Entebbe Hospital

Entebbe, Uganda

Entebbe Hospital

Entebbe, Uganda
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PubMed | Ministry of Health, MRC UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS, St Elisabeth Hospital, Uganda Virus Research Institute and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Trials | Year: 2015

The Hygiene Hypothesis proposes that infection exposure protects against inflammatory conditions. Helminths possess allergen-like molecules and may specifically modulate allergy-related immunological pathways to inhibit responses which protect against them. Mass drug administration is recommended for helminth-endemic communities to control helminth-induced pathology, but may also result in increased rates of inflammation-mediated diseases in resource-poor settings. Immunological studies integrated with implementation of helminth control measures may elucidate how helminth elimination contributes to ongoing epidemics of inflammatory diseases. We present the design of the Lake Victoria Island Intervention Study on Worms and Allergy-related diseases (LaVIISWA), a cluster-randomised trial evaluating the risks and benefits of intensive versus standard anthelminthic treatment for allergy-related diseases and other health outcomes.The setting is comprised of island fishing communities in Mukono district, Uganda. Twenty-six communities have been randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive standard or intensive anthelminthic intervention for a three-year period. Baseline characteristics were collected immediately prior to intervention rollout, commenced in February 2013. Primary outcomes are reported wheeze in the past 12 months and atopy (skin prick test response and allergen-specific immunoglobulin (asIg) E concentration). Secondary outcomes are visible flexural dermatitis, helminth infections, haemoglobin, growth parameters, hepatosplenomegaly, and responses to vaccine antigens. The trial provides a platform for in-depth analysis of clinical and immunological consequences of the contrasting interventions.The baseline survey has been completed successfully in a challenging environment. Baseline characteristics were balanced between trial arms. Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni, hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis and Trichuris trichiura was 52%, 23%, 13%, and 12%, respectively; 31% of Schistosoma mansoni infections were heavy (>400 eggs/gram). The prevalence of reported wheeze and positive skin prick test to any allergen was 5% and 20%, respectively. Respectively, 77% and 87% of participants had Dermatophagoides- and German cockroach-specific IgE above 0.35 kUA/L. These characteristics suggest that the LaVIISWA study will provide an excellent framework for investigating beneficial and detrimental effects of worms and their treatment, and the mechanisms of such effects.This trial was registered with Current Controlled Trials (identifier: ISRCTN47196031) on 7 September 2012.


Elliott A.M.,UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | Elliott A.M.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Mawa P.A.,UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | Webb E.L.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 12 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2010

Some vaccines show poor efficacy in tropical countries. Within a birth cohort in Uganda, we investigated factors that might influence responses to BCG and tetanus immunisation. Whole blood assay responses to crude culture filtrate proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (cCFP)) and tetanus toxoid (TT) were examined among 1506 and 1433 one-year-olds, respectively. Maternal Mansonella perstans infection was associated with higher interleukin (IL)-10 responses to both immunogens but no reduction in gamma interferon (IFN-γ), IL-5 and IL-13 responses; other maternal helminth infections showed little effect. Tetanus immunisation during pregnancy was associated with higher infant responses to TT; maternal BCG scar (from past immunisation) with lower infant IL-5 and IL-13 responses to cCFP. IFN-γ, IL-5 and IL-13 to TT were reduced in HIV-exposed-uninfected infants; infant malaria and HIV were associated with lower IFN-γ, IL-5 and IL-13 responses to both immunogens. We conclude that maternal helminth infections are unlikely to explain poor vaccine efficacy in the tropics. Effects of maternal immunisation on infant responses to vaccines should be explored. Prevention of infant malaria and HIV could contribute to effectiveness of immunisation programmes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Webb E.L.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Kyosiimire-Lugemwa J.,Uganda Virus Research Institute | Kizito D.,Uganda Virus Research Institute | Nkurunziza P.,Uganda Virus Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2012

Background: To investigate the effect of helminth infections and their treatment during pregnancy on HIV load, we conducted a 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial of albendazole versus placebo and praziquantel versus placebo in pregnant women in Entebbe, Uganda. Methods: Two hundred sixty-four HIV-infected pregnant women from the Entebbe Mother and Baby Study (ISRCTN 32849447) were included in this analysis. Women were tested for helminth infections at enrollment, and mean HIV load was compared between infected and uninfected groups. The effect of anthelmintic treatment on HIV load was evaluated at 6 weeks after treatment and at delivery using linear regression and adjusting for enrollment viral load. Results: Hookworm and Trichuris infections were associated with higher mean viral load at enrollment [adjusted mean difference 0.24 log10 copies/mL, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01 to 0.47, P = 0.03, and 0.37 log10 copies/mL, 95% CI: 0.00 to 0.74, P = 0.05, respectively]. There were no associations between viral load and other helminth species. There was some evidence that albendazole reduced viral load at 6 weeks after treatment (adjusted mean difference-0.17, 95% CI:-0.36 to 0.01, P = 0.07); however, this effect did not differ according to mother's hookworm infection status and had diminished at delivery (adjusted mean difference-0.11, 95% CI:-0.28 to 0.07, P = 0.23). There was no effect of praziquantel treatment on HIV load at any time point. Conclusions: Infection with some soil-transmitted helminth species is associated with increased HIV load in pregnancy. Treatment with albendazole causes a small decrease in HIV load; however, this may not represent a direct effect of worm removal. © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Mawa P.A.,MRC UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | Mawa P.A.,Uganda Virus Research Institute | Nkurunungi G.,MRC UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | Egesa M.,Makerere University | And 11 more authors.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2015

Bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) immunization provides variable protection against tuberculosis. Prenatal antigen exposure may have lifelong effects on responses to related antigens and pathogens. We therefore hypothesized that maternal latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) influences infant responses to BCG immunization at birth. We measured antibody (n = 53) and cellular (n = 31) responses to M. tuberculosis purified protein derivative (PPD) in infants of mothers with and without LTBI, in cord blood and at one and six weeks after BCG. The concentrations of PPD-specific antibodies declined between birth (median [interquartile range (IQR)]) 5600 ng ml-1 [3300–11 050] in cord blood) and sixweeks (0.00 ng ml-1 [0–288]). Frequencies of PPD-specific IFN-γ-expressing CD4+T cells increased at one week and declined between one and six weeks (p = 0.031). Frequencies of IL-2- and TNF-α-expressing PPD-specific CD4+T cells increased between one and six weeks (p = 0.019, p = 0.009, respectively). At one week, the frequency of PPD-specific CD4+T cells expressing any of the three cytokines, combined, was lower among infants of mothers with LTBI, in crude analyses (p = 0.002) and after adjusting for confounders (mean difference, 95% CI 20.041% (20.082, 20.001)). In conclusion, maternal LTBI was associated with lower infant anti-mycobacterial T-cell responses immediately following BCGimmunization. These findings are being explored further in a larger study. © 2015 The Author(s).


Anderson E.J.,Imperial College London | Anderson E.J.,University of Cardiff | Webb E.L.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Mawa P.A.,MRC UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | And 5 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2012

Background: Globally, BCG vaccination varies in efficacy and has some non-specific protective effects. Previous studies comparing BCG strains have been small-scale, with few or no immunological outcomes and have compared TB-specific responses only. We aimed to evaluate both specific and non-specific immune responses to different strains of BCG within a large infant cohort and to evaluate further the relationship between BCG strain, scarring and cytokine responses. Methods: Infants from the Entebbe Mother and Baby Study (ISRCTN32849447) who received BCG-Russia, BCG-Bulgaria or BCG-Denmark at birth, were analysed by BCG strain group. At one year, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13 and IL-10 responses to mycobacteria-specific antigens (crude culture filtrate proteins and antigen 85) and non-mycobacterial stimuli (tetanus toxoid and phytohaemagglutinin) were measured using ELISA. Cytokine responses, scar frequency, BCG associated adverse event frequency and mortality rates were compared across groups, with adjustments for potential confounders. Results: Both specific and non-specific IFN-γ, IL-13 and IL-10 responses in 1341 infants differed between BCG strain groups including in response to stimulation with tetanus toxoid. BCG-Denmark immunised infants showed the highest cytokine responses. The proportion of infants who scarred differed significantly, with BCG scars occurring in 52.2%, 64.1% and 92.6% of infants immunised with BCG Russia, BCG-Bulgaria and BCG-Denmark, respectively (p< 0.001). Scarred infants had higher IFN-γ and IL-13 responses to mycobacterial antigens only than infants without a scar. The BCG-Denmark group had the highest frequency of adverse events (p= 0.025). Mortality differences were not significant. Conclusions: Both specific and non-specific immune responses to the BCG vaccine differ by strain. Scarring after BCG vaccination is also strain-dependent and is associated with higher IFN-γ and IL-13 responses to mycobacterial antigens. The choice of BCG strain may be an important factor and should be evaluated when testing novel vaccine strategies that employ BCG in prime-boost sequences, or as a vector for other vaccine antigens. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Ndibazza J.,Institute Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | Muhangi L.,Institute Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | Akishule D.,Institute Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | Kiggundu M.,Entebbe Hospital | And 8 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Background. Helminth infections during pregnancy may be associated with adverse outcomes, including maternal anemia, low birth weight, and perinatal mortality. Deworming during pregnancy has therefore been strongly advocated, but its benefits have not been rigorously evaluated. Methods. In Entebbe, Uganda, 2507 pregnant women were recruited to a randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled trial investigating albendazole and praziquantel in a 2X2 factorial design [ISRCTN32849447]. Hematinics and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for presumptive treatment of malaria were provided routinely. Maternal and perinatal outcomes were recorded. Analyses were by intention to treat. Results. At enrollment, 68% of women had helminths, 45% had hookworm, 18% had Schistosoma mansoni infection; 40% were anemic (hemoglobin level, <11.2 g/dL). At delivery, 35% were anaemic; there was no overall effect of albendazole (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-1.15) or praziquantel (OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.83-1.21) on maternal anemia, but there was a suggestion of benefit of albendazole among women with moderate to heavy hookworm (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.21-0.98; P =.15 for interaction). There was no effect of either anthelminthic treatment on mean birth weight (difference in mean associated with albendazole: -0.00 kg; 95% CI, -0.05 to 0.04 kg; difference in mean associated with praziquantel: -0.01 kg; 95% CI, -0.05 to 0.04 kg) or on proportion of low birth weight. Anthelminthic use during pregnancy showed no effect on perinatal mortality or congenital anomalies. Conclusions. In our study area, where helminth prevalence was high but infection intensity was low, there was no overall effect of anthelminthic use during pregnancy on maternal anemia, birth weight, perinatal mortality, or congenital anomalies. The possible benefit of albendazole against anemia in pregnant women with heavy hookworm infection warrants further investigation. © 2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.


Elliott A.M.,Uganda Virus Research Institute | Elliott A.M.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Ndibazza J.,Uganda Virus Research Institute | Mpairwe H.,Uganda Virus Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Parasitology | Year: 2011

In 1994 and 2002, respectively, the World Health Organisation proposed that treatment for hookworm and schistosomiasis could be provided during pregnancy. It was hoped that this might have benefits for maternal anaemia, fetal growth and perinatal mortality; a beneficial effect on the infant response to immunisation was also hypothesised. Three trials have now been conducted. Two have examined the effects of benzimidazoles; one (the Entebbe Mother and Baby Study) the effects of albendazole and praziquantel. All three were conducted in settings of high prevalence but low intensity helminth infection. Results suggest that, in such settings and given adequate provision of haematinics, the benefit of routine anthelminthics during pregnancy for maternal anaemia may be small; none of the other expected benefits has yet been demonstrated. The Entebbe Mother and Baby Study found a significant adverse effect of albendazole on the incidence of infantile eczema in the whole study population, and of praziquantel on the incidence of eczema among infants of mothers with Schistosoma mansoni. Further studies are required in settings that differ in helminth species and infection intensities. Further research is required to determine whether increased rates of infantile eczema translate to long-term susceptibility to allergy, and to explore the underlying mechanisms of these effects. The risks and benefits of routine anthelminthic treatment in antenatal clinics may need to be reconsidered. Copyright © 2011 Cambridge University Press.


Lule S.A.,MRC UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | Mawa P.A.,MRC UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | Nkurunungi G.,MRC UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | Nampijja M.,MRC UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | And 6 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2015

Background: BCG is used widely as the sole licensed vaccine against tuberculosis, but it has variable efficacy and the reasons for this are still unclear. No reliable biomarkers to predict future protection against, or acquisition of, TB infection following immunisation have been identified. Lessons from BCG could be valuable in the development of effective tuberculosis vaccines. Objectives: Within the Entebbe Mother and Baby Study birth cohort in Uganda, infants received BCG at birth. We investigated factors associated with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and with cytokine response to mycobacterial antigen at age five years. We also investigated whether cytokine responses at one year were associated with LTBI at five years of age. Methods: Blood samples from age one and five years were stimulated using crude culture filtrates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a six-day whole blood assay. IFN-γ, IL-5, IL-13 and IL-10 production was measured. LTBI at five years was determined using T-SPOT. TB® assay. Associations with LTBI at five years were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. Multiple linear regression with bootstrapping was used to determine factors associated with cytokine responses at age five years. Results: LTBI prevalence was 9% at age five years. Only urban residence and history of TB contact/disease were positively associated with LTBI. BCG vaccine strain, LTBI, HIV infection, asymptomatic malaria, growth z-scores, childhood anthelminthic treatment and maternal BCG scar were associated with cytokine responses at age five. Cytokine responses at one year were not associated with acquisition of LTBI by five years of age. Conclusion: Although multiple factors influenced anti-myocbacterial immune responses at age five, factors likely to be associated with exposure to infectious cases (history of household contact, and urban residence) dominated the risk of LTBI. © 2014 The Authors.


Lule S.A.,Medical Research Council Uganda Virus Research Institute | Webb E.L.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Ndibazza J.,Medical Research Council Uganda Virus Research Institute | Nampijja M.,Medical Research Council Uganda Virus Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Tropical Medicine and International Health | Year: 2012

Objectives To assess the reliability of maternally recalled birthweight and size in Entebbe, Uganda. Methods The study population comprised 404 mothers, who were participants in the Entebbe Mother and Baby Study (EMaBS). Mothers were recruited to EMaBS during antenatal care, maternal characteristics were recorded during pregnancy, and birthweight was recorded at delivery. Four to seven years after delivery, mothers were asked to recall the child's birthweight and size. Their responses were compared with the birthweight recorded in the EMaBS database. Results Of 404 interviewed mothers, 303 (75%) were able to give an estimate of birthweight and for 265 of these EMaBS data on recorded birthweights were available. Women who were educated and whose children had low birth order were more likely to be able to give an estimate: 37 (14%) recalled the exact recorded birthweight; a further 52 (20%) were accurate to within 0.1kg of the recorded weight. On average, mothers overestimated birthweight by 0.06kg (95% CI: 0.00-0.13kg, P=0.04). Recalled and recorded birthweights showed moderate agreement with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.64. Four hundered mothers gave an estimate of birth size: the sensitivity and specificity of recalled birth size for classifying low birthweight were 76% (95% CI: 50-93%) and 70% (95% CI: 65-75%), respectively. Conclusions Mothers' recall of birthweight was not precise but in absence of other data, recall of birthweight and size may have some value in epidemiological studies in these settings. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Webb E.L.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Mawa P.A.,UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | Ndibazza J.,UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | Kizito D.,UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | And 23 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2011

Helminth infections affect the human immune response. We investigated whether prenatal exposure to and treatment of maternal helminth infections affects development of an infant's immune response to immunisations and unrelated infections. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we enrolled 2507 women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy who were planning to deliver in Entebbe General Hospital, Entebbe, Uganda. With a computer-generated random number sequence in blocks of 100, we assigned patients to 440 mg albendazole and 40 mg/kg praziquantel (n=628), 440 mg albendazole and a praziquantel-matching placebo (n=625), 40 mg/kg praziquantel and an albendazole-matching placebo (n=626), or an albendazole-matching placebo and praziquantel-matching placebo (n=628). All participants and hospital staff were masked to allocation. Primary outcomes were immune response at age 1 year to BCG, tetanus, and measles immunisation; incidence of infectious diseases during infancy; and vertical HIV transmission. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN32849447. Data were available at delivery for 2356 women, with 2345 livebirths; 2115 (90) of liveborn infants remained in follow-up at 1 year of age. Neither albendazole nor praziquantel treatments affected infant response to BCG, tetanus, or measles immunisation. However, in infants of mothers with hookworm infection, albendazole treatment reduced interleukin-5 (geometric mean ratio 0·50, 95 CI 0·30-0·81, interaction p=0·02) and interleukin-13 (0·52, 0·34- 0·82, 0·0005) response to tetanus toxoid. The rate per 100 person-years of malaria was 40·9 (95 CI 38·3-43·7), of diarrhoea was 134·1 (129·2-139·2), and of pneumonia was 22·3 (20·4-24·4). We noted no effect on infectious disease incidence for albendazole treatment (malaria [hazard ratio 0·95, 95 CI 0·79-1.14], diarrhoea [1·06, 0·96-1·16], pneumonia [1·11, 0·90-1·38]) or praziquantel treatment (malaria [1·00, 0·84-1·20], diarrhoea [1·07, 0·98-1·18], pneumonia [1·00, 0·80-1·24]). In HIV-exposed infants, 39 (18) were infected at 6 weeks; vertical transmission was not associated with albendazole (odds ratio 0·70, 95 CI 0·35-1·42) or praziquantel (0·60, 0·29-1·23) treatment. These results do not accord with the recently advocated policy of routine antenatal anthelmintic treatment, and the value of such a policy may need to be reviewed. Wellcome Trust. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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