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Dutcher J.D.,University of Georgia | Karar H.,Entomological Research Sub Station | Abbas G.,Pest Warning and Quality Control of Pesticides
Insects | Year: 2012

Seasonal occurrence of aphids and aphidophagous insects was monitored for six years (2006-2011) from full leaf expansion in May to leaf fall in October in Desirable variety pecan trees that were not treated with insecticides. Aphid outbreaks occurred two times per season, once in the spring and again in the late summer. Yellow pecan and blackmargined aphids exceeded the recommended treatment thresholds one time and black pecan aphids exceeded the recommended treatment levels three times over the six seasons. Increases in aphidophagous insect abundance coincided with aphid outbreaks in five of the six seasons. Among aphidophagous insects Harmonia axyridis and Olla v-nigrum were frequently collected in both the tree canopy and at the ground level, whereas, Coccinella septempunctata, Hippodamia convergens were rarely found in the tree canopy and commonly found at the ground level. Green lacewing abundance was higher in the ground level than in the tree canopy. Brown lacewings were more abundant in the tree canopy than at the ground level. Dolichopodid and syrphid fly abundance, at the ground level increased during peak aphid abundance in the tree canopy. Application of an aqueous solution of fermenting molasses to the pecan foliage during an aphid outbreak significantly increased the abundance of ladybeetles and lacewings and significantly reduced the abundance of yellow pecan, blackmargined and black pecan aphids. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source


Nadeem S.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Hamed M.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Ishfaq M.,Pest Warning and Quality Control of Pesticides | Nadeem M.K.,Adaptive Research Farm | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2014

Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) known as common green lacewing, its adult feeds only on plant nectars and larva is the voracious feeder of aphids and hence used in biological control of insect pests. In present study, the effective storage temperatures at optimum durations for the developmental stages of C. carnea under laboratory conditions was carried out. The consequence of storage duration and low temperatures on the different developmental stages of C. carnea at egg, larval, pre-pupal and pupal stages revealed that the storage of eggs at temperatures of 6, 12, 14 and 16°C gave short term storage up to 15-20 days with minimum detrimental effects to the developing embryo. Whereas, 8 and 10°C conditions of storage suited for both short and long term storage for 40 days. It is inferred from the results that whenever, needed to conserve strains of C. carnea in laboratories for experimentation or field releases, the storage at low temperatures of 8°C proved effective for both short and long term durations. © 2014, Pakistan Agricultural Scientists Forum. All rights reserved. Source


Hameed A.,Cotton Research Station | Saleem H.M.,Entomological Research Institute | Ahmad S.,Cotton Research Station | Iqbal J.,Cotton Research Station | Karar H.,Entomological Research Sub Station
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2013

Cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis T. (Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) proved a menace to subcontinent South East Asia economy since 2005. After introduction of this notorious Caribbean pest it was necessary to identify biological control agents in country which are indigenous and successfully suppress the pest. In present studies eleven spotted ladybird beetle female (Coccinella undecimpunctata L.) predating efficiency was determined against cotton mealybug. Adult female during whole life consumed 1519 mealy bugs during whole life cycle through devouring 854, 308, 269 and 86 1st, 2nd, 3rd instar and adult stage cotton mealybug respectively. While adult male during entire life consumed 1420 cotton mealybug through consuming 792, 291, 263, 74 1st, 2nd, 3rd instars and adult cotton mealybug. The population structure and biological parameters were also determined through no choice feeding trials. Adult female of C. undecimpunctata consumed higher number of mealybug than adult male during its whole life. Experiment demonstrated that C. undecimpunctata is an effective bio control agent of cotton mealybug which can be used in integrated pest management program successfully for the management of this notorious pest on cotton crop.© 2013 Zoological Society of Pakistan. Source


Karar H.,Entomological Research Sub Station | Arif M.J.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ali A.,Entomological Research Institute | Hameed A.,Cotton Research Station | Abbas Q.,Entomological Research Institute
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2012

A field experiment was conducted during 2006-2007 in a private orchard, in Multan, to assess the fruit loss in different genotypes of mango (Mangiferae indica) due to mango mealybug (Drosicha mangiferae Green) infestation and to determine relation of mango varieties morphological characters to abundance, preference and non preference of mango mealybugs. Results revealed that pest population was highest in varieties which were regular bearer, possessed light green leaf color, larger leaf size, round to medium beak, medium lenticels, light pink inflorescence, high exopericarp thickness and oblong fruit shape while population was minimum in varieties which possessed medium erect branches, alternate fruits bearer, light green leaf color, smaller leaf size, weak to absent fruit beak, medium lenticels, green inflorescence high exopericarp thickness and ovate fruit shape. Flesh color and mid rib vein curvature seemed to have no significant role with pest abundance. Pest observations for loss assessment revealed that the fruits obtained in pests managed genotypes were statistically more than untreated i.e. 10.82 percent in cultivar Anwar Retual followed by 10.81, 10.23, 9.53, 9.41, 9.21, 8.42 and 7.75 percent on Retaul-12, Chaunsa, Black Chaunsa, Sindhri, Tukhmi, Dusehri and Fajri, respectively. Maximum population of mango mealybug was recorded on Chaunsa i.e. 17.52 individuals/ inflorescence and minimum on Anwar Retaul i.e. 9.67 /inflorescence. Copyright © 2012 Zoological Society of Pakistan. Source


Karar H.,Entomological Research Sub Station | Khan Babar T.,Entomological Research Sub Station | Faisal Shahazad M.,Entomological Research Sub Station | Saleem M.,Entomological Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2013

Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida) can reduce the yield of cotton approximately 25%. No potential predators have been recorded in the field for its control. To overcome this pest insecticides play significant role in the improvement of crop yields all over the world during the last four to five decades. To save the crop from this notorious pest, ten formulations of insecticides viz., acephate 75SP (Acephate) @ 625g, imidacloprid 25WP (Imidacloprid) @188g, thiamethaxim25WG (Actara) @ 60g, imidacloprid 70WG (Confidor) @ 43g, dimethoate 40EC (Sanitox) @ 1000 ml, nytonpyron10SL (Pyramid) @ 500ml, lambdacyhlothrin2.5E (Kango) @ 825 ml, thiachloprid 480SC (Talent) @ 63 ml, imidacloprid 25SL (Confidor) @ 500ml, and diafenthiuron 500SC (Polo), @ 500ml, per hectare were sprayed in the field having maximum population of nymphs and adults of Jassid at Cotton Research Station, Multan on cotton variety Bt-886 in the month of July, 2011 and 2012. The maximum mortality of jassid was observed in those treatments, where acephate was applied with 79, 72, 65 mortality, nytonpyron with 69, 63, 55 and imidacloprid 68, 63, 57 percent mortality after 24, 72 and 168 h of spray. Minimum mortality of jassid was observed in the treatments where talent was applied having 25, 17 and 16 percent mortality 24, 72 and 168 h after spray. By the application of acephate, pyramid and confidor 25SL on cotton crop the yield can be increased. Source

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