Faisalābād, Pakistan
Faisalābād, Pakistan

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Chakkaravarthy V.M.,National Coral Reef Research Institute | Ambrose T.,Loyola Institute of Frontier Energy | Vincent S.,Loyola Institute of Frontier Energy | Arunachalam R.,Manonmaniam Sundaranar University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Entomology | Year: 2011

The aim of the present investigation is to test the larvicidal activity of Azadirachta indica (A. Juss) and Datura metel (Linn.) leaf extract against the third instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae). A. indica and D. metel leaf extracted by hexane and chloroform extract method at various concentrations. The hexane extract of A. indica and D. metel at 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm were showed 24, 36, 55, 64 and 72.50% mortality where second one shows 9, 17.50, 30, 42 and 57% mortality, respectively. The chloroform extract of A. indica was showed 12, 48.50, 56.50, 73 and 87% mortality where D. metel shows 13.75, 27, 32, 47 and 62% mortality respectively. The hexane and chloroform extract of A. indica and D. metel had significant larvicidal effect with LC50 values were 246.38, 198.82, 709.96 and 562.07 ppm respectively. At 24 h post-treatment against late third instar larvae, the chloroform extracts of A. indica and D. metel were found to be more effective than hexane extracts and caused a larval mortality of 87 and 62%, respectively at 1000 ppm concentration. The larvicidal effect of A. indica and D. metel against C. quinquefasciatus make these plant products are potential alternative to synthetic insecticide in mosquito control plans. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.


Hameed A.,Cotton Research Station | Aziz M.A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Aheer G.M.,Entomological Research Institute
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2012

Effect of temperature and relative humidity on the life history of the cotton mealy bug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was investigated in the laboratory. P. solenopsis was able to complete its life cycle at 20, 25, 30 and 35±1°C and 70, 65, 60 and 40±5% RH, respectively. Egg hatching period decreased from 32±0.22 to 0.57±0.15 hours from 20 to 40°C. But at 40°C, the male specimens were unable to pupate and the female specimens despite comparatively very short life span were unable to produce eggs. The highest fecundity was observed at 20°C with each female producing an average of 232.65±2.19 eggs. Development time from egg to adult was the longest for male at 20°C. Increasing temperature and decreasing relative humidity had profound effect on the longevity of the females whereas longevity of males was less affected. Ability of the P. solenopsis to develop and reproduce successfully at 20 to 35±1°C and 70 to 40±5% RH suggests that the pest can develop and build up its populations in different ecological zones within this temperature range. Copyright 2012 Zoological Society of Pakistan.


Fiaz M.,Entomological Research Institute | Hameed A.,Cotton Research Station | Hasan M.U.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Wakil W.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2012

Jassids (Amrasca bigutulla bigutulla Ishida) and thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman) have become major pests in subcontinent due to invasion of Bt cotton. Insecticidal resistance by these pests is another threat, keeping in view these facts five plants derivative viz., Lemon oil, Bittergourd (Momordica charantia L) extract, bakain (Melia azadarach) leaf extract, Neem (Azadirachta indica) oil and Neem (A. indica) leaf extract, each at a 5% concentration were tested for their repellency and phagodeterrent effects against jassid and thrips with three applications upon emergence of pest population. The variety CIM-496 was sown during 2008 at experimental area of the department of Agriculture, Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Six treatments including control were maintained following Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The plant derivatives were applied three times at the interval of 20 days. Data were recorded at 24, 48, 72 hrs, and 7 days intervals after application of each treatment. Results revealed that lemon oil proved to be the most effective plant derivative against jassid followed by neem oil, bakaine, bitter gourd and neem leaf extract in all three applications. In case of thrips all plant derivatives controlled thrips population significantly. Bakain leaf extract, neem oil and neem leaf extract showed comparatively higher mortality of the thrips as compared to other plant derivatives. Studies concluded that plant derivatives can be good alternatives to chemical pesticides to control sucking pests complex especially jassids and thrips in Pakistan. © 2012 Zoological Society of Pakistan.


Hameed A.,Cotton Research Station | Saleem M.,Entomological Research Institute | Ahmad S.,Cotton Research Station | Aziz M.I.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Karar H.,Entomological Research Substation
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2013

Life parameters and predatory potential of Chrysoperla carnea was evaluated using Phenacoccus solenopsis as host in free choice feeding and no choice feeding trials. Results on biological parameters revealed that 3rd instar cotton mealy bug triggered: minimum larval period in days; moderate larval survival; minimum pupal period in days; maximum pupal weight, maximum percentage emergence; highest fecundity; and, adult longevity of C.carnea. Predatory potential showed that all the larval instars of C. carnea fed on the cotton mealy bug but the 3rd instar C. carnea proved to be more effective by consuming 9131.7, 1933.3, 1178.3 and 148.0, 1st instar, 2 nd instar, 3rd instar and adult stage cotton mealy bugs, respectively. Results depict that C. carnea can be used as an effective biological control agent for successful implementation of integrated pest management program for the mealy bug control. Copyright 2013 Zoological Society of Pakistan.


Aziz M.A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Ul Hasan M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ali A.,Entomological Research Institute | Iqbal J.,Pest Warning and Quality Control of Pesticides
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2012

Integrated control measures were tested for efficacy against Earias spp. on okra in Pakistan with the over-riding goal of finding the most cost-effective control. Five control methods: (i) biological control with Trichogramma chilonis Ishii., (ii) cultural control of alternate host plants by hand weeding and hoeing, (iii) botanical control by spraying the plants with 5% neem seed kernel extract, (iv) mechanical control by hand-clipping injured plant parts and (v) chemical control with by spraying the plants with a commercial insecticide (Tracer®, Dow AgroSciences). These treatments were tested alone and as seven combinations of two methods and three combinations of three methods. All treatments were applied each week for six weeks and compared by measuring damaged fruits and shoots, yield and cost-benefit ratio in a controlled, replicated field experiment on Diksha cultivar of okra. Fruit and shoot damage was significantly lowest at 7% and 14%, respectively, in the plots treated with only chemical control and fruit yield was highest, at 63 kg/plot, in plots treated with the combination of mechanical and chemical control. Plots treated with only mechanical control had the highest cost: benefit ratio at 1:2.61, followed by plots treated with mechanical control and chemical control, at 1:2.39 and plots treated with chemcial plus botanical plus mechanical control at 1:2.38. Copyright 2012 Zoological Society of Pakistan.


Khan H.A.A.,University of Punjab | Akram W.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Arshad M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Hafeez F.,Entomological Research Institute
Parasitology Research | Year: 2015

The house fly, Musca domestica, is a serious pest of public health importance with the ability to develop insecticide resistance. The focus of the present study was to evaluate toxicity and resistance of the field collected house flies from Punjab, Pakistan, against insect growth regulator (IGR) insecticides. House flies collected from six different localities exhibited very low levels of resistance to cyromazine, triflumuron, and methoxyfenozide compared with the Lab-susceptible reference strain, with resistance ratios (RRs) ranging between 3.56- to 8.19-fold, 1.45- to 3.68-fold, and 2.20- to 8.60-fold, respectively. However, very low to low levels of resistance were observed for pyriproxyfen and very low to moderate levels for lufenuron with RRs ranged from 4.13- to 11.63-fold to 8.57- to 22.75-fold, respectively. There was a significant correlation between RRs of cyromazine and triflumuron (r = 0.976, p < 0.001), suggesting the possibility for cross-resistance. Susceptibility status of different IGRs in Pakistani strains of house flies is reported here for the first time. The trend observed in decreasing susceptibility towards different IGR insecticides tested will continue unless resistance management practices are followed. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


PubMed | University of Punjab, Entomological Research Institute and University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Parasitology research | Year: 2016

The house fly, Musca domestica, is a serious pest of public health importance with the ability to develop insecticide resistance. The focus of the present study was to evaluate toxicity and resistance of the field collected house flies from Punjab, Pakistan, against insect growth regulator (IGR) insecticides. House flies collected from six different localities exhibited very low levels of resistance to cyromazine, triflumuron, and methoxyfenozide compared with the Lab-susceptible reference strain, with resistance ratios (RRs) ranging between 3.56- to 8.19-fold, 1.45- to 3.68-fold, and 2.20- to 8.60-fold, respectively. However, very low to low levels of resistance were observed for pyriproxyfen and very low to moderate levels for lufenuron with RRs ranged from 4.13- to 11.63-fold to 8.57- to 22.75-fold, respectively. There was a significant correlation between RRs of cyromazine and triflumuron (r=0.976, p<0.001), suggesting the possibility for cross-resistance. Susceptibility status of different IGRs in Pakistani strains of house flies is reported here for the first time. The trend observed in decreasing susceptibility towards different IGR insecticides tested will continue unless resistance management practices are followed.


Ashraf M.,Entomological Research Institute | Wakil W.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Hafeez F.,Entomological Research Institute | Farooq M.,Entomological Research Institute
Turkiye Entomoloji Dergisi | Year: 2016

Experiment was conducted to determine the persistence and insecticidal efficacy of a new enhanced diatomaceous earth, Inert-PMS, in wheat against four stored grain insect pests [Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), Liposcelis paeta Pearman, Rhyzopertha Dominica (F.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)] under the laboratory conditions at 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg, for intervals of 24 h, 4 and 7 d at 28°C and 65% RH. For persistence, Inert-PMS was applied to stored grain for 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 d. The results demonstrated that adult mortality was directly proportional to the dose and exposure interval. While the efficacy remained constant up to 60 d, it fell after 90 and 120 d of storage. L paeta and C. ferrugineus were the most susceptible to Inert-PMS (100% mortality) followed by R. Dominica (81%) and T. castaneum (72%) at 75 mg/kg after 4 d. Inert-PMS also suppressed the reproduction at lower dose rates. Inert-PMS is an eco-friendly formulation that not only interferes with the growth and development of stored grain insects but is also cheap and free from ill effects.


Aziz M.A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Hasan M.U.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ali A.,Entomological Research Institute
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2011

Role of weather factors on the fluctuations of fruit and shoot infestation by Earias spp. on three comparatively more susceptible (Parbani Karanti, Pusa sawani, Ikra-1), three moderately susceptible (PMS-beauty, Ikra anamika, Lakshami-24) and three comparatively least susceptible (Diksa, Sabz ari, Super Star) genotypes of okra was studied under field conditions at Post Graduate Agriculture Research Station, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, during 2006 and 2007. Maximum, minimum and average temperatures showed a positive effect; whereas, the relative humidity and rainfall exerted a negative effect on the fruit infestation, separately as well as on cumulative basis. The shoot infestation of okra was found to be positively correlated with maximum and average temperatures and negatively correlated with the relative humidity and rainfall on the basis of an average for both the years of studies. Multiple Linear Regression Models revealed that the maximum temperature was the most important factor, which had maximum impact on fruit and shoot infestation, i.e., 60.50 and 53.20% for an average of both the study years, respectively. The impact of all the factors on an average of both the study years when computed together was found to be 67 and 55.50%, for fruit and shoot infestation, respectively. Copyright 2011 Zoological Society of Pakistan.


Hameed A.,Entomological Research Institute | Aziz M.A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Aheer G.M.,Entomological Research Institute
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2010

Bioassay studies were conducted using the leaf dip method for endosulfan, imidacloprid, acetameprid and diafenthiuron to determine the susceptibility of Bemisia tabaci Gen. from three districts (Bahawalpur, Faisalabad, and Multan) of the Punjab, Pakistan. It was observed that all the B. tabaci populations were susceptible to these pesticides. Comparative resistance ratios of these insecticides at LC50 werel.75-3.60 folds for endosulfan, 1.18-2.09 folds for imidacloprid, 1.01-4.29 folds for acetameprid and 1.06-2.0 folds for diafenthiuron. In the present studies, the variability in the tolerance of B. tabaci is measured for the first time against endosulfan, imidacloprid, acetameprid and diafenthiuron against Bemisia tabaci Gen. in Pakistan. The wise use of these insecticides for controlling B. tabaci Gen. field populations in the presence of conventional insecticides will help for its better management. Copyright 2010 Zoological Society of Pakistan.

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