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Appointment of Richard Ho, M.D., Ph.D. and recent promotion of Kowthar Salim, M.B.A., Ph.D. to Vice President, Development strengthens senior scientific team LONDON, ON and BOSTON, MA--(Marketwired - May 11, 2017) - Critical Outcome Technologies Inc. (TSX VENTURE: COT) ( : COTQF) ("COTI" or the "Company"), a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company advancing a pipeline of targeted therapies for the treatment of cancer, today announced that Richard Ho, M.D., Ph.D. will join the Company as Chief Scientific Officer ("CSO") effective June 12, 2017. In addition, Kowthar Salim, M.B.A., Ph.D., has been promoted to Vice President, Development. Dr. Ho's appointment and Dr. Salim's promotion add depth and technology-driven drug discovery and development experience to COTI's scientific and technology teams. "I am delighted to welcome Richard to COTI at this critical stage in our evolution, as our COTI-2 trial progresses in the clinic, our COTI-219 program advances into investigational new drug ("IND") application-enabling activities, and our CHEMSAS® platform technology continues to be validated," said Alison Silva, President & CEO. "Richard's scientific and medical background, proficiency in applying computational platform technologies to advance the drug development process, and expertise in medical informatics represent the ideal skill set for this key leadership role, and his entrepreneurial spirit will fit well with COTI's culture." Dr. Ho will lead COTI's scientific programs from early-stage discovery through preclinical and clinical development, and will guide the continued development and deployment of the Company's proprietary technology platforms, CHEMSAS® and ROSALIND™. "I am thrilled to join COTI at this exciting time," said Dr. Ho. "COTI has successfully developed several innovative technologies, including CHEMSAS®, which have driven the growth of a compelling pipeline and enabled the identification of two novel drug candidates with the potential to target multiple cancer indications. I look forward to working closely with the team to advance the Company's research and to develop effective new treatments for patients with significant unmet needs." Dr. Ho brings over twenty years of pharma/biotech experience, with expertise using predictive software platforms to model disease physiology and biological responses to drug therapies. He spent the first ten years of his career at Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development ("J&JPRD"), LLC where he founded the Disease Simulation Group and helped develop the first FDA-approved SGLT2 inhibitor. Subsequently, Richard co-founded Rosa & Co., LLC., an advisory firm that uses modelling and simulation to guide drug development decisions. Dr. Ho went on to serve as Senior Medical Director at Entelos, LLC, liaising with the FDA on modelling drug toxicity and later as Executive Vice President, Research and Development at Marina Biotech, where he served as chair of its Scientific Advisory Board until 2016. Most recently, Richard served as a strategic consultant to pharmaceutical and biotech companies with a focus on data analytics and clinical trial design. Dr. Ho earned an M.D., Ph.D. degree from The State University of New York Buffalo School of Medicine, and a B.Sc. in Biophysics from Harvard University. After completing a residency in Primary Care Internal Medicine and a fellowship in Rheumatology at The Yale School of Medicine, he pursued a Medical Informatics fellowship with a focus on genomics at Robert Wood Johnson Pharmaceutical Research Institute and subsequently was named Director of the Disease Simulation group at J&JPRD. The Board of Directors awarded 400,000 stock options to Dr. Ho effective on the date his employment commences. The options have a five year life and will be exercisable at the closing price of the Company's common shares on the TSX Venture Exchange on June 9, 2017, the last business day prior to the grant date. Half of these options will vest over two years and the other half will vest upon the achievement of strategic objectives. COTI is further pleased to announce the promotion of Dr. Kowthar Salim to the role of Vice President, Development. "This appointment reflects the scope and caliber of Kowthar's work," said Ms. Silva. "Kowthar has been instrumental in advancing COTI's lead drug candidate, COTI-2, through preclinical testing and into the clinic, and she is leading the IND submission process for our next candidate, COTI-219. Since joining COTI in 2008, she has worked tirelessly to advance our scientific programs. We are grateful to Kowthar for her dedication to the Company, and look forward to her continued contributions." Dr. Salim earned a Ph.D. in Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, an M.Sc. in Parasitology and Evolutionary Biology and a Hon. B.Sc. in Microbiology & Human Biology from The University of Toronto. She also earned an M.B.A. in Management of Technology and Innovations from Ryerson University. COTI is a clinical stage biotech company that uses proprietary artificial intelligence technologies to pursue a targeted and transformational approach to treating cancer and other unmet medical needs. COTI's CHEMSAS® technology accelerates the discovery and development of novel drug therapies, allowing the Company to build a pipeline of potential drug candidates faster and with a higher probability of success than traditional methods. The Company's lead compound, COTI-2, has a novel p53-dependent mechanism of action with selective and potent anti-cancer activity. P53 mutations occur in over 50% of all cancers. COTI-2 is initially being evaluated for the treatment of gynecologic cancers, including ovarian, cervical, and endometrial cancers in a Phase 1 clinical trial at the MD Anderson Cancer Center at the University of Texas and the Lurie Cancer Center at Northwestern University. The Company has secured orphan drug status in the United States for COTI-2 for the treatment of ovarian cancer. The Company also plans to evaluate COTI-2 in additional oncology indications, including head and neck cancer, Li-Fraumeni Syndrome, and acute myelogenous leukemia. Preclinical data suggests that COTI-2 could dramatically improve the treatment of cancers with mutations in the p53 gene. The Company's second lead compound, COTI-219, is a novel oral small molecule compound targeting the mutant forms of KRAS without inhibiting normal KRAS function. KRAS mutations occur in up to 30% of all cancers and represent a tremendous unmet clinical need and a desirable drug target. COTI-219 is undergoing IND-enabling studies to support a regulatory submission by the end of calendar 2017. Follow @CriticalOutcome on Twitter or visit our website: www.criticaloutcome.com Neither TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release. Information contained in this press release may contain certain statements, which constitute "forward-looking statements" as such term is defined under applicable securities laws. For example, the statement, "COTI has successfully developed several innovative technologies, including CHEMSAS®, which have driven the growth of a compelling pipeline and enabled the identification of two novel drug candidates with the potential to target multiple cancer indications" is a forward-looking statement. Forward‐looking statements by their nature are not guarantees of future performance and are based upon management's current expectations, estimates, projections, and assumptions. COTI operates in a highly competitive environment that involves significant risks and uncertainties, which could cause actual results to differ materially from those anticipated in these forward‐looking statements. Management of COTI considers the assumptions on which these forward‐looking statements are based to be reasonable, but as a result of the many risk factors, cautions the reader that actual results could differ materially from those expressed or implied in these forward-looking statements. Information in this press release should be considered accurate only as of the date of the release and may be superseded by more recent information disclosed in later press releases, filings with the securities regulatory authorities or otherwise.


This report studies the Global Biosimulation Market, analyzes and researches the Biosimulation development status and forecast in United States, EU, Japan, China, India and Southeast Asia. This report focuses on the top players in global market, like Certara Simulation Plus Dassault Systèmes Schr?dinger Advanced Chemistry Development Chemical Computing Group Entelos Genedata Ag Physiomics PLC Rhenovia Pharma Market segment by Application, Biosimulation can be split into Application 1 Application 2 Application 3 United States, EU, Japan, China, India and Southeast Asia Biosimulation Market Size, Status and Forecast 2021 1 Industry Overview of Biosimulation 1.1 Biosimulation Market Overview 1.1.1 Biosimulation Product Scope 1.1.2 Market Status and Outlook 1.2 Global Biosimulation Market Size and Analysis by Regions 1.2.1 United States 1.2.2 EU 1.2.3 Japan 1.2.4 China 1.2.5 India 1.2.6 Southeast Asia 1.3 Biosimulation Market by End Users/Application 1.3.1 Application 1 1.3.2 Application 2 1.3.3 Application 3 2 Global Biosimulation Competition Analysis by Players 2.1 Biosimulation Market Size (Value) by Players (2015-2016) 2.2 Competitive Status and Trend 2.2.1 Market Concentration Rate 2.2.2 Product/Service Differences 2.2.3 New Entrants 2.2.4 The Technology Trends in Future 3 Company (Top Players) Profiles 3.1 Certara 3.1.1 Company Profile 3.1.2 Main Business/Business Overview 3.1.3 Products, Services and Solutions 3.1.4 Biosimulation Revenue (Value) (2011-2016) 3.1.5 Recent Developments 3.2 Simulation Plus 3.2.1 Company Profile 3.2.2 Main Business/Business Overview 3.2.3 Products, Services and Solutions 3.2.4 Biosimulation Revenue (Value) (2011-2016) 3.2.5 Recent Developments 3.3 Dassault Systèmes 3.3.1 Company Profile 3.3.2 Main Business/Business Overview 3.3.3 Products, Services and Solutions 3.3.4 Biosimulation Revenue (Value) (2011-2016) 3.3.5 Recent Developments 3.4 Schr?dinger 3.4.1 Company Profile 3.4.2 Main Business/Business Overview 3.4.3 Products, Services and Solutions 3.4.4 Biosimulation Revenue (Value) (2011-2016) 3.4.5 Recent Developments 3.5 Advanced Chemistry Development 3.5.1 Company Profile 3.5.2 Main Business/Business Overview 3.5.3 Products, Services and Solutions 3.5.4 Biosimulation Revenue (Value) (2011-2016) 3.5.5 Recent Developments 3.6 Chemical Computing Group 3.6.1 Company Profile 3.6.2 Main Business/Business Overview 3.6.3 Products, Services and Solutions 3.6.4 Biosimulation Revenue (Value) (2011-2016) 3.6.5 Recent Developments 3.7 Entelos 3.7.1 Company Profile 3.7.2 Main Business/Business Overview 3.7.3 Products, Services and Solutions 3.7.4 Biosimulation Revenue (Value) (2011-2016) 3.7.5 Recent Developments 3.8 Genedata Ag 3.8.1 Company Profile 3.8.2 Main Business/Business Overview 3.8.3 Products, Services and Solutions 3.8.4 Biosimulation Revenue (Value) (2011-2016) 3.8.5 Recent Developments 3.9 Physiomics PLC 3.9.1 Company Profile 3.9.2 Main Business/Business Overview 3.9.3 Products, Services and Solutions 3.9.4 Biosimulation Revenue (Value) (2011-2016) 3.9.5 Recent Developments 3.10 Rhenovia Pharma 3.10.1 Company Profile 3.10.2 Main Business/Business Overview 3.10.3 Products, Services and Solutions 3.10.4 Biosimulation Revenue (Value) (2011-2016) 3.10.5 Recent Developments For more information or any query mail at [email protected]


Bio Simulation Technology Market is estimated at $1.01 billion in 2015 and is projected to reach $2.99 billion by 2022 growing at a CAGR of 16.6% from 2015 to 2022. Reduction in the cost of drug discovery and development and risk of failure of drug molecule are some of the factors driving the market growth. Furthermore, R&D investments in biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, growth in the biologics and biosimilars markets, increased use of personalized medicines, technological advancements and periodic product upgradation are the key factors vitalizing the market growth. However, lack of standardization, high R&D costs associated with development of biosimulation software and lack of skilled professionals are some of the major restraints hampering the market growth. Industrial bioprocessing, nutraceuticals, agri-food production and biosimulation in the defense will provide opportunities for market growth over the forecast period. Pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies segment is valued to account largest share across the global market. North America is anticipated to command the largest share and Europe is expected to register the highest growth due to increasing government funding and the large number of pharmaceuticals and biotechnology companies in this region. Some of the key players in this market include Certara USA Inc., Simulation Plus Inc., Dassault Systèmes SA, Schrödinger Inc., Advanced Chemistry Development Inc., Chemical Computing Group Inc., Entelos Holding Corporation, Genedata Ag, Physiomics PLC, Rhenovia Pharma Ltd., Insilico biosciences, Archimedes, Insilico biotechnology, Accelrys, LeadScope and Compugen. Application Covered:  • Application In Drug Development  o Clinical Trials  o Preclinical Testing  • In Patient Validation  • Application In Drug Discovery  o Target Validation  o Target Identification  o Lead Identification/Discovery  o Lead Optimization Product Covered:  • Software  o Toxicity Prediction Software  o Molecular Modeling and Simulation Software  o Trial Design Software  o PK/PD Modeling and Simulation Software  o Pbpk Modeling and Simulation Software  o Other Software  • Services  o External/Contract Services  o In-House Services Regions Covered:  • North America  o US  o Canada  o Mexico  • Europe  o Germany  o France  o Italy  o UK  o Spain  o Rest of Europe  • Asia Pacific  o Japan  o China  o India  o Australia  o New Zealand  o Rest of Asia Pacific  • Rest of the World  o Middle East  o Brazil  o Argentina  o South Africa  o Egypt What our report offers:  - Market share assessments for the regional and country level segments  - Market share analysis of the top industry players  - Strategic recommendations for the new entrants  - Market forecasts for a minimum of 7 years of all the mentioned segments, sub segments and the regional markets  - Market Trends (Drivers, Constraints, Opportunities, Threats, Challenges, Investment Opportunities, and recommendations)  - Strategic recommendations in key business segments based on the market estimations  - Competitive landscaping mapping the key common trends  - Company profiling with detailed strategies, financials, and recent developments  - Supply chain trends mapping the latest technological advancements About Us Wise Guy Reports is part of the Wise Guy Consultants Pvt. Ltd. and offers premium progressive statistical surveying, market research reports, analysis & forecast data for industries and governments around the globe. Wise Guy Reports understand how essential statistical surveying information is for your organization or association. Therefore, we have associated with the top publishers and research firms all specialized in specific domains, ensuring you will receive the most reliable and up to date research data available.


Ragkousi K.,University of Arizona | Beh J.,University of California at Berkeley | Beh J.,Entelos | Sweeney S.,University of Arizona | And 3 more authors.
Developmental Biology | Year: 2011

GATA family transcription factors are core components of the vertebrate heart gene network. GATA factors also contribute to heart formation indirectly through regulation of endoderm morphogenesis. However, the precise impact of GATA factors on vertebrate cardiogenesis is masked by functional redundancy within multiple lineages. Early heart specification in the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis is similar to that of vertebrates but only one GATA factor, Ci-GATAa, is expressed in the heart progenitor cells and adjacent endoderm. Here we delineate precise, tissue specific contributions of GATAa to heart formation. Targeted repression of GATAa activity in the heart progenitors perturbs their transcriptional identity. Targeted repression of endodermal GATAa function disrupts endoderm morphogenesis. Subsequently, the bilateral heart progenitors fail to fuse at the ventral midline. The resulting phenotype is strikingly similar to cardia bifida, as observed in vertebrate embryos when endoderm morphogenesis is disturbed. These findings indicate that GATAa recapitulates cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous roles performed by multiple, redundant GATA factors in vertebrate cardiogenesis. © 2011 .


News Article | November 22, 2016
Site: www.newsmaker.com.au

Biosimulation refers to a process involving simulation of biological processes with the help of computer sided mathematical models. Biosimulation is an integral part of systems biology and helps in clinical drug development, drug metabolism and modeling of complex biomedical systems. Need for reduction in the cost of drug discovery and development and risk of failure of drug molecule in the late phase are some of the main factors which help to drive the market. On the basis of application, biosimulation market can be segmented into drug discovery and drug development. Drug discovery includes target identification, target validation, lead identification and lead optimization. Target identification includes protein structure prediction, target validation includes protein modeling software, lead identification includes de novo design and lead optimization includes quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models. Drug development includes pre-clinical testing, clinical trials and in-patient validation. Pre-clinical testing includes ADME/tox prediction, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) models and clinical trials includes phase I clinical trial, phase II clinical trial and phase III clinical trial. North America, followed by Europe, has the largest market for biosimulation due to developed healthcare infrastructure, technological advancement, rise in spending on healthcare, off patenting of many drugs and need for novel modeling and simulation tools in this region. In additional, Europe is expected to experience high growth rate in the biosimulation market in next few years due to government support, growing research and development activities, increasing demand for technological advancement in drug discovery and development and rise in healthcare expenditure in the region. Request TOC (desk of content material), Figures and Tables of the report: http://www.persistencemarketresearch.com/toc/3726 Growing demand for reduction in drug discovery and development cost, increasing incidence of chronic diseases, rise in need for new techniques for drug discovery process, increasing healthcare expenditure and improved modeling and simulation tools are some of the major factors driving the global market for biosimulation. In addition, risk of failure in the late drug development stages, time consuming traditional drug discovery and development procedure, rise in the demand for better healthcare facilities, government initiatives for promoting new tools and techniques in drug discovery and development process and increasing number of research and development activities are driving the global market for biosimulation. However, lack of standardization, high R&D costs associated with development of biosimulation software and lack of skilled professionals are some of the major factors restraining the growth for global biosimulation market. Broader application of biosimulation in drug discovery and development, continuous rise in the demand for advanced software programs and improved simulation technology and emerging market are expected to offer new opportunities for global biosimlation market. Issues associated with accuracy in prediction and interoperability issues are some of the challenges faced by the global biosimulation market. Increasing collaborations and partnerships, patient medication, rise in mergers and acquisition, drug repositioning, modeling and simulations in paediatrics dug development and new product launches along with technological advancement are some of the latest trends that have been observed in global biosimulation market. Some of the major companies operating in the global biosimulation market are Accelrys, Simulation plus, Genedata, LeadScope, Rhenovia, Entelos and ACD/Labs. In addition some other companies having significant presence in the global biosimulation market are Schrodinger, Physiomics, Insilico biosciences and Archimedes.


News Article | December 7, 2016
Site: marketersmedia.com

RICHMOND, VA / ACCESSWIRE / December 7, 2016 / Exactus, Inc. (OTCQB: EXDI), a life science company that is developing and commercializing ultra-fast, handheld, point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tools powering informed patient management, announced today the appointment of James R. Erickson, Ph.D. as Chief Business Officer. Dr. Erickson will report to Philip J. Young, President and CEO of Exactus. James started his career as a post-doc at Onyx Pharmaceuticals and has since worked primarily in business development roles for diagnostic and biopharmaceutical companies, including AGY Therapeutics, Entelos and Titan Pharmaceuticals. In 2005 Dr. Erickson founded BayPoint Biosystems, a proteomic company focused on commercializing diagnostics/research tools-oriented technology from the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. From 2005-2013, BayPoint established biomarker discovery and companion diagnostic development alliances with 12 pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and life science companies. Immediately prior to joining Exactus, James worked as Senior Transaction Advisor at Ferghana Partners, a healthcare investment bank focusing on financings, M&A, and corporate partnering in the diagnostic and therapeutic sectors. "We are fortunate to have an executive with such a broad background in developing novel diagnostic platforms," said Mr. Young. "James' experience in both the technical as well as the transactional aspects of bringing diagnostic to fruition will be an important addition to our management team. We are excited to have James on board as the Company advances towards commercialization of the FibriLyzer™ platform." Exactus is a publicly traded life science company based in Richmond, Virginia that is developing and commercializing point-of-care (POC) diagnostics for measuring proteolytic enzymes in the blood. We anticipate our lead product, the FibriLyzer™, will provide a simple and affordable means to assess the fibrinolytic status of patients in a broad range of applications and that the use of the FibriLyzer™ could provide the basis for improved management of patients who are at-risk of hemorrhage, speeding treatment decisions and potentially improving patient outcomes and saving money. Our second product candidate, the MatriLyzer™, may be used to detect the recurrence of cancer, and can be used as an at-home monitoring device or during routine office visits. The appearance of elevated levels of collagenase, the enzyme that degrades collagen, have been proven to be an early hallmark of cancer. The MatriLyzer™ can communicate directly with the attending oncologist via a smart phone application to ensure that (i) the tests are being used properly and (ii) when collagenase levels are elevated signaling the need for the patient to have a more thorough examination. For more information about Exactus, please visit our website at: www.exactusdx.com. This press release and any statements of representatives and partners of Exactus, Inc. (the "Company") related thereto contain, or may contain, among other things, certain "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Such forward-looking statements involve significant risks and uncertainties. Such statements may include, without limitation, statements with respect to the Company's plans, objectives, projections, expectations and intentions and other statements identified by words such as "projects," "may," "will," "could," "would," "should," "believes," "expects," "anticipates," "estimates," "intends," "plans," "potential" or similar expressions. These statements are based upon the current beliefs and expectations of the Company's management and are subject to significant risks and uncertainties, including those detailed in the Company's filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Actual results (including, without limitation, the actual timing for, or actual results of, the Company's clinical trial described herein or the FDA's review of such results) may differ significantly from those set forth or implied in the forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements involve numerous risks and uncertainties that are subject to change based on various factors (many of which are beyond the Company's control). The Company undertakes no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable law. RICHMOND, VA / ACCESSWIRE / December 7, 2016 / Exactus, Inc. (OTCQB: EXDI), a life science company that is developing and commercializing ultra-fast, handheld, point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tools powering informed patient management, announced today the appointment of James R. Erickson, Ph.D. as Chief Business Officer. Dr. Erickson will report to Philip J. Young, President and CEO of Exactus. James started his career as a post-doc at Onyx Pharmaceuticals and has since worked primarily in business development roles for diagnostic and biopharmaceutical companies, including AGY Therapeutics, Entelos and Titan Pharmaceuticals. In 2005 Dr. Erickson founded BayPoint Biosystems, a proteomic company focused on commercializing diagnostics/research tools-oriented technology from the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. From 2005-2013, BayPoint established biomarker discovery and companion diagnostic development alliances with 12 pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and life science companies. Immediately prior to joining Exactus, James worked as Senior Transaction Advisor at Ferghana Partners, a healthcare investment bank focusing on financings, M&A, and corporate partnering in the diagnostic and therapeutic sectors. "We are fortunate to have an executive with such a broad background in developing novel diagnostic platforms," said Mr. Young. "James' experience in both the technical as well as the transactional aspects of bringing diagnostic to fruition will be an important addition to our management team. We are excited to have James on board as the Company advances towards commercialization of the FibriLyzer™ platform." Exactus is a publicly traded life science company based in Richmond, Virginia that is developing and commercializing point-of-care (POC) diagnostics for measuring proteolytic enzymes in the blood. We anticipate our lead product, the FibriLyzer™, will provide a simple and affordable means to assess the fibrinolytic status of patients in a broad range of applications and that the use of the FibriLyzer™ could provide the basis for improved management of patients who are at-risk of hemorrhage, speeding treatment decisions and potentially improving patient outcomes and saving money. Our second product candidate, the MatriLyzer™, may be used to detect the recurrence of cancer, and can be used as an at-home monitoring device or during routine office visits. The appearance of elevated levels of collagenase, the enzyme that degrades collagen, have been proven to be an early hallmark of cancer. The MatriLyzer™ can communicate directly with the attending oncologist via a smart phone application to ensure that (i) the tests are being used properly and (ii) when collagenase levels are elevated signaling the need for the patient to have a more thorough examination. For more information about Exactus, please visit our website at: www.exactusdx.com. This press release and any statements of representatives and partners of Exactus, Inc. (the "Company") related thereto contain, or may contain, among other things, certain "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Such forward-looking statements involve significant risks and uncertainties. Such statements may include, without limitation, statements with respect to the Company's plans, objectives, projections, expectations and intentions and other statements identified by words such as "projects," "may," "will," "could," "would," "should," "believes," "expects," "anticipates," "estimates," "intends," "plans," "potential" or similar expressions. These statements are based upon the current beliefs and expectations of the Company's management and are subject to significant risks and uncertainties, including those detailed in the Company's filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Actual results (including, without limitation, the actual timing for, or actual results of, the Company's clinical trial described herein or the FDA's review of such results) may differ significantly from those set forth or implied in the forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements involve numerous risks and uncertainties that are subject to change based on various factors (many of which are beyond the Company's control). The Company undertakes no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable law.


Murray C.,Trinity College Dublin | Huerta-Sanchez E.,University of California at Berkeley | Casey F.,Entelos | Bradley D.G.,Trinity College Dublin
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

The phylogeography of cattle genetic variants has been extensively described and has informed the history of domestication. However, there remains a dearth of demographic models inferred from such data. Here, we describe sequence diversity at 37 000 bp sampled from 17 genes in cattle from Africa, Europe and India. Clearly distinct population histories are suggested between Bos indicus and Bos taurus, with the former displaying higher diversity statistics. We compare the unfolded site frequency spectra in each to those simulated using a diffusion approximation method and build a best-fitting model of past demography. This implies an earlier, possibly glaciation-induced population bottleneck in B. taurus ancestry with a later, possibly domestication-associated demographic constriction in B. indicus. Strikingly, the modelled indicine history also requires a majority secondary admixture from the South Asian aurochs, indicating a complex, more diffuse domestication process. This perhaps involved multiple domestications and/or introgression from wild oxen to domestic herds; the latter is plausible from archaeological evidence of contemporaneous wild and domestic remains across different regions of South Asia. © 2010 The Royal Society.


Patent
Entelos | Date: 2010-12-14

Methods and apparatus to identify a potential toxicity of a therapy in a biological system are described. In one embodiment, a method uses a computer model that represents a set of biological processes of the biological system. The method includes executing the computer model to identify a first set of biological processes contributing to the occurrence of a toxic state of the biological system. The method also includes identifying a set of biological assays based on the first set of biological processes and testing the therapy in the set of biological assays to identify a second set of biological processes modified by the therapy. The method further includes identifying the potential toxicity of the therapy based on the second set of biological processes.

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