthenin also showed moderate repellent activity to P. xylostella (43.33 ± 4.18%). However, parthenin is more effective against A. craccivora (LC50 = 839 mg L−1) than PH extract (LC50 = 947.87 mg L−1). Based on field bio-efficacy studies, PH extract can be recommended for the management of target pests. © 2017 Informa UK Ltd, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


Jaramillo Ramirez G.I.,Co-operative University of Colombia | Buitrago Alvarez L.S.,Entomology Laboratory
Open Public Health Journal | Year: 2017

Background: Aedes aegypti transmits dengue, chikungunya and zika, and high infestation rates of this mosquito are responsible for maintaining these arbovirus outbreaks in endemic areas Objective: To estimate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding dengue, chikungunya, and zika and their vector Aedes aegypti in Villavicencio, Colombia. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted. Verbal informed consent was obtained from adults and then interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Houses were randomly selected; in the event that no one was home, the next house was selected. Entomological data were recorded to calculate the larval indexes at homes. Results: Seventy-six houses (309 people) were evaluated. 70% of subjects were aware that dengue, chikungunya or zika are viral diseases. Fever was considered the most important symptom and could be related to the experience of having these diseases at home. 79.45% knew that a mosquito transmits these diseases but did not know the scientific name or that only the female bites. 81.36% did not know the life cycle of the mosquito but were aware that the elimination of breeding sites and destruction of containers with water could aid in transmission prevention. 88.46% recognized that the community should be responsible for these control actions at home, but the recommendations are not implemented due to the lack of interest or apathy. The average house index was 40.3%, and Breteau index was 47.66%. Low tanks represented the most common breeding site. Conclusion: It is necessary to review campaigns, communication, and education promoted in the municipality because they do not reflect the knowledge of the people. © 2017 Jaramillo Ramírez and Álvarez.


Chagas A.C.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Calvo E.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Rios-Velasquez C.M.,Instituto Leonidas e Maria Deane Fiocruz | Pessoa F.A.C.,Instituto Leonidas e Maria Deane Fiocruz | And 2 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2013

Background: Psorophora mosquitoes are exclusively found in the Americas and have been associated with transmission of encephalitis and West Nile fever viruses, among other arboviruses. Mosquito salivary glands represent the final route of differentiation and transmission of many parasites. They also secrete molecules with powerful pharmacologic actions that modulate host hemostasis, inflammation, and immune response. Here, we employed next generation sequencing and proteome approaches to investigate for the first time the salivary composition of a mosquito member of the Psorophora genus. We additionally discuss the evolutionary position of this mosquito genus into the Culicidae family by comparing the identity of its secreted salivary compounds to other mosquito salivary proteins identified so far. Results: Illumina sequencing resulted in 13,535,229 sequence reads, which were assembled into 3,247 contigs. All families were classified according to their in silico-predicted function/ activity. Annotation of these sequences allowed classification of their products into 83 salivary protein families, twenty (24.39%) of which were confirmed by our subsequent proteome analysis. Two protein families were deorphanized from Aedes and one from Ochlerotatus, while four protein families were described as novel to Psorophora genus because they had no match with any other known mosquito salivary sequence. Several protein families described as exclusive to Culicines were present in Psorophora mosquitoes, while we did not identify any member of the protein families already known as unique to Anophelines. Also, the Psorophora salivary proteins had better identity to homologs in Aedes (69.23%), followed by Ochlerotatus (8.15%), Culex (6.52%), and Anopheles (4.66%), respectively. Conclusions: This is the first sialome (from the Greek sialo = saliva) catalog of salivary proteins from a Psorophora mosquito, which may be useful for better understanding the lifecycle of this mosquito and the role of its salivary secretion in arboviral transmission. © 2013 Chagas et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Cavalcante M.C.,Federal University of Ceará | Oliveira F.F.,Federal University of Bahia | Maues M.M.,Entomology Laboratory | Freitas B.M.,Federal University of Ceará
Psyche (New York) | Year: 2012

This study was carried out with cultivated Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl., Lecythidaceae) in the Central Amazon rainforest, Brazil, aiming to learn about its pollination requirements, to know the floral visitors of Brazil nut flowers, to investigate their foraging behavior and to determine the main floral visitors of this plant species in commercial plantations. Results showed that B. excelsa is predominantly allogamous, but capable of setting fruits by geitonogamy. Nineteen bee species, belonging to two families, visited and collected nectar and/or pollen throughout the day, although the number of bees decreases steeply after 1000HR. Only 16, out of the 19 bee species observed, succeeded entering the flower and potentially acted as pollinators. However, due to the abundance, flower frequency and foraging behavior of floral visitors, it was concluded that only the species Eulaema mocsaryi and Xylocopa frontalis could be considered relevant potential pollinators. © 2012 M. C. Cavalcante et al.


Poncio S.,Federal University of Pelotas | Montoya P.,SAGARPA IICA | Cancino J.,SAGARPA IICA | Nava D.E.,Entomology Laboratory
Austral Entomology | Year: 2016

An understanding of the search, selection and host use behaviours of parasitoids that have the potential to be used as biological control agents is becoming increasingly important. We studied under laboratory conditions the host suitability of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) and Anastrepha ludens (Loew) larvae for the parasitoids Doryctobracon crawfordi (Viereck) and Opius hirtus (Fischer), which are native to the Americas. By counting the oviposition scars on the puparium, we found that both types of larvae were equally attacked; however, the pupa dissections revealed that different numbers of eggs were laid in each type of larvae. The A.obliqua larvae were significantly less parasitised than those of A.ludens, and immature insect development or adult emergence was not in either parasitoid species. Dissections of the parasitised A.obliqua pupae also showed that the immature parasitoids of both species died by encapsulation and melanisation, and there was a high proportion of unemerged adult flies. By contrast, A.ludens parasitised pupae contained several viable immature parasitoids that subsequently emerged as adult parasitoids. These results indicated contrasting suitability conditions of A.ludens and A.obliqua larvae as hosts of O.hirtus and D.crawfordi parasitoids, which suggest that A.obliqua is not a natural host for either parasitoid species. These findings will improve the understanding for the use of these parasitoid species in projects for biological control against economically important fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha. © 2015 Australian Entomological Society.


de Paula Batista E.S.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Auad A.M.,Entomology Laboratory
Biocontrol Science and Technology | Year: 2010

The pathogenicity of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) against nymphs of the pasture spittlebug Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) was studied under four application methods. Nymphs of the fourth or fifth instar were placed on the roots of elephant grass plants and submitted to four EPN isolates (Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, S. riobravis and Heterorhabditis amazonensis RSC1), at two concentrations (2000 and 4000 infective juveniles/mL), with four application methods (pipetting, spraying on the nymphs after froth formation, spraying before froth formation and placement of infected host cadaver method). There was no significant difference in the nymph mortality in function of the concentration and/or the isolate used. However, the efficacy was influenced by the application method, with the most efficient being sprayed on nymphs after froth formation and infected host cadavers. Steinernema riobravis applied by spraying on nymphs with froth, at a concentration of 2000 EPNs/mL, and H. amazonensis RSC1 applied by infected host cadavers caused 71% of the nymphs to die. The use of infected host cadavers and spraying in an aqueous solution on nymphs after froth formation were found to be the most efficient methods to control Mahanarva spectabilis. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.


Aguilera P A.,Past Research Entomologist of Agricultural Research Institute | Escobar S S.,Entomology Laboratory
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

One of the most important insects pest associated with Corylus avellana L. is the filbert aphid, Myzocallis coryli (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Homoptera: Aphididae), considered specific and unique on hazelnut orchards in Chile. Since 1992 a survey was carried out of predators Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) each year from October to April in La Araucanía, Chile. Here, hazelnut is an important cultivated nut tree. So, in 2006 for the first time in Chile, seven species and one sub species of predators coccinellids on filbert aphid were registered. These Coccinellidae were reported as Adalia angulifera Mulsant, A. bipunctata (L.), A. deficiens Mulsant, Eriopis connexa chilensis Hofmann, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, H. variegata (Goeze), Scymnus bicolor (Germain) and S. loewii Mulsant. In this present work two Coccinellidae are identified for the first time in Chile and the world as aphidophagous predators on filbert aphid. The two species are Eriopis eschscholtzi Mulsant and Hyperaspis sphaeridioides (Mulsant). By 8 April 2011 adults of these species were observed and collected in the south of Chile from Santa Elena farm, near the rural way Pitrufquén to Gorbea in La Araucanía Region. E. eschscholtzi is an entomophagous aphidophagous coccinellid belonging to the Coccinellinae subfamily, Coccinellini tribe. This species is reported from Argentina and in Chile, the geographical distribution corresponds from Petorca in Valparaíso Region to the National Park of Torres del Paine in Magallanes y Antártica Chilena Region. H. sphaeridioides is also an aphidophagous predator coccinellid that belongs to the Scymninae subfamily, Hyperaspidini tribe. This species is endemic of Chile and the geographical distribution corresponds from Elqui valley in the Coquimbo Region to Osorno in the Los Lagos Region.

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