Enthone Gmbh and Volkswagen AG | Date: 2017-03-29
The invention relates to a corrosion protection layer system for metal surfaces, said layer system comprising as the two top most layers: a) a discontinuous nickel-phosphorous layer and b) a chromium layer plated from a trivalent chromium electrolyte solution, as well as to a method of producing such a layer system. The inventive layer system is capable to combine the good corrosion resistance of the nickel-phosphorous layer against sodium chloride with the protective power of the chromium layer from the trivalent plating process against magnesium and calcium salts, especially without the need for any post-treatment.
Dingwerth B.,Enthone Gmbh
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2016
Caused by a number of beneficial properties inherently from the zinc-nickel material, this electrodeposited alloy is used more and more for cathodically protecting layers on ferrous components like cast iron brake calipers. Direct plating from acidic solutions is the state-of-the-art solution for zinc-nickel surface finishing of these components. To contribute to the continuous improvement of the final component and reduce the finishing cost, areas for improvement have been scrutinized in a current finishing system. Areas for improvement have been identified in the uniformity of the nickel distribution within different current densities and in the handling and economy of the metallic zinc anodes used for zinc metal replenishment. While today's acidic zinc-nickel electrolytes suit and usually exceed the requirements for an alloy containing 10-15% nickel, nickel incorporation may drop just below 12% incorporation rate in areas which are plated at high current densities. Formation of white corrosion products is observed in those areas earlier than in areas bearing higher (>12%) nickel. Development on the zinc-nickel plating electrolyte's additive system has resulted in a significantly more uniform plated deposit with improved resistance against white corrosion. Previous disadvantages in the plating system including rising metal concentrations, anode passivation and insufficient zinc metal utilization will be overcome using the new membrane anode system. This separates the zinc metal anode from the plating bath. The electrolyte can then be operated at constant metal concentrations, constant anode voltages, with no need to remove anodes in idle periods, without any anode reactivation and significantly better anode metal utilization. These developments provide important contributions for improved operating efficiencies through higher productivity and improved material economy. The significant effect of these developments on higher and more consistent quality of the plated layers finally also contributes to the overall reliability of cast iron brake systems. © Copyright 2016 SAE International.
Colombara D.,University of Bath |
Peter L.M.,University of Bath |
Hutchings K.,Cranfield University |
Rogers K.D.,Cranfield University |
And 3 more authors.
Thin Solid Films | Year: 2012
Thin films of Cu 3BiS 3 have been produced by conversion of stacked and co-electroplated Bi-Cu metal precursors in the presence of elemental sulfur vapor. The roles of sulfurization temperature and heating rate in achieving single-phase good quality layers have been explored. The potential loss of Bi during the treatments has been investigated, and no appreciable compositional difference was found between films sulfurized at 550°C for up to 16 h. The structural, morphological and photoelectrochemical properties of the layers were investigated in order to evaluate the potentials of the compound for application in thin film photovoltaics. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Weilbeer F.,Enthone Gmbh
Galvanotechnik | Year: 2015
In the surface coating of components a multitude of different procedures is used. These coating processes shall ensure the component's defined functionality, maintain its appearance, protect it against corrosion or uphold a certain electrical function. One thing is common for all these application examples: they have to guarantee the desired properties over the life cycle of the component. Therefore, each basic material must be pre-treated with an appropriate cleaning procedure, which is adjusted to the material, so that an adherent and durable metallic coating can be applied. Besides the requirements concerning the different basic materials there are now modem, innovative lubricants and manufacturing support materials to be considered as well. This is an additional challenge to the component cleaning process.
Wietholter D.,Enthone Gmbh
Galvanotechnik | Year: 2015
The application for the approval of chromium trioxide for hard-chromium plating will be submitted shortly. It is one in a large number of applications for approval, which have been processed already by the ECHA and the decision-making committees. In respect to many other SVHC materials this approval procedure is much farther ahead, with opinions articulated and forwarded to the EU Commission. The good news is that every application was recommended for approval, under the condition that the use of approved materials should be as safe as possible. Thus, what are the prospects the hard chromium plating industry are facing after September 2017?
Wessling B.,Enthone Gmbh
Polymers | Year: 2010
Polyaniline is known to be a true metal, though a nanometal. Previous experimental and theoretical evidence is reviewed. Two important structural features are presented, which have not publicly been discussed so far: (a) The formation of complexes between polyaniline and metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, In, etc.) which are crucial for most practical applications of the organic metal, polyaniline; and (b) a model for the polyaniline chain structure within the smallest morphological unit, the roughly 10 nm primary particle. © 2010 by the authors.
Prinz U.,Enthone Gmbh |
Orschel H.,Enthone Gmbh
Galvanotechnik | Year: 2012
Three-dimensional components embodying both mechanical and electronic functions, so-called MIDs, are increasingly used. To this extent, the plastics assume one or more mechanical functions for which they must possess the necessary strength. The electrically conducting tracks are usually created by spraying onto two different plastics of which only one can be electroplated or laser-patterned. For laser patterning, various electrolytes are used depending on the requirements and complexity of the component. Countless electrical MID components have been taken into mass production.
Ecker B.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg |
Ecker B.,Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems |
Posdorfer J.,Enthone Gmbh |
Von Hauff E.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg |
Von Hauff E.,Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells | Year: 2013
We demonstrate the impact of the hole extraction efficiency on the device performance and stability of organic solar cells. We present results on organic solar cells prepared with a poly(aniline) (PANI) based hole transport layer (HTL) blended with varying concentrations of poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS), leading to differences in the HTL transmittance and conductivity. The PANI to PSS ratios investigated here were 1:1, 1:2 and 1:5. The initial power conversion efficiency of the devices is demonstrated to depend directly on the HTL conductivity, showing increasing performance with decreasing PSS content. However, after degradation of encapsulated solar cells under illumination, it is observed that the higher PSS content results in better stability. Data from impedance spectroscopy offers detailed insight into the interface properties, and detailed equivalent circuit analysis allows us to correlate the decreased hole extraction capabilities to the HTL properties and to the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP-2010-1.2-2 | Award Amount: 3.73M | Year: 2011
The overall objective of the STEELCOAT project is to reduce the use of toxic and hazardous compounds in, and extend the service life of, anticorrosion coatings for steel. The project aims to develop novel green, environmentally friendly, anticorrosion coatings with extended durability for steel protection. We will develop both high solids (HS) solvent-borne and water-borne anticorrosion maintenance coatings. The corrosion protection in these novel coatings will be achieved by combining green nanoparticles, conductive polymers and binders. Steel is an excellent material with high strength and outstanding mechanical properties and it has been used for centuries. Exposing bare steel surfaces to a corrosive environment will lead to corrosion of the steel surfaces and thus pose a potential danger to the whole steel structure, reducing its service life. The cost of corrosion is 3-4 % of GDP worldwide and is therefore a very important issue for all modern societies. Many compounds that are used in the corrosion protection of steel today are hazardous to the environment and to human health. For example, hexavalent chromium has been used in inhibitive pigments but these pigments are being phased out due to environmental and health concerns. Thus, there is an urgent need to replace current paint systems with new effective systems that are more environmental friendly and not hazardous to human health. In the STEELCOAT project we will develop new HS solvent-borne and water-borne anticorrosion maintenance coating systems for steel protection through the combination of nanoceria, nanoclay, conductive polymers and binders. In order to optimize the corrosion protection of the novel systems we will devote a part of the project to increased fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of corrosion protection. Furthermore, in the development of the coating formulations we will investigate and optimize the mechanical properties of the coating and the adhesion to the steel surface.
Horsthemke H.,Enthone Gmbh |
Kraft J.,Enthone Gmbh
Galvanotechnik | Year: 2014
Substitution or avoidance of regulated substances used in electroplating is an ever present topic, and one of increasing importance - especially in regard to REACh. The following article compares the historic solution with a novel approach.