Ensoltek Co.

South Korea

Ensoltek Co.

South Korea
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Song E.J.,Chungnam National University | Song E.J.,Brain Bio | Song E.J.,Ensoltek Co. | Do Y.-J.,Chungnam National University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Structure | Year: 2015

Abstract Receptor-interacting protein kinases 1 (RIPK1) plays an important role in necroptotic disease; it is therefore useful to identify structural characteristics controlling RIPK1 activity. Serine residues such as Ser89 and Ser161 have been reported to be important for RIPK1 activity. ATP binding to the RIPK1 hinge region occurs prior to the transfer of the phosphate group to serine residues. We therefore investigated the regulatory function of residues in the RIPK1 hinge region using a combination of molecular modeling and protein stability experiments. We analyzed the structure and evaluated the kinetic activity and stability of RIPK1 hinge region mutants. In this way, we identified Glu93 and Glu96 as key residues that regulate RIP1K activity, suggesting that mutation of these residues might be related to necroptotic diseases. The presence of a clinical mutation in RIPK1 Glu93 in endometritis patients is consistent with our data. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Kwon Y.-J.,Ensoltek Co. | Kwon Y.-J.,Sungkyunkwan University | Lee J.-W.,Ensoltek Co. | Moon E.-J.,Ensoltek Co. | And 3 more authors.
Spine | Year: 2013

STUDY DESIGN.: An in vitro study with bovine intervertebral disc (IVD) cells and an in vivo study with a rabbit disc degeneration model on the extracellular matrix metabolism by a biglycan-derived peptide (Peniel 2000; P2K). OBJECTIVE.: To investigate the mechanism for P2K-induced increases in extracellular matrix and in vitro and in vivo effects of the peptide on IVD. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has a functional versatility on the metabolism of IVD cells, suggesting that the regulation of TGF-β signaling is important in IVD degeneration. P2K was explored by an in silico drug discovery strategy to regulate TGF-β signaling. METHODS.: The putative target of P2K was verified by Biacore 3000 analysis and affinity purification using biotin-P2K. A monolayer culture system of bovine IVD cells was used to demonstrate the mechanism underlying the anabolic effects of P2K. Smad signaling and extracellular matrix metabolism of the IVD cells were investigated by Western blot and reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The in vivo effect of P2K on degenerated disc was investigated using a rabbit model of disc degeneration. In 14 New Zealand white rabbits, disc degeneration was induced by percutaneous annular punctures. After 4 weeks, 3 consecutive discs in the same animal were treated with 5% lactose or P2K per disc. Twelve weeks after the treatment, the regenerative activity in the disc was examined by radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and biochemical and histological analyses. RESULTS.: Direct binding of P2K to an active form of TGF-β1 was shown. Type II collagen and aggrecan were increased in TGF-β1/P2K-treated bovine IVD cells, compared with nontreated and TGF-β1-treated cells.In in vivo analysis, a single injection of P2K increased the disc height (P < 0.001) on the radiographs and improved the magnetic resonance imaging grade (P < 0.05) compared with controls. Biochemical analysis, showed a significant increase in PG content because of P2K treatment (P < 0.05). Histological analysis using disc degeneration grades demonstrated improvement in P2K-treated discs (P <0.01). CONCLUSION.: A novel peptide, P2K, regulating TGF-β1 signaling had an anabolic effect on bovine IVD cells and rabbit degenerated discs. The results suggest that P2K has considerable potential as a treatment of degenerative disc disease. Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Lee S.-B.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Kim Y.,Ensoltek Co. | Lee J.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Oh K.-J.,Ensoltek Co. | And 3 more authors.
Plant Biotechnology Reports | Year: 2012

Monellin is a naturally sweet protein that consists of two polypeptide chains and has potential uses as a highly potent non-carbohydrate sweetener. We aimed to make this protein more usable by increasing its stability and expressing it in a high-yielding system. MNEI is a modified version of the protein that consists of the two natural chains of monellin joined via a dipeptide linkage. In the thermostability analysis of MNEI variants, four mutated MNEIs, MNEI-E24L, MNEI-E24F, MNEI-E24W, and MNEI-E24A, had higher melting temperatures than wild-type MNEI and retained their sweet flavor even at temperatures above 70 °C. Our findings indicate that the increased stability of monellin allows it to retain its strong sweetness even under extreme conditions. We successfully overexpressed the thermostable MNEI mutants in tobacco chloroplasts. Here, we report that the MNEI mutants showed enhanced thermostability, and the stable forms of MNEI can be produced through plastid transformation in tobacco. © 2012 Korean Society for Plant Biotechnology and Springer.


Patra J.K.,Yeungnam University | Kim E.S.,National Institute of Biological Resources | Oh K.,National Institute of Biological Resources | Kim H.-J.,Ensoltek Co. | And 2 more authors.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: The oral cavity is the store house of different species of microorganisms that are continuously engaged in causing diseases in the mouth. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial potential of crude extracts of the aerial parts of Phytolacca americana and its natural compounds against two oral pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus mutans, which are primarily responsible for periodontal inflammatory diseases and dental caries, as well as a nonpathogenic Escherichia coli.Methods: Crude extract and fractions from the aerial parts of P. americana (0.008-1.8 mg/mL) were evaluated for their potential antibacterial activity against two oral disease causing microorganisms by micro-assays. The standard natural compounds present in P. americana, kaempferol, quercetin, quercetin 3-glucoside, isoqueritrin and ferulic acid, were also tested for their antibacterial activity against the pathogens at 1-8 μg/mL.Results: The crude extract was highly active against P. gingivalis (100% growth inhibition) and moderately active against S. mutans (44% growth inhibition) at 1.8 mg/mL. The chloroform and hexane fraction controlled the growth of P. gingivalis with 91% and 92% growth inhibition at a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL, respectively. Kaempferol exerted antibacterial activity against both the pathogens, whereas quercetin showed potent growth inhibition activity against only S. mutans in a concentration dependent manner.Conclusion: The crude extract, chloroform fraction, and hexane fraction of P. americana possesses active natural compounds that can inhibit the growth of oral disease causing bacteria. Thus, these extracts have the potential for use in the preparation of toothpaste and other drugs related to various oral diseases. © 2014 Patra et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Patra J.K.,Yeungnam University | Kim E.S.,National Institute of Biological Resources | Oh K.,National Institute of Biological Resources | Kim H.-J.,Ensoltek Co. | And 3 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2015

The mouth cavity hosts many types of anaerobic bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis, which cause periodontal inflammatory diseases and dental caries. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial potential of extracts of Robinia pseudoacacia and its different fractions, as well as some of its natural compounds against oral pathogens and a nonpathogenic reference bacteria, Escherichia coli. The antibacterial activity of the crude extract and the solvent fractions (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol) of R. pseudoacacia were evaluated against S. mutans, P. gingivalis and E. coli DH5α by standard micro-assay procedure using conventional sterile polystyrene microplates. The results showed that the crude extract was more active against P. gingivalis (100% growth inhibition) than against S. mutans (73% growth inhibition) at 1.8 mg/mL. The chloroform and hexane fractions were active against P. gingivalis, with 91 and 97% growth inhibition, respectively, at 0.2 mg/mL. None of seven natural compounds found in R. pseudoacacia exerted an antibacterial effect on P. gingivalis; however, fisetin and myricetin at 8 μg/mL inhibited the growth of S. mutans by 81% and 86%, respectively. The crude extract of R. pseudoacacia possesses bioactive compounds that could completely control the growth of P. gingivalis. The antibiotic activities of the hexane and chloroform fractions suggest that the active compounds are hydrophobic in nature. The results indicate the effectiveness of the plant in clinical applications for the treatment of dental plaque and periodontal inflammatory diseases and its potential use as disinfectant for various surgical and orthodontic appliances. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI.


PubMed | National Institute of Biological Resources, Yeungnam University and Ensoltek Co.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2015

The mouth cavity hosts many types of anaerobic bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis, which cause periodontal inflammatory diseases and dental caries. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial potential of extracts of Robinia pseudoacacia and its different fractions, as well as some of its natural compounds against oral pathogens and a nonpathogenic reference bacteria, Escherichia coli. The antibacterial activity of the crude extract and the solvent fractions (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol) of R. pseudoacacia were evaluated against S. mutans, P. gingivalis and E. coli DH5 by standard micro-assay procedure using conventional sterile polystyrene microplates. The results showed that the crude extract was more active against P. gingivalis (100% growth inhibition) than against S. mutans (73% growth inhibition) at 1.8 mg/mL. The chloroform and hexane fractions were active against P. gingivalis, with 91 and 97% growth inhibition, respectively, at 0.2 mg/mL. None of seven natural compounds found in R. pseudoacacia exerted an antibacterial effect on P. gingivalis; however, fisetin and myricetin at 8 g/mL inhibited the growth of S. mutans by 81% and 86%, respectively. The crude extract of R. pseudoacacia possesses bioactive compounds that could completely control the growth of P. gingivalis. The antibiotic activities of the hexane and chloroform fractions suggest that the active compounds are hydrophobic in nature. The results indicate the effectiveness of the plant in clinical applications for the treatment of dental plaque and periodontal inflammatory diseases and its potential use as disinfectant for various surgical and orthodontic appliances.


Kim Y.-O.,South Korean National Fisheries Research and Development Institute | Han Y.-H.,Ensoltek Co. | Moon J.Y.,South Korean National Fisheries Research and Development Institute | Kim D.-G.,South Korean National Fisheries Research and Development Institute | And 5 more authors.
Animal Cells and Systems | Year: 2014

We isolated a metalloprotease (MP) homologue from an abalone muscle cDNA library. A 3284-kb full-length cDNA encoding a predicted polypeptide of 667 amino acids was sequenced. The abalone MP Haliotis discus hannai (HdMP) exhibited a domain structure typical of the peptidase M4 family, a 21-amino acid N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence followed by a long propeptide sequence of 347 amino acids and the mature protease domain comprising 299 amino acids. The mature region contains features characteristic of a zinc protease, including a zinc-binding motif (HEXXH) and an active site. The protein showed 32-38% amino acid sequence identity with other known MP sequences and with a hypothetical protein from owl limpet. The mRNA transcript is expressed in almost all tissues, with high expression in the mantle and adductor muscle of healthy abalones, and is expressed constitutively during the early developmental stages after fertilization. Lipopolysaccharide or poly I:C stimulation induced the expression of the HdMP transcript in the digestive track and gills of abalones. Collectively, these results suggest that HdMP could play multiple roles in defense, the immune response, growth, and regulation of reproduction. © 2014 © 2014 Korean Society for Integrative Biology.


Patent
Ensoltek Co. | Date: 2010-02-12

The present invention provides a peptide comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, a variant thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. A novel peptide of the present invention, a variant thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof are effective for treating and/or preventing degenerative disc diseases, treating body organ fibrosis, treating cancer and/or treating glomerulosclerosis, and are effective for the inhibition of TGF-beta1 signaling.


PubMed | Ensoltek Co.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Spine | Year: 2013

An in vitro study with bovine intervertebral disc (IVD) cells and an in vivo study with a rabbit disc degeneration model on the extracellular matrix metabolism by a biglycan-derived peptide (Peniel 2000; P2K).To investigate the mechanism for P2K-induced increases in extracellular matrix and in vitro and in vivo effects of the peptide on IVD.Transforming growth factor- (TGF-) has a functional versatility on the metabolism of IVD cells, suggesting that the regulation of TGF- signaling is important in IVD degeneration. P2K was explored by an in silico drug discovery strategy to regulate TGF- signaling.The putative target of P2K was verified by Biacore 3000 analysis and affinity purification using biotin-P2K. A monolayer culture system of bovine IVD cells was used to demonstrate the mechanism underlying the anabolic effects of P2K. Smad signaling and extracellular matrix metabolism of the IVD cells were investigated by Western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The in vivo effect of P2K on degenerated disc was investigated using a rabbit model of disc degeneration. In 14 New Zealand white rabbits, disc degeneration was induced by percutaneous annular punctures. After 4 weeks, 3 consecutive discs in the same animal were treated with 5% lactose or P2K per disc. Twelve weeks after the treatment, the regenerative activity in the disc was examined by radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and biochemical and histological analyses.Direct binding of P2K to an active form of TGF-1 was shown. Type II collagen and aggrecan were increased in TGF-1/P2K-treated bovine IVD cells, compared with nontreated and TGF-1-treated cells.In in vivo analysis, a single injection of P2K increased the disc height (P < 0.001) on the radiographs and improved the magnetic resonance imaging grade (P < 0.05) compared with controls. Biochemical analysis, showed a significant increase in PG content because of P2K treatment (P < 0.05). Histological analysis using disc degeneration grades demonstrated improvement in P2K-treated discs (P <0.01).A novel peptide, P2K, regulating TGF-1 signaling had an anabolic effect on bovine IVD cells and rabbit degenerated discs. The results suggest that P2K has considerable potential as a treatment of degenerative disc disease.

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