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Belém, Brazil

Cavalcante M.C.,Federal University of Ceara | Oliveira F.F.,Federal University of Bahia | Maues M.M.,Entomology Laboratory | Freitas B.M.,Federal University of Ceara
Psyche (New York) | Year: 2012

This study was carried out with cultivated Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl., Lecythidaceae) in the Central Amazon rainforest, Brazil, aiming to learn about its pollination requirements, to know the floral visitors of Brazil nut flowers, to investigate their foraging behavior and to determine the main floral visitors of this plant species in commercial plantations. Results showed that B. excelsa is predominantly allogamous, but capable of setting fruits by geitonogamy. Nineteen bee species, belonging to two families, visited and collected nectar and/or pollen throughout the day, although the number of bees decreases steeply after 1000HR. Only 16, out of the 19 bee species observed, succeeded entering the flower and potentially acted as pollinators. However, due to the abundance, flower frequency and foraging behavior of floral visitors, it was concluded that only the species Eulaema mocsaryi and Xylocopa frontalis could be considered relevant potential pollinators. © 2012 M. C. Cavalcante et al. Source

Poncio S.,Federal University of Pelotas | Montoya P.,SAGARPA IICA | Cancino J.,SAGARPA IICA | Nava D.E.,Entomology Laboratory
Austral Entomology | Year: 2016

An understanding of the search, selection and host use behaviours of parasitoids that have the potential to be used as biological control agents is becoming increasingly important. We studied under laboratory conditions the host suitability of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) and Anastrepha ludens (Loew) larvae for the parasitoids Doryctobracon crawfordi (Viereck) and Opius hirtus (Fischer), which are native to the Americas. By counting the oviposition scars on the puparium, we found that both types of larvae were equally attacked; however, the pupa dissections revealed that different numbers of eggs were laid in each type of larvae. The A.obliqua larvae were significantly less parasitised than those of A.ludens, and immature insect development or adult emergence was not in either parasitoid species. Dissections of the parasitised A.obliqua pupae also showed that the immature parasitoids of both species died by encapsulation and melanisation, and there was a high proportion of unemerged adult flies. By contrast, A.ludens parasitised pupae contained several viable immature parasitoids that subsequently emerged as adult parasitoids. These results indicated contrasting suitability conditions of A.ludens and A.obliqua larvae as hosts of O.hirtus and D.crawfordi parasitoids, which suggest that A.obliqua is not a natural host for either parasitoid species. These findings will improve the understanding for the use of these parasitoid species in projects for biological control against economically important fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha. © 2015 Australian Entomological Society. Source

de Paula Batista E.S.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Auad A.M.,Entomology Laboratory
Biocontrol Science and Technology | Year: 2010

The pathogenicity of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) against nymphs of the pasture spittlebug Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) was studied under four application methods. Nymphs of the fourth or fifth instar were placed on the roots of elephant grass plants and submitted to four EPN isolates (Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, S. riobravis and Heterorhabditis amazonensis RSC1), at two concentrations (2000 and 4000 infective juveniles/mL), with four application methods (pipetting, spraying on the nymphs after froth formation, spraying before froth formation and placement of infected host cadaver method). There was no significant difference in the nymph mortality in function of the concentration and/or the isolate used. However, the efficacy was influenced by the application method, with the most efficient being sprayed on nymphs after froth formation and infected host cadavers. Steinernema riobravis applied by spraying on nymphs with froth, at a concentration of 2000 EPNs/mL, and H. amazonensis RSC1 applied by infected host cadavers caused 71% of the nymphs to die. The use of infected host cadavers and spraying in an aqueous solution on nymphs after froth formation were found to be the most efficient methods to control Mahanarva spectabilis. © 2010 Taylor & Francis. Source

Sharma A.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Kumar S.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Tiwari S.S.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Tiwari S.S.,National Botanical Research Institute | And 10 more authors.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2012

Use of herbal acaricides is considered one of the options for integrated tick management. Many natural compounds have low water solubility and use of solvents/surfactants is obligatory to test the efficacy of the herbal extracts in experimental conditions. In an attempt to identify best suitable solvents, experiments were conducted on laboratory reared homogenous colonies of adults of R.(B.) microplus. Adult immersion test was conducted by exposing the adults on solvents (methanol, ethanol, acetone, n-butanol, di-methyl sulphoxide) and surfactant (tween 20). The effect of solvents and surfactant was monitored in terms of causing mortality and inhibition of oviposition (IO). Out of 4 solvents used, n-butanol was found most toxic to tick system with a mean mortality of 20.0±8.2% at 10% concentration. Though no mortality was seen in 25% ethanol treated ticks but percentage inhibition of oviposition (%IO) of 10.3 was recorded. In contrast, upto 50% concentration acetone and methanol were found to be safe as a solvent since it had least toxic effect on tick mortality. Amongst the two detergents tested up to 6% concentration tween- 20 found safe while DMSO can be used even at higher concentration up to 10% without any toxic effect. The results revealed that of the 4 commonly used solvents tested, acetone was the least toxic while n-butanol was highly toxic to ticks both in terms of causing mortality and IO. The surfactant DMSO was found safe at 10% level against adults of R. (B.) microplus. Source

Chagas A.C.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Calvo E.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Rios-Velasquez C.M.,Instituto Leonidas e Maria Deane Fiocruz | Pessoa F.A.C.,Instituto Leonidas e Maria Deane Fiocruz | And 2 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2013

Background: Psorophora mosquitoes are exclusively found in the Americas and have been associated with transmission of encephalitis and West Nile fever viruses, among other arboviruses. Mosquito salivary glands represent the final route of differentiation and transmission of many parasites. They also secrete molecules with powerful pharmacologic actions that modulate host hemostasis, inflammation, and immune response. Here, we employed next generation sequencing and proteome approaches to investigate for the first time the salivary composition of a mosquito member of the Psorophora genus. We additionally discuss the evolutionary position of this mosquito genus into the Culicidae family by comparing the identity of its secreted salivary compounds to other mosquito salivary proteins identified so far. Results: Illumina sequencing resulted in 13,535,229 sequence reads, which were assembled into 3,247 contigs. All families were classified according to their in silico-predicted function/ activity. Annotation of these sequences allowed classification of their products into 83 salivary protein families, twenty (24.39%) of which were confirmed by our subsequent proteome analysis. Two protein families were deorphanized from Aedes and one from Ochlerotatus, while four protein families were described as novel to Psorophora genus because they had no match with any other known mosquito salivary sequence. Several protein families described as exclusive to Culicines were present in Psorophora mosquitoes, while we did not identify any member of the protein families already known as unique to Anophelines. Also, the Psorophora salivary proteins had better identity to homologs in Aedes (69.23%), followed by Ochlerotatus (8.15%), Culex (6.52%), and Anopheles (4.66%), respectively. Conclusions: This is the first sialome (from the Greek sialo = saliva) catalog of salivary proteins from a Psorophora mosquito, which may be useful for better understanding the lifecycle of this mosquito and the role of its salivary secretion in arboviral transmission. © 2013 Chagas et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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