Entomological Research Institute

Faisalābād, Pakistan

Entomological Research Institute

Faisalābād, Pakistan
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Shahid M.R.,Cotton Research Institute | Farooq M.,Entomological Research Institute | Shakeel M.,South China Agricultural University | Mahmood A.,Ayub Agricultural Research Institute | Gogi M.D.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Phytoparasitica | Year: 2017

The cotton stainer, Dysdercus koenigii Fabricius (Hemiptera: Pyrrhcoridae), has become a major threat to transgenic cotton as it causes warts on the internal carpel wall of cotton boll, severe lint staining, lint locks, and lint lesions. Thus, keeping in view the importance of this pest on cotton, in the present study, screening of 13 transgenic cotton genotypes was performed and the population of D. koenigii was determined on these genotypes during 2012–13. Furthermore, among these genotypes, a high yielding advanced cultivar (FH-114) was selected for further experiments. A number of five different densities of D. koenigii (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25) at adult stage with well-developed proboscis were released in the cages along with a control treatment. Cotton genotypes FH-312, FH-2073, FH-Lalazar, FH-142, and MNH-886 possessed minimum population (1.33 D. koenigii per plant) compared to FH-324 and FH-444 (6.0 D. koenigii per plant). The number of bolls per plant and boll weight decreased as a result of increased densities. The increased density of D. koenigii resulted in fewer bolls per plant (12.1 bolls), reduced boll weight (2.1 g), germination (39.1%), ginning out turn (38.3%), staple length (27.8 mm), and staple fineness (4.0 μg/in.) when compared with un-infested plants (30.6, 3.2 g, 77.3%, 41.5%, 28.8 mm, and 4.4 μg/in.), respectively. Correlation analysis revealed that bolls per plant, boll weight, germination, ginning out turn, and staple fineness resulted in negative and significant correlation with density of D. koenigii with r-values of −0.95, −0.98, −0.98, −0.8, and −0.85, respectively. Coefficient of determination (R2) demonstrated that bolls per plant, boll weight, germination, ginning out turn, staple length, and staple fineness contributed with 91, 96, 96, 79, 43 and 73%, respectively, to the total variability at different densities of D. koenigii. Our findings demonstrated that D. koenigii has become potential major pest and causes quantitative and qualitative losses to transgenic cotton, hence, there is a need to develop appropriate control measures for controlling its population to avoid further losses. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Arshad M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ali Khan H.A.,University of Punjab | Hafeez F.,Entomological Research Institute | Sherazi R.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Iqbal N.,Ghazi University
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2017

The relationship between a coccinellid beetle (Coccinella septempunctata L.) and four different aphid species (spinach aphid, Aphis fabae Scopoli; coriander aphid, Hyadaphis coriandri (Das); cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L.; pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) was evaluated in the laboratory in no choice and free choice feeding assays. In the no choice feeding assay, the stages of beetle (adults, 3rd and 4th instar) consumed more aphids than early stages (1st and 2nd instar). In the free choice feeding assay, the consumption of pea aphid (77.647) was statistically high followed by spinach (66.276), coriander (66.14) and cabbage (61.48) aphids. Manly's preference index suggest that pea aphid was the most preferred (by all stages of C. septempunctata) aphid species followed by coriander, and the cabbage aphid was the least preferred species. The results of the present study revealed predatory potential of C. septempunctata against different aphid species under the laboratory conditions. The results could be helpful in designing biological management strategies for aphids. © 2017 Zoological Society of Pakistan.


Chakkaravarthy V.M.,National Coral Reef Research Institute | Ambrose T.,Loyola Institute of Frontier Energy | Vincent S.,Loyola Institute of Frontier Energy | Arunachalam R.,Manonmaniam Sundaranar University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Entomology | Year: 2011

The aim of the present investigation is to test the larvicidal activity of Azadirachta indica (A. Juss) and Datura metel (Linn.) leaf extract against the third instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae). A. indica and D. metel leaf extracted by hexane and chloroform extract method at various concentrations. The hexane extract of A. indica and D. metel at 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm were showed 24, 36, 55, 64 and 72.50% mortality where second one shows 9, 17.50, 30, 42 and 57% mortality, respectively. The chloroform extract of A. indica was showed 12, 48.50, 56.50, 73 and 87% mortality where D. metel shows 13.75, 27, 32, 47 and 62% mortality respectively. The hexane and chloroform extract of A. indica and D. metel had significant larvicidal effect with LC50 values were 246.38, 198.82, 709.96 and 562.07 ppm respectively. At 24 h post-treatment against late third instar larvae, the chloroform extracts of A. indica and D. metel were found to be more effective than hexane extracts and caused a larval mortality of 87 and 62%, respectively at 1000 ppm concentration. The larvicidal effect of A. indica and D. metel against C. quinquefasciatus make these plant products are potential alternative to synthetic insecticide in mosquito control plans. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.


Hameed A.,Cotton Research Station | Aziz M.A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Aheer G.M.,Entomological Research Institute
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2012

Effect of temperature and relative humidity on the life history of the cotton mealy bug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was investigated in the laboratory. P. solenopsis was able to complete its life cycle at 20, 25, 30 and 35±1°C and 70, 65, 60 and 40±5% RH, respectively. Egg hatching period decreased from 32±0.22 to 0.57±0.15 hours from 20 to 40°C. But at 40°C, the male specimens were unable to pupate and the female specimens despite comparatively very short life span were unable to produce eggs. The highest fecundity was observed at 20°C with each female producing an average of 232.65±2.19 eggs. Development time from egg to adult was the longest for male at 20°C. Increasing temperature and decreasing relative humidity had profound effect on the longevity of the females whereas longevity of males was less affected. Ability of the P. solenopsis to develop and reproduce successfully at 20 to 35±1°C and 70 to 40±5% RH suggests that the pest can develop and build up its populations in different ecological zones within this temperature range. Copyright 2012 Zoological Society of Pakistan.


Hameed A.,Cotton Research Station | Saleem M.,Entomological Research Institute | Ahmad S.,Cotton Research Station | Aziz M.I.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Karar H.,Entomological Research Substation
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2013

Life parameters and predatory potential of Chrysoperla carnea was evaluated using Phenacoccus solenopsis as host in free choice feeding and no choice feeding trials. Results on biological parameters revealed that 3rd instar cotton mealy bug triggered: minimum larval period in days; moderate larval survival; minimum pupal period in days; maximum pupal weight, maximum percentage emergence; highest fecundity; and, adult longevity of C.carnea. Predatory potential showed that all the larval instars of C. carnea fed on the cotton mealy bug but the 3rd instar C. carnea proved to be more effective by consuming 9131.7, 1933.3, 1178.3 and 148.0, 1st instar, 2 nd instar, 3rd instar and adult stage cotton mealy bugs, respectively. Results depict that C. carnea can be used as an effective biological control agent for successful implementation of integrated pest management program for the mealy bug control. Copyright 2013 Zoological Society of Pakistan.


Aziz M.A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Ul Hasan M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ali A.,Entomological Research Institute | Iqbal J.,Pest Warning and Quality Control of Pesticides
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2012

Integrated control measures were tested for efficacy against Earias spp. on okra in Pakistan with the over-riding goal of finding the most cost-effective control. Five control methods: (i) biological control with Trichogramma chilonis Ishii., (ii) cultural control of alternate host plants by hand weeding and hoeing, (iii) botanical control by spraying the plants with 5% neem seed kernel extract, (iv) mechanical control by hand-clipping injured plant parts and (v) chemical control with by spraying the plants with a commercial insecticide (Tracer®, Dow AgroSciences). These treatments were tested alone and as seven combinations of two methods and three combinations of three methods. All treatments were applied each week for six weeks and compared by measuring damaged fruits and shoots, yield and cost-benefit ratio in a controlled, replicated field experiment on Diksha cultivar of okra. Fruit and shoot damage was significantly lowest at 7% and 14%, respectively, in the plots treated with only chemical control and fruit yield was highest, at 63 kg/plot, in plots treated with the combination of mechanical and chemical control. Plots treated with only mechanical control had the highest cost: benefit ratio at 1:2.61, followed by plots treated with mechanical control and chemical control, at 1:2.39 and plots treated with chemcial plus botanical plus mechanical control at 1:2.38. Copyright 2012 Zoological Society of Pakistan.


Khan H.A.A.,University of Punjab | Akram W.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Arshad M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Hafeez F.,Entomological Research Institute
Parasitology Research | Year: 2015

The house fly, Musca domestica, is a serious pest of public health importance with the ability to develop insecticide resistance. The focus of the present study was to evaluate toxicity and resistance of the field collected house flies from Punjab, Pakistan, against insect growth regulator (IGR) insecticides. House flies collected from six different localities exhibited very low levels of resistance to cyromazine, triflumuron, and methoxyfenozide compared with the Lab-susceptible reference strain, with resistance ratios (RRs) ranging between 3.56- to 8.19-fold, 1.45- to 3.68-fold, and 2.20- to 8.60-fold, respectively. However, very low to low levels of resistance were observed for pyriproxyfen and very low to moderate levels for lufenuron with RRs ranged from 4.13- to 11.63-fold to 8.57- to 22.75-fold, respectively. There was a significant correlation between RRs of cyromazine and triflumuron (r = 0.976, p < 0.001), suggesting the possibility for cross-resistance. Susceptibility status of different IGRs in Pakistani strains of house flies is reported here for the first time. The trend observed in decreasing susceptibility towards different IGR insecticides tested will continue unless resistance management practices are followed. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


PubMed | University of Punjab, Entomological Research Institute and University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Parasitology research | Year: 2016

The house fly, Musca domestica, is a serious pest of public health importance with the ability to develop insecticide resistance. The focus of the present study was to evaluate toxicity and resistance of the field collected house flies from Punjab, Pakistan, against insect growth regulator (IGR) insecticides. House flies collected from six different localities exhibited very low levels of resistance to cyromazine, triflumuron, and methoxyfenozide compared with the Lab-susceptible reference strain, with resistance ratios (RRs) ranging between 3.56- to 8.19-fold, 1.45- to 3.68-fold, and 2.20- to 8.60-fold, respectively. However, very low to low levels of resistance were observed for pyriproxyfen and very low to moderate levels for lufenuron with RRs ranged from 4.13- to 11.63-fold to 8.57- to 22.75-fold, respectively. There was a significant correlation between RRs of cyromazine and triflumuron (r=0.976, p<0.001), suggesting the possibility for cross-resistance. Susceptibility status of different IGRs in Pakistani strains of house flies is reported here for the first time. The trend observed in decreasing susceptibility towards different IGR insecticides tested will continue unless resistance management practices are followed.


Aziz M.A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Hasan M.U.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ali A.,Entomological Research Institute
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2011

Role of weather factors on the fluctuations of fruit and shoot infestation by Earias spp. on three comparatively more susceptible (Parbani Karanti, Pusa sawani, Ikra-1), three moderately susceptible (PMS-beauty, Ikra anamika, Lakshami-24) and three comparatively least susceptible (Diksa, Sabz ari, Super Star) genotypes of okra was studied under field conditions at Post Graduate Agriculture Research Station, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, during 2006 and 2007. Maximum, minimum and average temperatures showed a positive effect; whereas, the relative humidity and rainfall exerted a negative effect on the fruit infestation, separately as well as on cumulative basis. The shoot infestation of okra was found to be positively correlated with maximum and average temperatures and negatively correlated with the relative humidity and rainfall on the basis of an average for both the years of studies. Multiple Linear Regression Models revealed that the maximum temperature was the most important factor, which had maximum impact on fruit and shoot infestation, i.e., 60.50 and 53.20% for an average of both the study years, respectively. The impact of all the factors on an average of both the study years when computed together was found to be 67 and 55.50%, for fruit and shoot infestation, respectively. Copyright 2011 Zoological Society of Pakistan.


Hameed A.,Entomological Research Institute | Aziz M.A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Aheer G.M.,Entomological Research Institute
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2010

Bioassay studies were conducted using the leaf dip method for endosulfan, imidacloprid, acetameprid and diafenthiuron to determine the susceptibility of Bemisia tabaci Gen. from three districts (Bahawalpur, Faisalabad, and Multan) of the Punjab, Pakistan. It was observed that all the B. tabaci populations were susceptible to these pesticides. Comparative resistance ratios of these insecticides at LC50 werel.75-3.60 folds for endosulfan, 1.18-2.09 folds for imidacloprid, 1.01-4.29 folds for acetameprid and 1.06-2.0 folds for diafenthiuron. In the present studies, the variability in the tolerance of B. tabaci is measured for the first time against endosulfan, imidacloprid, acetameprid and diafenthiuron against Bemisia tabaci Gen. in Pakistan. The wise use of these insecticides for controlling B. tabaci Gen. field populations in the presence of conventional insecticides will help for its better management. Copyright 2010 Zoological Society of Pakistan.

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