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Shi M.-C.,Xian Shiyou University | Guo X.-H.,Xian Shiyou University | Du S.-Z.,Xian Shiyou University | Hu B.-S.,Enshi Academy of Agricultural science | And 2 more authors.
Xiandai Huagong/Modern Chemical Industry | Year: 2014

The modification, compound and scale property of polyaspartic acid, polyepoxysuccinic acid, polyglutamic acid and natural polymer are reviewed. The suggestions on future development of green scale inhibitors are also proposed.

Chen G.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Ma X.-K.,CAS Institute of Botany | Ma X.-K.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Jurgens A.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Chemical Ecology | Year: 2015

By emitting strong scents resembling rotting organic materials suitable for oviposition and/or foraging of flies, sapromyiophilous flowers mimic the substrates that attract flies as pollinators. It has been suggested that the wide range of volatile organic compounds emitted by this deceptive pollination system reflects the trophic preferences of flies to different types of substrate, including herbivore and carnivore feces, carrion, and fruiting bodies of fungi. Previous studies suggest that floral scents play a particularly important role in sapromyiophily. However, few studies on the relative importance of floral color or synergy between visual and olfactory cues in sapromyiophily have been substantiated. In this study, we analyzed fetid floral odor, floral pigment composition, and reflectance of an Amorphophallus konjac C. Koch inflorescence, and we conducted bioassays with different visual and/or olfactory cues to explore an unsubstantiated color profile in sapromyiophily: mimicking livor mortis. Our analysis showed A. konjac can emit oligosulphide-dominated volatile blends similar to those emitted by carrion. Necrophagous flies cannot discriminate between the color of an inflorescence, livor mortis, and floral pigments. We concluded that mimicking livor mortis may represent a common tactic of pollinator attraction in “carrion flower” systems within angiosperms. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Diao Y.,Wuhan University | Yang C.,Enshi Academy of Agricultural science | Yan M.,Criminal Technical Laboratory | Zheng X.,Wuhan University | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Konjac is one of the most important glucomannan crops worldwide. The breeding and genomic researches are largely limited by the genetic basis of Amorphophallus. In this study, the transcriptomes of A. konjac and A. bulbifer were constructed using a high-throughput Illumina sequencing platform. All 108,651 unigenes with average lengths of 430 nt in A. konjac and 119,678 unigenes with average lengths of 439 nt were generated from 54,986,020 reads and 52,334,098 reads after filtering and assembly, respectively. A total of 54,453 transcripts in A. konjac and 55,525 in A. bulbifier were annotated by comparison with Nr, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, and COG databases after removing exogenous contaminated sequences. A total of 80,332 transcripts differentially expressed between A. konjac and A. bulbifer. The majority of the genes that are associated with konjac glucomannan biosynthetic pathway were identified. Besides, the small RNAs in A. konjac leaves were also obtained by deep sequencing technology. All of 5,499,903 sequences of small RNAs were obtained with the length range between 18 and 30 nt. The potential targets for the miRNAs were also predicted according to the konjac transcripts. Our study provides a systematic overview of the konjac glucomannan biosynthesis genes that are involved in konjac leaves and should facilitate further understanding of the crucial roles of carbohydrate synthesis and other important metabolism pathways in Amorphophallus. © 2014 Diao et al.

Tan L.-Q.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Tan L.-Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang L.-Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wei K.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Despite the worldwide consumption and high economic importance of tea, the plant (Camellia sinensis) is not well studied in molecular biology. Under the few circumstances in which the plant is studied, C. sinensis flowers, which are important for reproduction and cross-breeding, receive less emphasis than investigation of its leaves or roots. Using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing, we analyzed a C. sinensis floral transcriptome, and 26.9 million clean reads were assembled into 75,531 unigenes averaging 402 bp. Among them, 50,792 (67.2%) unigenes were annotated with a BLAST search against the NCBI Non-Redundant (NR) database and 10,290 (16.67%) were detected that contained one or more simple sequence repeats (SSRs). From these SSR-containing sequences, 2,439 candidate SSR markers were developed and 720 were experimentally tested, validating 431 (59.9%) novel polymorphic SSR markers for C. sinensis . Then, a consensus SSR-based linkage map was constructed that covered 1,156.9 cM with 237 SSR markers distributed in 15 linkage groups. Both transcriptome information and the genetic map of C. sinensis presented here offer a valuable foundation for molecular biology investigations such as functional gene isolation, quantitative trait loci mapping, and marker-assisted selection breeding in this important species. © 2013 Tan et al.

Yao C.-G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Song B.-T.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wu C.-J.,Enshi Academy of Agricultural science | And 3 more authors.
Agricultural Sciences in China | Year: 2011

Cultivated potato with high level of horizontal resistance against late blight is one of the most important goals of potato breeding. The recurrent selection has been adopted to increase the level of potato horizontal resistance and a B3C1 population without R1 -R11 dominant genes has been released by the International Potato Center at the short-day condition of Peru. The present research was carried out to further improve the resistance and the agronomic traits of B3C1 population under long-day condition of Hubei, China, with maximized retention of its genetic diversity. Twenty-seven individual clones of B3C1 were used to generate population B3C2 by in-population crossing with the bulk pollens aiming to elevate the frequency of late blight resistance genotypes and to improve the adaptation to local long-day conditions. The late blight resistance and the main agronomic traits including the maturity, the plant characters and the tuber traits were evaluated for the foreground selection in three years, by which 130 pedigrees were maintained as the basic population of B3C2 for further selection. A total of 312 polymorphic loci detected by 9 AFLP marker combinations were used to monitor the genetic diversity of the populations for the background selection. The B3C2 population of 51 clones was finally selected, of which the frequency of resistant genotypes increased by 23.8% points and the genetic diversity was maintained by about 96% as referred to B3C1. Our results strongly suggested that combination of the foreground selection for target traits and the background selection for the genetic diversity is an efficient strategy in the recurrent selection of tetraploid potato to improve quantitative traits. © 2011 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

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