Petrolina, Brazil
Petrolina, Brazil

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Melo J.W.S.,University of Pernambuco | Lima D.B.,University of Pernambuco | Pallini A.,Federal University of Viçosa | Oliveira J.E.M.,Entomologia | Gondim Jr. M.G.C.,University of Pernambuco
Experimental and Applied Acarology | Year: 2011

The phytophagous mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer is an important pest of coconut worldwide. A promising method of control for this pest is the use of predatory mites. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Proctolaelaps bickleyi Bram are predatory mites found in association with A. guerreronis in the field. To understand how these predators respond to olfactory cues from A. guerreronis and its host plant, the foraging behavior of the predatory mites was investigated in a Y-tube olfactometer and on T-shaped arenas. The predators were subjected to choose in an olfactometer: (1) isolated parts (leaflet, spikelet or fruit) of infested coconut plant or clean air stream; (2) isolated parts of non-infested or infested coconut plant; and (3) two different plant parts previously shown to be attractive. Using T-shaped arenas the predators were offered all possible binary combinations of discs of coconut fruit epidermis infested with A. guerreronis, non-infested discs or coconut pollen. The results showed that both predators were preferred (the volatile cues from) the infested plant parts over clean air. When subjected to odours from different infested or non-infested plant parts, predators preferred the infested parts. Among the infested plant parts, the spikelets induced the greatest attraction to predators. On the arenas, both predators preferred discs of coconut fruits infested with A. guerreronis over every other alternative. The results show that both predators are able to locate A. guerreronis by olfactory stimuli. Foraging strategies and implications for biological control are discussed. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Camara Coelho L.I.,Gerencia de Leishmanioses | Paes M.,Gerencia de Leishmanioses | Guerra J.A.,Gerencia de Leishmanioses | Barbosa M.D.G.,Entomologia | Coelho C.,Federal University of Amazonas
Parasitology Research | Year: 2011

In the State of Amazonas, American tegumentary leishmaniasis is endemic and presents a wide spectrum of clinical variability due to the large diversity of circulating species in the region. Isolates from patients in Manaus and its metropolitan region were characterized using monoclonal antibodies and isoenzymes belonging to four species of the parasite: Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, 73% (153/ 209); Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, 14% (30/209); Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, 8% (17/209); and Leishmania (Viannia) naiffii, 4% (9/209). The most prevalent species was L. (V.) guyanensis. The principal finding of this study was the important quantity of infections involving more than one parasite species, representing 14% (29/209) of the total. The findings obtained in this work regarding the parasite are further highlighted by the fact that these isolates were obtained from clinical samples collected from single lesions. © The Author(s) 2010.


News Article | December 14, 2015
Site: www.scientificamerican.com

In late 2014 the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul added a monkey, a tapir, a weasel-like species called the tayra and 18 butterflies to its red list of endangered species. One of those butterflies, a metallic-winged species known only as Stichelia pelotensis, was a bit of a mystery. It was first described in the 1950s, but all attempts to find it again in its original location had proven fruitless. The species had only been seen one time since then, a female found 250 kilometers from the first site. With this rarity in mind, the state government declared the butterfly critically endangered and warned that it faced extinction due to ongoing habitat loss in the region where it had first been seen. A year later, we have good news about that lost butterfly. According to research published Nov. 28 in the journal Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, S. pelotensis has finally been found. Researchers from Universidade Federal do Paraná and two other Brazilian institutions found the butterfly in a marshy grassland habitat about 17 kilometers from where it was observed in the 1950s. Their first sighting consisted of a single male. They had to wait nearly two months for their next observation, but patience paid off. This time they saw four additional males. A week later they saw both a male and a female. As recounted in their paper, the male and female were seen feeding on a flowering plant called Eryngium elegans. “After feeding,” they wrote, “both specimens flew away in a rapid and erratic flight and were not seen again.” Lead author Ricardo Russo Siewert, a biologist with Universidade Federal do Paraná, calls this “an important find” but says this is just the first step toward understanding this rarely seen species. We don’t know much about its behavior or ecological needs, including the host plant on which it lays its eggs. We don’t know how well the butterflies are doing, how many of them, or if they exist in other locations. “We still need to perform well-optimized inventories to search for other populations of this species,” he said. Time is of the essence there. Siewert notes that “only 0.14 percent of these grasslands habitats in Rio Grande do Sul state is represented in preserved areas.” That tiny percentage doesn’t include the habitat where the butterfly was found. “The remaining field (or campos) habitats are losing area by the expansion of agricultural and silvicultural [forest crop] activities,” he says. For now, Siewert considers this once-lost butterfly to still be critically endangered and in need of conservation. But at least the mystery of its existence has for now been solved.


Melo J.W.S.,University of Pernambuco | Domingos C.A.,University of Pernambuco | Pallini A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Oliveira J.E.M.,Entomologia | Gondim Jr. M.G.C.,University of Pernambuco
HortScience | Year: 2012

Worldwide, there remains a reliance on repeated chemical applications as a control strategy for the coconut mite, but these are impractical, not economical, and environmentally hazardous. In this study, the damage severity of Aceria guerreronis on coconut fruits was studied under different conditions to investigate the effects of bunch management on the amount of damage to newly produced bunches. The damage was evaluated using a diagrammatic scale under four different conditions: 1) plants with bunches removed; 2) bunches with the distal portion of the spikelet removed; 3) bunches sprayed monthly with abamectin (9 g a.i./ha); and 4) control plants. For each treatment, two fruits from bunches 1 to 6 (counted from the last open inflorescence) from 10 plants were randomly collected every month for 4months. The removal of the distal portion of the spikelets had no effect on the damage level of new bunches but delayed the damage severity by ≈1 month. After the removal of all of the bunches, the damage severity was restored within 2 months to the newly produced bunches, whereas the chemical control with abamectin kept the A. guerreronis damage intensity at a low level. Thus, the removal of bunches or the distal portion of spikelets is not an effective practice for the control of A. guerreronis in areas with high levels of infestation.


The insect fauna in nests of Coryphistera alaudina Burmeister, 1860 (Aves: Furnariidae) were studied in the provinces of Santiago del Estero, Chaco, Córdoba, and La Pampa in Argentina. A total of 7364 insect specimens comprising 77 taxa in a total of 29 families and 7 orders was found in their nests: 40 identified to species, 23 identified to genus, and 14 identified to family. Coryphistera alaudina and some of their vertebrate inquilines are new host records for the triatomine bugs Psammolestes coreodes Bergroth, 1911 and/or Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). The insects in the nests of C. alaudina are separated by functional guilds, and their permanence time inside the nests are presented in a new manner and discussed.


A total of 30 species of Gymnetini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) are known from Argentina: Allorhina cornifrons (Gory & Percheron, 1833); Blaesia atra Burmeister, 1842; Blaesia subrugosa Moser, 1905; Desicastapurpurascens Schoch, 1898, dubious record; Gymnetis bajula (Olivier, 1789); Gymnetis bonplandi Schaum, 1844, new country record; Gymnetis bouvieri Bourgoin, 1912; Gymnetis bruchi Moser, 1910, new status (= Aemilius wagneri Le Moult, 1939, new synonymy); Gymnetis carbo (Schurhoff, 1937); Gymnetis chalcipes Gory & Percheron, 1833; Gymnetis cordobana (Schurhoff, 1937), new status; Gymnetisflavomarginata Blanchard, 1847; Gymnetisgoryi Janson, 1877, new status; Gymnetis hebraica (Drapiez, 1820), new country record; Gymnetis hepatica Di Iorio, new species; Gymnetis litigiosa Gory & Percheron, 1833, new status; Gymnetis pantherina Blanchard, 1842 (= Gymnetis meleagris Burmeister, 1842, = Paragymnetis rubrocincta Schurhoff, 1937, new synonymy), new country record; Gymnetispudibunda Burmeister, 1866; Gymnetis schistacea Burmeister, 1847, new status; Gymnetis undata (Olivier, 1789); Heterocotinis semiopaca (Moser, 1907); Hologymnetis sp. (= Gymnetis rubida, not Gory & Percheron, 1833); Hoplopyga albiventris (Gory & Percheron, 1833); Hoplopyga brasiliensis (Gory & Percheron, 1833); Hoplopyga liturata (Olivier, 1789); Hoplopygothrix atropurpurea (Schaum, 1841), new country record; Marmarina insculpta (Kirby, 1819), new status, new country record; Marmarina tigrina (Gory & Percheron, 1833), (= Maculinetis litorea Schurhoff, 1937, new synonymy); Neocorvicoana reticulata (Kirby, 1819); Neocorvicoana tricolor (Schurhoff, 1933). Marmarina argentina Moser, 1917 is considered a nomen dubium until a redescription and illustration of the type specimen facilitates the proper identification of this species. The following type specimens were examined: Blaesia atra Burmeister, 1842 (holotype); Gymnetis alauda Burmeister, 1842 (holotype, = G pantherina); G. bruchi (lectotype, here designated); G dysoni Schaum, 1844 (paralectotype); G. meleagris Burmeister, 1842 (paralectotype, = G pantherina); G perplexa Burmeister, 1842 (holotype, = G bajula); G pudibunda (holotype); G pudibunda porteri Dallas, 1930 (holotype, = G pudibunda); G punctipennis Burmeister, 1844 (paralectotype); G. strobeli Burmeister, 1866 (holotype, = Marmarina tigrina); G. platensis Brethes, 1925 (holotype, = Heterocotinis semiopaca), G platensis tandilensis Brethes, 1925 (holotype, = H. semiopaca); Coelocratus rufipennis (Gory & Percheron, 1833) (lectotype, here designated); Trigonopeltastes geometricus Schaum in Burmeister & Schaum, 1841 (lectotype, here designated). Four species are endemic to Argentina (G bouvieri, G bruchi, G cordobana, and G pudibunda), but records of these species might be expected in the Bolivian and Paraguayan Chaco, as well as in Uruguay. Male parameres, armature of the internal sac of the aedeagus, and the general aspects of adults are presented. An additional six species of Cetoniinae bring the total number in Argentina to 36 species: Euphoria lurida (Fabricius, 1775) (Cetoniini); Cyclidius elongatus (Olivier, 1789) (Cremastocheilini); and Inca bonplandi (Gyllenhall, 1817), Inca clathrata clathrata (Olivier, 1792), Incapulverulenta (Olivier, 1789), and Trigonopeltastes triangulus (Kirby, 1819) (Trichiini). New records in adjacent countries are four species for Bolivia from a total of 18, 17 of 24 for Paraguay, and two of 10 for Uruguay; 25 species are shared between Argentina and Brazil (three are new records for Brazil). Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press.


The insect fauna of the nests of Pseudoseisura lophotes (Reichenbach, 1853) (Aves: Furnariidae) from Argentina was investigated. A total of 110 species (68 identified to species, 22 identified to genus, 20 identified to family) in 40 families of 10 orders of insects was found in these nests. Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) was found again in nests of P. lophotes, corroborating after 73 years the first observations made by Mazza in 1936. The occurrence of the insects in nests of P. lophotes is compared with the previously known insect fauna in nests of A. annumbi, Furnarius rufus (Furnariidae), and Myiopsitta monachus (Psittacidae). The insect fauna in additional nests of Anumbius annumbi from the same and/or different localities is given, and used in comparisons. The first occurrence of Cuterebridae (Diptera) in birds' nests, their pupae as the overwintering stage, and the second simultaneous infestation by two species of Philornis (Diptera: Muscidae) on the same nestlings are presented. Other simultaneous infestations of different hematophagous arthropods (Hemiptera: Cimidae; Reduviidae: Triatominae, and Acari: Argasidae) are remarked and discussed. © 2014 Magnolia Press.


The nest of Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, 1788) [Aves: Furnariidae] is a domed mud structure, with a partition separating the breeding chamber from the outside. In general each couple builds one nest per year, but each nest is used for one clutch or two consecutive clutches in the same breeding season. Some nests can remain in the field for 2 or 3 years, but some had a longer permanence (up to more than 8 years). Thus the nests are widely used by other vertebrate inquilines. Insects found in nests of F. rufus mentioned in the literature belong to Coleoptera [Chrysomelidae (1 sp.), Histeridae (1 sp.)], Hemiptera [Cimicidae (1 sp.), Reduviidae: Triatominae (1 sp.)], Hymenoptera [Apidae: Meliponinae (1 sp.)], and Diptera [Muscidae (2 spp.)]. A total of 9 orders, 35 families (two unidentified), and 67 species of insects (including 14 identified to genus and 10 undetermined), were found in 251 nests of F. rufus sampled in Argentina (Chaco [6], Córdoba [14], Santa Fe [2], Entre Ríos [7], San Luis [1], La Pampa [12], and Buenos Aires [209]). The most abundant species was one hematophagous insect, Acanthocrios furnarii (Cordero & Vogelsang, 1928) [Hemiptera: Cimicidae], an exclusive para site on the inquiline birds. Agelaioides badius badius (Vieillot, 1819) [Aves: Icteridae], Sicalis flaveola pelzelni Sclater, 1872 [Aves: Emberizidae], and Troglodytes aedon Vieillot, 1809 [Aves: Troglodytidae] are new hosts of A. furnarii. Progne chalybea (Gmelin, 1789) [Aves: Hirundinidae] was found for the first time infested by A. furnarii inside the nests of F. rufus. The insects in the nests of Furnarius cristatus Burmeister, 1888, and those of P. domesticus, Progne sp., S. f. pelzelni, and T. aedon outside the nests of F. rufus were also investigated. Some ticks (Acarina: Argasidae, Ixodidae) found in the nests of F. rufus and P. domesticus are mentioned. © 2010 · Magnolia Press.


Turienzo P.N.,Entomologia | Di Iorio O.R.,Entomologia
Biologia (Poland) | Year: 2014

This is the first record showing eleven species in seven genera of Furnariidae (Aves: Passeriformes) from Argentina that regurgitate pellets. A total of 627 nests of Furnariidae was examined, and from 84 nests (13.3%), 1,329 pellets were recovered. These pellets were found in the closed, domed nests of many Furnariidae, because in comparison to other passerine birds, their nests were used for roosting, especially in the subfamily Synallaxinae. Anumbius annumbi had the highest percentage of nests containing pellets. Food items identified from the pellets provided important new data on the diets of several species of Furnariidae. © 2014, Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.


Araucaria trees as host plants of the longhorned beetle Huequenia livida (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Argentina are reviewed. Araucaria araucana is its natural host plant in SW Argentina, but the larvae also developed in dead branches of A. angustifolia and A. bidwillii (new host plant records), when both plants were kept in the same rearing cage with the natural host plant. Pinus contorta var. murrayana, also mentioned from Argentina, may be a recently adopted secondary host. A winter and a summer generation of H. livida was documented for the first time. Huequenia livida exceeds the actual natural distribution of A. araucana following the distribution of cultivated A. araucana and Pinus trees. © 2014, Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.

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