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Faisalābād, Pakistan

Aziz M.A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Hasan M.U.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ali A.,Entomological Research Institute
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2011

Role of weather factors on the fluctuations of fruit and shoot infestation by Earias spp. on three comparatively more susceptible (Parbani Karanti, Pusa sawani, Ikra-1), three moderately susceptible (PMS-beauty, Ikra anamika, Lakshami-24) and three comparatively least susceptible (Diksa, Sabz ari, Super Star) genotypes of okra was studied under field conditions at Post Graduate Agriculture Research Station, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, during 2006 and 2007. Maximum, minimum and average temperatures showed a positive effect; whereas, the relative humidity and rainfall exerted a negative effect on the fruit infestation, separately as well as on cumulative basis. The shoot infestation of okra was found to be positively correlated with maximum and average temperatures and negatively correlated with the relative humidity and rainfall on the basis of an average for both the years of studies. Multiple Linear Regression Models revealed that the maximum temperature was the most important factor, which had maximum impact on fruit and shoot infestation, i.e., 60.50 and 53.20% for an average of both the study years, respectively. The impact of all the factors on an average of both the study years when computed together was found to be 67 and 55.50%, for fruit and shoot infestation, respectively. Copyright 2011 Zoological Society of Pakistan.

Khan H.A.A.,University of Punjab | Akram W.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Arshad M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Hafeez F.,Entomological Research Institute
Parasitology Research | Year: 2015

The house fly, Musca domestica, is a serious pest of public health importance with the ability to develop insecticide resistance. The focus of the present study was to evaluate toxicity and resistance of the field collected house flies from Punjab, Pakistan, against insect growth regulator (IGR) insecticides. House flies collected from six different localities exhibited very low levels of resistance to cyromazine, triflumuron, and methoxyfenozide compared with the Lab-susceptible reference strain, with resistance ratios (RRs) ranging between 3.56- to 8.19-fold, 1.45- to 3.68-fold, and 2.20- to 8.60-fold, respectively. However, very low to low levels of resistance were observed for pyriproxyfen and very low to moderate levels for lufenuron with RRs ranged from 4.13- to 11.63-fold to 8.57- to 22.75-fold, respectively. There was a significant correlation between RRs of cyromazine and triflumuron (r = 0.976, p < 0.001), suggesting the possibility for cross-resistance. Susceptibility status of different IGRs in Pakistani strains of house flies is reported here for the first time. The trend observed in decreasing susceptibility towards different IGR insecticides tested will continue unless resistance management practices are followed. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Aziz M.A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Ul Hasan M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ali A.,Entomological Research Institute | Iqbal J.,Pest Warning and Quality Control of Pesticides
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2012

Integrated control measures were tested for efficacy against Earias spp. on okra in Pakistan with the over-riding goal of finding the most cost-effective control. Five control methods: (i) biological control with Trichogramma chilonis Ishii., (ii) cultural control of alternate host plants by hand weeding and hoeing, (iii) botanical control by spraying the plants with 5% neem seed kernel extract, (iv) mechanical control by hand-clipping injured plant parts and (v) chemical control with by spraying the plants with a commercial insecticide (Tracer®, Dow AgroSciences). These treatments were tested alone and as seven combinations of two methods and three combinations of three methods. All treatments were applied each week for six weeks and compared by measuring damaged fruits and shoots, yield and cost-benefit ratio in a controlled, replicated field experiment on Diksha cultivar of okra. Fruit and shoot damage was significantly lowest at 7% and 14%, respectively, in the plots treated with only chemical control and fruit yield was highest, at 63 kg/plot, in plots treated with the combination of mechanical and chemical control. Plots treated with only mechanical control had the highest cost: benefit ratio at 1:2.61, followed by plots treated with mechanical control and chemical control, at 1:2.39 and plots treated with chemcial plus botanical plus mechanical control at 1:2.38. Copyright 2012 Zoological Society of Pakistan.

Fiaz M.,Entomological Research Institute | Hameed A.,Cotton Research Station | Hasan M.U.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Wakil W.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2012

Jassids (Amrasca bigutulla bigutulla Ishida) and thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman) have become major pests in subcontinent due to invasion of Bt cotton. Insecticidal resistance by these pests is another threat, keeping in view these facts five plants derivative viz., Lemon oil, Bittergourd (Momordica charantia L) extract, bakain (Melia azadarach) leaf extract, Neem (Azadirachta indica) oil and Neem (A. indica) leaf extract, each at a 5% concentration were tested for their repellency and phagodeterrent effects against jassid and thrips with three applications upon emergence of pest population. The variety CIM-496 was sown during 2008 at experimental area of the department of Agriculture, Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Six treatments including control were maintained following Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The plant derivatives were applied three times at the interval of 20 days. Data were recorded at 24, 48, 72 hrs, and 7 days intervals after application of each treatment. Results revealed that lemon oil proved to be the most effective plant derivative against jassid followed by neem oil, bakaine, bitter gourd and neem leaf extract in all three applications. In case of thrips all plant derivatives controlled thrips population significantly. Bakain leaf extract, neem oil and neem leaf extract showed comparatively higher mortality of the thrips as compared to other plant derivatives. Studies concluded that plant derivatives can be good alternatives to chemical pesticides to control sucking pests complex especially jassids and thrips in Pakistan. © 2012 Zoological Society of Pakistan.

Hameed A.,Cotton Research Station | Aziz M.A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Aheer G.M.,Entomological Research Institute
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2012

Effect of temperature and relative humidity on the life history of the cotton mealy bug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was investigated in the laboratory. P. solenopsis was able to complete its life cycle at 20, 25, 30 and 35±1°C and 70, 65, 60 and 40±5% RH, respectively. Egg hatching period decreased from 32±0.22 to 0.57±0.15 hours from 20 to 40°C. But at 40°C, the male specimens were unable to pupate and the female specimens despite comparatively very short life span were unable to produce eggs. The highest fecundity was observed at 20°C with each female producing an average of 232.65±2.19 eggs. Development time from egg to adult was the longest for male at 20°C. Increasing temperature and decreasing relative humidity had profound effect on the longevity of the females whereas longevity of males was less affected. Ability of the P. solenopsis to develop and reproduce successfully at 20 to 35±1°C and 70 to 40±5% RH suggests that the pest can develop and build up its populations in different ecological zones within this temperature range. Copyright 2012 Zoological Society of Pakistan.

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