Entomology

South Brisbane, Australia

Entomology

South Brisbane, Australia
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Bibbs C.S.,Entomology | Anderson C.S.,Entomology | Smith M.L.,Entomology | Xue R.-D.,Entomology
International Journal of Pest Management | Year: 2017

Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is a globally significant vector that complexifies management programs already contending with Aedes aegypti (L.). The Ae. albopictus mosquito is a daytime biting, container breeding, anthropophilic mosquito that is generally considered unresponsive to operational larviciding that does not also incorporate source reduction. S-methoprene is a readily available juvenile hormone mimic common to pest management. This 14-week study examines direct and indirect treatment efficacy using s-methoprene as an ultra-low volume (ULV) truck spray in area-wide operations against Ae. albopictus in the southeastern United States. An overall 63.3% reduction of Ae. albopictus adults and 47.8% reduction of deposited eggs in treatment areas were observed compared with control. Indirect plots saw reduction in Ae. albopictus adults by 32.7% and eggs by 32.3%. Using insect growth regulator bioassays, truck-mounted ULV application of s-methoprene was effective to an inhibition of emergence (IE) of ≥92% within directly treated (sprayed) areas and >65% IE among containers placed up to 90 m away. S-methoprene could still benefit urban vector management programs when applied at an operational scale. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


We revise the genus Opisthoscelis Schrader, and erect the genus Tanyscelis gen. n. with Opisthoscelis pisiformis Froggatt as its type species. Species of both genera induce sexually dimorphic galls on Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) in Australia, with O. subrotunda Schrader also in Papua New Guinea. We synonymise the following taxa (junior synonym with senior synonym): O. fi bularis Froggatt, syn. n. with O. spinosa Froggatt; O. recurva Froggatt, syn. n. with O. maculata Froggatt; O. globosa Froggatt, syn. n. (= O. ruebsaameni Lindinger) with O. convexa Froggatt; and O. mammularis Froggatt, syn. n. with O. verrucula Froggatt. We transfer seven Opisthoscelis species to Tanyscelis as T. conica (Fuller), comb. n., T. convexa (Froggatt), comb. n., T. maculata (Froggatt), comb. n., T. maskelli (Froggatt), comb. n., T. pisiformis (Froggatt), comb. n., T. spinosa (Froggatt), comb. n., and T. verrucula (Froggatt), comb. n. We redescribe and illustrate the adult female of each named species of Opisthoscelis for which the type material is known, as well as the fi rst-instar nymph of the type species of Opisthoscelis (O. subrotunda) and Tanyscelis (O. pisiformis). We describe four new species of Opisthoscelis: O. beardsleyi Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., O. thurgoona Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., O. tuberculata Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and O. ungulifi nis Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and five new species of Tanyscelis: T. grallator Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., T. megagibba Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., T. mollicornuta Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., T. tripocula Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and T. villosigibba Hardy & Gullan, sp. n. We designate lectotypes for O. convexa, O. fi bularis, O. globosa Froggatt, O. maculata, O. mammularis, O. maskelli, O. pisiformis, O. recurva, O. serrata, O. spinosa, and O. verrucula. As a result of our taxonomic revision, Opisthoscelis has six species and Tanyscelis has 12 species. We describe the galls of females for all 18 species and galls of males for 10 species of Opisthoscelis and Tanyscelis, and provide photographs of the galls for most species. A key to the adult females of the species of both genera is included.© N.B. Hardy, P.J. Gullan.


Katabarwa M.N.,Carter Center | Lakwo T.,Ministry of Health | Habomugisha P.,Carter Center | Agunyo S.,Carter Center | And 10 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2013

The objective of the study was to determine whether annual ivermectin treatment in the Nyagak-Bondo onchocerciasis focus could safely be withdrawn. Baseline skin snip microfilariae (mf) and nodule prevalence data from six communities were compared with data collected in the 2011 follow-up in seven communities. Follow-up mf data in 607 adults and 145 children were compared with baseline (300 adults and 58 children). Flies collected in 2011were dissected, and poolscreen analysis was applied to ascertain transmission. Nodule prevalence in adults dropped from 81.7% to 11.0% (P < 0.0001), and mf prevalence dropped from 97.0% to 23.2% (P < 0.0001). In children, mf prevalence decreased from 79.3% to 14.1% (P < 0.0001). Parous and infection rates of 401 flies that were dissected were 52.9% and 1.5%, respectively, whereas the infective rate on flies examination by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was 1.92% and annual transmission potential was 26.9. Stopping ivermectin treatment may result in onchocerciasis recrudescence. Copyright © 2013 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.


Katabarwa M.,Carter Center | Lakwo T.,Ministry of Health | Habomugisha P.,Carter Center | Agunyo S.,Carter Center | And 11 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2014

The study determined that Simulium neavei-transmitted onchocerciasis in Mount Elgon onchocerciasis focus had been interrupted. Annual mass treatment with ivermectin changed to two times per year along with vector elimination in 2007. Then, baseline microfilaria (mf) prevalence data of 1994 in five sentinel communities were compared with follow-up data in 2005 and 2011. Blood spots from 3,051 children obtained in 2009 were analyzed for Onchocerca volvulus immunoglobulin G4 antibodies. Fresh water crab host captures and blackflies collected indicated their infestation with larval stages of S. neavei and presence or absence of the vector, respectively. Mf rates dropped from 62.2% to 0.5%, and 1 (0.03%) of 3,051 children was positive for O. volvulus antibodies. Crab infestation dropped from 41.9% in 2007 to 0%, and S. neavei biting reduced to zero. Both remained zero for the next 3 years, confirming interruption of onchocerciasis transmission, and interventions were halted. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.


Regier J.C.,University of Maryland University College | Mitter C.,University of Maryland University College | Zwick A.,Entomology | Bazinet A.L.,University of Maryland University College | And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Higher-level relationships within the Lepidoptera, and particularly within the species-rich subclade Ditrysia, are generally not well understood, although recent studies have yielded progress. We present the most comprehensive molecular analysis of lepidopteran phylogeny to date, focusing on relationships among superfamilies. Methodology/ Principal Findings: 483 taxa spanning 115 of 124 families were sampled for 19 protein-coding nuclear genes, from which maximum likelihood tree estimates and bootstrap percentages were obtained using GARLI. Assessment of heuristic search effectiveness showed that better trees and higher bootstrap percentages probably remain to be discovered even after 1000 or more search replicates, but further search proved impractical even with grid computing. Other analyses explored the effects of sampling nonsynonymous change only versus partitioned and unpartitioned total nucleotide change; deletion of rogue taxa; and compositional heterogeneity. Relationships among the non-ditrysian lineages previously inferred from morphology were largely confirmed, plus some new ones, with strong support. Robust support was also found for divergences among non-apoditrysian lineages of Ditrysia, but only rarely so within Apoditrysia. Paraphyly for Tineoidea is strongly supported by analysis of nonsynonymous-only signal; conflicting, strong support for tineoid monophyly when synonymous signal was added back is shown to result from compositional heterogeneity. Conclusions/ Significance: Support for among-superfamily relationships outside the Apoditrysia is now generally strong. Comparable support is mostly lacking within Apoditrysia, but dramatically increased bootstrap percentages for some nodes after rogue taxon removal, and concordance with other evidence, strongly suggest that our picture of apoditrysian phylogeny is approximately correct. This study highlights the challenge of finding optimal topologies when analyzing hundreds of taxa. It also shows that some nodes get strong support only when analysis is restricted to nonsynonymous change, while total change is necessary for strong support of others. Thus, multiple types of analyses will be necessary to fully resolve lepidopteran phylogeny.


The stiletto fly family Therevidae is diverse and species rich in Australasia, with numerous undescribed species. Ongoing studies of Ectinorhynchus Macquart, 1850 from the Taenogera genus-group indicate that the genus Evansomyia Mann, 1928 stat. rev. is valid and is raised from synonymy for three species: Evansomyia phyciformis (White, 1915) stat. rev., Evansomyia scutellus (Mann, 1933) comb. nov., and Evansomyia venusta (Erichson, 1842) comb. nov.. Two new species of an unusual new therevid genus, Collessiama Lambkin gen. nov., are described from females and rare males collected in montane localities in eastern Australia. The dichotomous key to Australian therevid genera is updated to include Evansomyia and Collessiama, and a key to species of Collessiama is provided. Collessiama narelleae Lambkin sp. nov. and Collessiama damani Lambkin sp. nov. are illustrated with drawings and high-resolution photographs of adult males and females, and genitalia. Detailed locality records are given for each species and distribution maps are provided. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press.


Luvisi A.,Entomology | Panattoni A.,Entomology | Bandinelli R.,University of Florence | Rinaldelli E.,University of Florence | And 3 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Interesting applications for traceability in agriculture have recently been developed using radiofrequency identification (RFID) technology. A preliminary report of survival and growth in grapevine suggested pith not only as optimal microchip localization within the plant, but only continuous monitoring of performances, supported by histological observation of tissues around microchips, can validate this approach as a long-term strategy for grapevine identification. In this study, histological assays of grapevine plants are reported, considering different strategies in RFID marking. Microchip insertion after direct drilling of pith from a distal cut on rootstocks did not show any differences in tissue status compared to control, and this can be adequately correlated to an absence of effect in plant growth. Conversely, a "U" cut performed laterally on the rootstock to insert the microchip, which involved tissues from bark to pith, caused development of callus tissues, restoring transversal continuity, but with a partial loss of functionality in terms of open vessels. This phenomenon can be considered permanent damage to plant vascular function, but with limited extension. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Winterton S.L.,California State Collection of Arthropods | Lambkin C.L.,Entomology
ZooKeys | Year: 2012

The previously monotypic genus Manestella Metz, 2003 is revised with a single species, M. tristriata (Mann, 1933), redescribed and an additional 14 new species described: Manestella caesia sp. n., M. campestris sp. n., M. canities sp. n., M. cooloola sp. n., M. fumosa sp. n., M. incompleta sp. n., M. nubis sp. n., M. obscura sp. n., M. ocellaris sp. n., M. persona sp. n., M. poecilothorax sp. n., M. umbrapennis sp. n., M. vasta sp. n. and M. vespera sp. n. The putative sister genus to Manestella, Medomega gen. n., is described containing six new species: Medomega averyi sp. n., M. bailmeup sp. n., M. chlamydos sp. n., M. danielsi sp. n., M. gigasathe sp. n., and M. nebrias sp. n. Complete taxonomic descriptions were generated from a character matrix developed in Lucid Builder from which natural language descriptions (NLD) were parsed. Images of all species of Manestella and Medomega gen. n. are included, along with dichotomous keys to species. © S.L. Winterton, C.L. Lambkin.


Stilwell A.R.,Entomology | Hein G.L.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Zygielbaum A.I.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Rundquist D.C.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2013

The wheat curl mite (WCM) is microscopic, and therefore mite movement is difficult to track in the field. However, the virus complex it transmits causes observable and measurable changes to chlorophyll content and biomass. The ability to detect WCM (vectored viruses) with remote sensing was investigated by comparing vegetation indices calculated from proximal sensing data to ground-reference data obtained in the field. Of the 10 vegetation indices evaluated, the red-edge position (REP) provided the best relationship with virus symptoms observed in wheat. There was a significant and high correlation between REP and relative chlorophyll values and biomass and a significant, but lower, correlation between REP and percentage virus infection. © 2013 Copyright 2013 Taylor & Francis.


Lambkin C.L.,Entomology | Bartlett J.S.,Khan Research Laboratories
ZooKeys | Year: 2011

Bush Blitz is a three-year multimillion dollar program to document the plants and animals in hundreds of properties across Australia's National Reserve System. The core focus is on nature discovery - identifying and describing new species of plants and animals. The Bush Blitz program has enabled the collection and description of beeflies (Diptera, Bombyliidae) from surveys in Western Australia and Queensland. Three new species of Australian beeflies belonging to the Exoprosopini are described; Palirika mackenziei Lambkin, sp. n., Palirika culgoafloodplainensis Lambkin, sp. n., and Larrpana bushblitz Lambkin, sp. n. Phylogenetic analysis of 40 Australian exoprosopine species belonging to the Balaana generic-group Lambkin & Yeates, 2003 supports the placement of the three new species into existing genera, and the erection and description of the new genus Ngalki Lambkin, gen. n. for Ngalki trigonium (Lambkin & Yeates, 2003), comb. n. Revised keys are provided for the genera of the Australian Balaana genus-group and the species of Palirika Lambkin & Yeates, 2003 and Larrpana Lambkin & Yeates, 2003. With the description of the three new species and the transferral of Munjua trigona Lambkin & Yeates, 2003 into the new genus Ngalki Lambkin, gen. n., three genera are rediagnosed; Munjua Lambkin & Yeates, 2003, Palirika and Larrpana. © C.L. Lambkin, J.S. Bartlett.

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