ENS

Paris, France
Paris, France

Time filter

Source Type

News Article | May 10, 2017
Site: news.yahoo.com

Like a crocodile's jaw opening and snapping shut, Earth's crust can rip apart and then violently close back up during an earthquake, a new study finds. The discovery refutes previous claims that this kind of phenomenon was impossible, and the new research could potentially require that current seismic maps be redrawn. The study focused on a particular paradox associated with thrust faults, a crack in Earth’s crust, where geologic forces are slowly pushing a huge slab of continental crust up and over an oceanic layer. "For a long time, it was assumed that thrust faults, subduction zone faults being a class of such faults, could not have a large amount of slip close to the Earth's surface," said Harsha Bhat, a research scientist at the École Normale Supérieure (ENS) in Paris and co-author of the new study with California Institute of Technology graduate student Vahe Gabuchian. [The 10 Biggest Earthquakes in History] The assumption was made because as the continental slab grinds over the oceanic one below, it scrapes off the soft surface clay and leaves it piled up in the subduction zone. Geologists thought that any energy generated from a seismic event within the thrust fault would peter out once it hit the soft clay and that a large slip wouldn't happen near the surface. But clues from past earthquakes suggested otherwise, said Christopher Scholz, a professor of geophysics at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in New York City. The San Fernando earthquake that occurred in 1971, for example, left behind an unusual pile of debris that anyone can still see today, said Scholz, who was not involved with the new study. "It's right at the base of a mountain," he said. "The thrust comes out at a low angle, and it looks like [the earthquake] flapped the whole soil layer, just flipped it over below the fault." How did the earthquake cause such a giant amount of material to flip over if the energy dissipated in the clay? Geophysicist James Brune, then at the University of Nevada was the first scientist to attempt to answer that question in a 1996 study he published in the Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Science, Scholz said. Brune figured it was the result of some kind of torquing action in the fault. He conducted an experiment using foam rubber that showed the energy of a simulated earthquake propagating down a fault and flipping the tip — as if some large hand were cracking a whip. "I don't think people believed it," Scholz said. "They thought this was some weird thing that had to do with foam. They didn't take it seriously." For decades, the idea lay dormant, he said. But clues from subsequent earthquakes continued to suggest that Brune had been on to something. In their new paper, Bhat, Gabuchian and their colleagues cited the 1999 magnitude-7.7 earthquake in Chi-Chi, Taiwan, that caused billions of dollars in structural damage and killed more than 2,000 people. They also pointed to the magnitude-9.0 earthquake in Tohoku-Oki, Japan, that damaged the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011. Geophysicists who analyzed the faults after the earthquakes could not find signs of stress at the boundary between the soft clay and harder rock. "How can it slip without stress?" Scholz said. "That's the big mystery." And it's a mystery that Gabuchian and his colleagues think they have solved. The researchers performed an experiment similar to Brune's from 1996, but they did not use foam. Instead, the scientists used a transparent block of plastic that has mechanical properties similar to those of rock, and conducted experiments in Caltech's earthquake laboratory, nicknamed the "Seismological Wind Tunnel," a facility that can simulate and image laboratory-generated temblors. The researchers cut the plastic block in half and then forced them together, simulating the tectonic pressure of two slabs of Earth's crust pressing against each other. Next, they placed a wire fuse where they envisioned the epicenter of an earthquake and then lit the fuse. Instantly, a rupture propagated down the fault line, and when it hit the surface, the fault twisted open and then snapped shut. The snapping action reduces the stress that keeps both sides of a fault pressed together, said Bhat. Less pressure makes it easier for a slab of rock to slide.


News Article | May 11, 2017
Site: motherboard.vice.com

Back when .com was the only top-level domain (TLD) that really mattered, choice domain names would change hands for millions of dollars. But in recent years the number of TLD's has greatly expanded, and tech startups often choose to snap up a .co, .io, or even .digital cheaply instead of forking out for one of the more well established extensions. Generic TLDs are interchangeable in terms of function, but when an extension corresponds to a specific use case, scarcity increases and price goes up—which is exactly what has happened with the new Ethereum Name Service, which went live on May 4, and which allows users to register .eth domains compatible with the Ethereum network. Ethereum, although less well known than Bitcoin, is a blockchain-based computing platform which includes a cryptocurrency, called Ether. But unlike Bitcoin it also includes the capability to run "smart contracts," code functions that are stored in the blockchain and can trigger actions like transferring currency when certain conditions are met. The .eth domain extension is unique in that it can be pointed to an Ethereum wallet address or a smart contract, meaning that an amount of Ether could be sent directly to, say, Motherboard.eth instead of a standard address (which has the less memorable format 0xffF067E7ebe44Cc949C1c49Ca069BCFb4022b5fc). The new domains can be registered through an auction process run by Codetract.io, and the chance to register a personalized and/or prestigious address has captured the interest of the Ethereum community, which has currently bid a total of over 105,000ETH on domains ($9.4 million at current rates), with only 12 percent of the domains featuring in this auction round having been opened to bidding. This race for domains takes place against the background of a huge rise in the value of Ether, which has increased more than tenfold from $8 for one unit on January 1 to a current price hovering around $90. This influx of money into the ecosystem has also stimulated a burst of interest in Ethereum-based projects, as companies or individuals holding Ethereum find themselves with significantly more resources to apply to development. (Crowdfund campaigns backed by Ethereum tokens now regularly raise millions of dollars in a short space of time, and besides established players in the cryptocurrency space, even the UN has started to experiment with the platform.) On an ongoing basis, progress of the registration process can be tracked via the ENS Twitter bot, which posts a steady stream of updates on the latest auctions and winning bids. Sharp-eyed bidders might spot that with less than a day left to bid, donaldtrump.eth is priced at a mere $2880—though the president, who has a penchant for owning Trump domains, has yet to confirm whether he is behind this particular deal.


News Article | May 15, 2017
Site: co.newswire.com

Enterin Inc., a privately-held CNS pharmaceutical company based in Philadelphia and developing novel compounds to treat Parkinson’s disease (PD), has enrolled the first patient in the RASMET study. The study is a Phase 1/2a randomized, controlled, multicenter study involving patients with PD and taking place at 12 US sites. It will enroll 50 patients over a 9-to-12-month period. The first stage is open label and involves single escalating doses in 10 patients with PD. Participating sites include Denver, Boca Raton, Tampa Bay and Cleveland. Details relating to the study can be found at ClinicalTrials.gov, and contact information is available on the Enterin website. The study will establish the safety, tolerability and efficacy of an orally administered synthetic derivative of squalamine, which is not absorbed into the blood stream. The compound acts locally on the enteric nerve cells of the gut, stimulating gut motility and altering afferent neural signaling from gut to brain. It has the potential to ameliorate some or all of the non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, including constipation, fragmented sleep and REM-behavior disorder, and to modify disease progression. Synthetic squalamine was recently shown to prevent the buildup and reduce the toxicity of alpha-synuclein, implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of Parkinson’s disease. The compound was shown to displace alpha-synuclein aggregates from the inner wall of nerve cells, and to prevent the stiffness which develops in C. Elegans worms engineered to produce alpha-synuclein in their muscles. The results were published online in the February 7th edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Perni et al, PNAS Vol 114, no 6, 2017, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1610586114). Links to the article and to the press coverage can be found at the Enterin website. Enterin Inc. is the first company in the world to develop a novel drug that repairs the dysfunctional gut-brain axis in patients with neurodegenerative disease. Enterin Inc. is pioneering the medical community’s understanding of the link between infections, dysfunction of the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the gut, and the early onset and chronic progression of neurodegenerative disease. The lead compound, ENT-01 (also known as kenterin), displaces membrane-bound alpha-synuclein (αS) aggregates from nerve cells in the ENS and improves neural signaling between the gut and the brain in preclinical models of Parkinson’s disease. In the gut, this results in improved motility. Enterin Inc. is now progressing ENT-01 through clinical trials in an attempt to reverse the constipation of Parkinson’s disease. For more information, please visit www.enterininc.com.


News Article | May 18, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

A pair of publications provides more accurate and unified understanding of fluid transport through membranes and how to model the behavior with molecular simulations WASHINGTON, D.C., May 18, 2017 -- Osmosis, the fluid phenomenon responsible for countless slug deaths at the hands of mischievous children, is fundamentally important not only to much of biology, but also to engineering and industry. Most simply put, osmosis refers to the flow of fluid across a membrane driven by a (solute) concentration difference -- like water from a salted slug's cells or absorbed by the roots of plants. The current theory describing the osmosis-driven behavior makes the most accurate predictions for low concentrations, limiting its applicability to many real-world uses. As interest in research and development of osmotic-dependent processes grows, and broadens, so too does the need for a more granular theoretical understanding of the deterministic mechanisms. New research now provides this thorough understanding, appearing as a pair of publications this week in the Journal of Chemical Physics, from AIP Publishing. The first paper deconstructs the molecular mechanics of osmosis with high concentrations, and generalizes the findings to predict behavior for arbitrary concentrations. The second piece of the study then simulates via molecular modeling two key forms of osmotic flow in a broadly utilizable way. "Osmotic transport driven by salinity difference occurs across many biological systems, and it is also used in various industrial applications," said Hiroaki Yoshida of ENS in France, co-author of the paired publications. "The recent interest in its applications to micro- and nano-fluidic devices, such as for desalination, energy harvesting, and biomedical technology, just to name a few, boosts the growth of this research field." The group decided two publications would provide a more thorough and useful overview of their finding and its implications. "In this context, what inspired us to start this work was the fact that, in such diverse situations, one encounters the limitation of existing theoretical frameworks for studying the osmotic transports," Yoshida said. "It was urgent to extend the theories applicable to wider situations, and at the same time, it was necessary to develop a relevant computational method for numerical studies. Since these goals were equally important, we decided to deliver the two messages as a series of papers." Regardless of concentration, there are two different geometrical components to osmotic flow that Yoshida and his colleagues, Sophie Marbach and Lydéric Bocquet, investigated: bare osmosis and diffusio-osmosis. Typically, they are regarded independently, but the group took a different approach and saw value in understanding how they relate to one another. "Bare osmosis and diffusio-osmotic flow are geometrically different phenomena: Osmosis is a liquid transport across a membrane, and diffusio-osmosis is a flow parallel to the solid-liquid interface," Yoshida said. "Therefore, these phenomena are usually dealt with independently. However, the driving force for these transports is common, that is the concentration (or chemical potential) difference, and thus we thought it is important to investigate them together. What we wanted to insist on was that these two transports should be analysed in a common framework, employing the energy barrier and the general-osmotic-pressure expression." Using this common framework, they could then fully describe the driving mechanisms behind the transmembrane transport with only a few mathematical "ingredients." Such a unified approach lends itself to broader generalizability. "We rigorously derived analytical expressions describing these two important osmotic transport phenomena," said Yoshida. "The key points that led us to these analytical expressions are, (i) energy barrier models, which allow us to describe the interaction between solute particles and the membranes, with the minimum ingredients; (ii) the use of a unified general thermodynamic expression for the osmotic pressure, in describing the driving force for these transports." Their theoretical rigor then extended into molecular level simulations to verify the theory they report first, supported by observations of real solution dynamics. "Secondly we carried out numerical simulations to verify our theoretical results," Yoshida said. "We proposed a novel non-equilibrium molecular dynamic (NEMD) methodology to realize the molecular dynamics simulation for the diffusio-osmotic flow. We validated the method both numerically and theoretically, and applied it to realistic systems with water-ethanol mixture in contact with a graphene and a silica surface." According to Yoshida, this led to the first direct observation of the diffusio-osmotic flow velocity field. They confirmed that the analytical expression based on their assumptions predicted the transport property of the diffusio-osmotic flow. Though so much work is already complete, their findings have only provided yet more work to be done -- often the ideal result of scientific inquiry. The work's wide implications scale its potential benefits to more complex osmotic phenomena and untapped applications. "The present theoretical results will bring forward the fundamental approach toward understanding various experimental results, to estimate the effects of osmosis and diffusio-osmosis in liquid transport across nano-porous membranes," Yoshida said. "In addition, the proposed NEMD method is a very powerful tool to explore various phenomena caused by the concentration or chemical potential gradient. In particular, diffusio-phoretic transport involving complex molecules, such as polymers and polyelectrolytes (DNA), will be explored next." Personally, Yoshida hopes to see the work have a positive impact to energy harvesting, an industry that has huge growth potential with innovative membranes. "There is a rapidly growing interest in applications using concentration difference or gradients to extract power," he said. "An example showing the potential of the concentration difference is the fact that when fresh river water mixes with seawater, an energy equal to a 270 m high waterfall is released. The use of membranes with new materials for power generation is a very active research topic." The first article, "Osmotic and diffusio-osmotic flow generation at high solute concentration. I. Mechanical approaches," is authored by Sophie Marbach, Hiroaki Yoshida and Lydéric Bocquet. The article appeared in the Journal of Chemical Physics May 16, 2017 [DOI: 10.1063/1.4982221] and can be accessed at http://aip. . The second article, "Osmotic and diffusio-osmotic flow generation at high solute concentration. II. Molecular dynamics simulations," is authored by Hiroaki Yoshida, Sophie Marbach and Lydéric Bocquet. The article appeared in the Journal of Chemical Physics May 16, 2017 [DOI: 10.1063/1.4981794] and can be accessed at http://aip. . The Journal of Chemical Physics publishes concise and definitive reports of significant research in the methods and applications of chemical physics. See http://jcp. .


The current theory describing the osmosis-driven behavior makes the most accurate predictions for low concentrations, limiting its applicability to many real-world uses. As interest in research and development of osmotic-dependent processes grows, and broadens, so too does the need for a more granular theoretical understanding of the deterministic mechanisms. New research now provides this thorough understanding, appearing as a pair of publications this week in the Journal of Chemical Physics, from AIP Publishing. The first paper deconstructs the molecular mechanics of osmosis with high concentrations, and generalizes the findings to predict behavior for arbitrary concentrations. The second piece of the study then simulates via molecular modeling two key forms of osmotic flow in a broadly utilizable way. "Osmotic transport driven by salinity difference occurs across many biological systems, and it is also used in various industrial applications," said Hiroaki Yoshida of ENS in France, co-author of the paired publications. "The recent interest in its applications to micro- and nano-fluidic devices, such as for desalination, energy harvesting, and biomedical technology, just to name a few, boosts the growth of this research field." The group decided two publications would provide a more thorough and useful overview of their finding and its implications. "In this context, what inspired us to start this work was the fact that, in such diverse situations, one encounters the limitation of existing theoretical frameworks for studying the osmotic transports," Yoshida said. "It was urgent to extend the theories applicable to wider situations, and at the same time, it was necessary to develop a relevant computational method for numerical studies. Since these goals were equally important, we decided to deliver the two messages as a series of papers." Regardless of concentration, there are two different geometrical components to osmotic flow that Yoshida and his colleagues, Sophie Marbach and Lydéric Bocquet, investigated: bare osmosis and diffusio-osmosis. Typically, they are regarded independently, but the group took a different approach and saw value in understanding how they relate to one another. "Bare osmosis and diffusio-osmotic flow are geometrically different phenomena: Osmosis is a liquid transport across a membrane, and diffusio-osmosis is a flow parallel to the solid-liquid interface," Yoshida said. "Therefore, these phenomena are usually dealt with independently. However, the driving force for these transports is common, that is the concentration (or chemical potential) difference, and thus we thought it is important to investigate them together. What we wanted to insist on was that these two transports should be analysed in a common framework, employing the energy barrier and the general-osmotic-pressure expression." Using this common framework, they could then fully describe the driving mechanisms behind the transmembrane transport with only a few mathematical "ingredients." Such a unified approach lends itself to broader generalizability. "We rigorously derived analytical expressions describing these two important osmotic transport phenomena," said Yoshida. "The key points that led us to these analytical expressions are, (i) energy barrier models, which allow us to describe the interaction between solute particles and the membranes, with the minimum ingredients; (ii) the use of a unified general thermodynamic expression for the osmotic pressure, in describing the driving force for these transports." Their theoretical rigor then extended into molecular level simulations to verify the theory they report first, supported by observations of real solution dynamics. "Secondly we carried out numerical simulations to verify our theoretical results," Yoshida said. "We proposed a novel non-equilibrium molecular dynamic (NEMD) methodology to realize the molecular dynamics simulation for the diffusio-osmotic flow. We validated the method both numerically and theoretically, and applied it to realistic systems with water-ethanol mixture in contact with a graphene and a silica surface." According to Yoshida, this led to the first direct observation of the diffusio-osmotic flow velocity field. They confirmed that the analytical expression based on their assumptions predicted the transport property of the diffusio-osmotic flow. Though so much work is already complete, their findings have only provided yet more work to be done—often the ideal result of scientific inquiry. The work's wide implications scale its potential benefits to more complex osmotic phenomena and untapped applications. "The present theoretical results will bring forward the fundamental approach toward understanding various experimental results, to estimate the effects of osmosis and diffusio-osmosis in liquid transport across nano-porous membranes," Yoshida said. "In addition, the proposed NEMD method is a very powerful tool to explore various phenomena caused by the concentration or chemical potential gradient. In particular, diffusio-phoretic transport involving complex molecules, such as polymers and polyelectrolytes (DNA), will be explored next." Personally, Yoshida hopes to see the work have a positive impact to energy harvesting, an industry that has huge growth potential with innovative membranes. "There is a rapidly growing interest in applications using concentration difference or gradients to extract power," he said. "An example showing the potential of the concentration difference is the fact that when fresh river water mixes with seawater, an energy equal to a 270 m high waterfall is released. The use of membranes with new materials for power generation is a very active research topic." Explore further: Scientists 'scare away' microparticles with laser light More information: Sophie Marbach et al. Osmotic and diffusio-osmotic flow generation at high solute concentration. I. Mechanical approaches, The Journal of Chemical Physics (2017). DOI: 10.1063/1.4982221 Hiroaki Yoshida et al. Osmotic and diffusio-osmotic flow generation at high solute concentration.II. Molecular dynamics simulations, The Journal of Chemical Physics (2017). DOI: 10.1063/1.4981794


News Article | May 18, 2017
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

Osmosis, the fluid phenomenon responsible for countless slug deaths at the hands of mischievous children, is fundamentally important not only to much of biology, but also to engineering and industry. Most simply put, osmosis refers to the flow of fluid across a membrane driven by a (solute) concentration difference -- like water from a salted slug's cells or absorbed by the roots of plants. The current theory describing the osmosis-driven behavior makes the most accurate predictions for low concentrations, limiting its applicability to many real-world uses. As interest in research and development of osmotic-dependent processes grows, and broadens, so too does the need for a more granular theoretical understanding of the deterministic mechanisms. New research now provides this thorough understanding, appearing as a pair of publications this week in the Journal of Chemical Physics, from AIP Publishing. The first paper deconstructs the molecular mechanics of osmosis with high concentrations, and generalizes the findings to predict behavior for arbitrary concentrations. The second piece of the study then simulates via molecular modeling two key forms of osmotic flow in a broadly utilizable way. "Osmotic transport driven by salinity difference occurs across many biological systems, and it is also used in various industrial applications," said Hiroaki Yoshida of ENS in France, co-author of the paired publications. "The recent interest in its applications to micro- and nano-fluidic devices, such as for desalination, energy harvesting, and biomedical technology, just to name a few, boosts the growth of this research field." The group decided two publications would provide a more thorough and useful overview of their finding and its implications. "In this context, what inspired us to start this work was the fact that, in such diverse situations, one encounters the limitation of existing theoretical frameworks for studying the osmotic transports," Yoshida said. "It was urgent to extend the theories applicable to wider situations, and at the same time, it was necessary to develop a relevant computational method for numerical studies. Since these goals were equally important, we decided to deliver the two messages as a series of papers." Regardless of concentration, there are two different geometrical components to osmotic flow that Yoshida and his colleagues, Sophie Marbach and Lydéric Bocquet, investigated: bare osmosis and diffusio-osmosis. Typically, they are regarded independently, but the group took a different approach and saw value in understanding how they relate to one another. "Bare osmosis and diffusio-osmotic flow are geometrically different phenomena: Osmosis is a liquid transport across a membrane, and diffusio-osmosis is a flow parallel to the solid-liquid interface," Yoshida said. "Therefore, these phenomena are usually dealt with independently. However, the driving force for these transports is common, that is the concentration (or chemical potential) difference, and thus we thought it is important to investigate them together. What we wanted to insist on was that these two transports should be analysed in a common framework, employing the energy barrier and the general-osmotic-pressure expression." Using this common framework, they could then fully describe the driving mechanisms behind the transmembrane transport with only a few mathematical "ingredients." Such a unified approach lends itself to broader generalizability. "We rigorously derived analytical expressions describing these two important osmotic transport phenomena," said Yoshida. "The key points that led us to these analytical expressions are, (i) energy barrier models, which allow us to describe the interaction between solute particles and the membranes, with the minimum ingredients; (ii) the use of a unified general thermodynamic expression for the osmotic pressure, in describing the driving force for these transports." Their theoretical rigor then extended into molecular level simulations to verify the theory they report first, supported by observations of real solution dynamics. "Secondly we carried out numerical simulations to verify our theoretical results," Yoshida said. "We proposed a novel non-equilibrium molecular dynamic (NEMD) methodology to realize the molecular dynamics simulation for the diffusio-osmotic flow. We validated the method both numerically and theoretically, and applied it to realistic systems with water-ethanol mixture in contact with a graphene and a silica surface." According to Yoshida, this led to the first direct observation of the diffusio-osmotic flow velocity field. They confirmed that the analytical expression based on their assumptions predicted the transport property of the diffusio-osmotic flow. Though so much work is already complete, their findings have only provided yet more work to be done -- often the ideal result of scientific inquiry. The work's wide implications scale its potential benefits to more complex osmotic phenomena and untapped applications. "The present theoretical results will bring forward the fundamental approach toward understanding various experimental results, to estimate the effects of osmosis and diffusio-osmosis in liquid transport across nano-porous membranes," Yoshida said. "In addition, the proposed NEMD method is a very powerful tool to explore various phenomena caused by the concentration or chemical potential gradient. In particular, diffusio-phoretic transport involving complex molecules, such as polymers and polyelectrolytes (DNA), will be explored next." Personally, Yoshida hopes to see the work have a positive impact to energy harvesting, an industry that has huge growth potential with innovative membranes. "There is a rapidly growing interest in applications using concentration difference or gradients to extract power," he said. "An example showing the potential of the concentration difference is the fact that when fresh river water mixes with seawater, an energy equal to a 270 m high waterfall is released. The use of membranes with new materials for power generation is a very active research topic."


— TRP recognizes Malachi Thurston as a top professional in online marketing and lead generation. “The media creates reality. So aligning yourself with the major media channels can add tons of authority and perceived value for you in the marketplace. You will be seen as the go-to expert in your field. And potential customers will choose you more often than not to help ease their pain.” For more information or to contact Malachi Thurston visit http://connect4digital.com TRP recognizes WEBBB.solutions (Web Business Builders.solutions) as a top professional in getting clients nationally recognized in their field of expertise and the exposure needed to grow and expand their business. “Establishing yourself as an authority is a vital step to increasing your perceived value in your industry and in the marketplace.” For more information or to contact WEBBB.solutions visit https://tinyurl.com/joewebbbprofile TRP recognizes B. Ken Paul as a top professional in creating 2D, 3D talking video avatars that can be your 24/7 spokesperson on any website, whether you own it or not. “I create fully-interactive Video Animated 2D and 3D Avatars that can be placed on virtually any website, whether you own it or not to boost your leads, sales and profits! Our Video Avatars is 100% compatible on virtually any computer and mobile device. Nothing To Download, Install Or Update!” For more information or to contact B. Ken Paul visit http://videoavatars.net/ TRP recognizes Kyle Robinson as a top professional in launching and building businesses, and helping Entrepreneurs and business owners overcome challenges and take their businesses to the next level. “Kyle Robinson is a Nationally recognized Entrepreneur and Inc. 500 Listed CEO. He has been engaged in launching and building businesses for over 30 years. He is the author of ‘When Your Business Gives You Lemons... Make Lemonade!’ He is passionate about helping Entrepreneurs go to the next level.” For more information or to contact Kyle Robinson visit www.BizSchoolofHardKnocks.com/About “Aligning yourself as an authority is extremely significant to enhancing your perceived value to your market.” For more information or to contact John Szasz III visit https://www.linkedin.com/in/john-szasz-iii-83877531 TRP recognizes Patrick Uszler SPHR, SHRM-SCP as a top professional in leadership development and mentoring. “Positioning yourself as an authority or having expertise in a specific discipline or skill set is the single most important thing you can do to gain visibility and perceived value across our profession. This could be the key to your next opportunity or promotion.” For more information or to contact Patrick Uszler visit https://www.linkedin.com/in/patuszler/ TRP recognizes Botta Aviation Copywriting & Marketing as a top professional in aviation copywriting, article content creation and strategic placement of your jet charter or FBO company on the leading media networks so your company stands out well above your competition. “Positioning your company as an authority in the increasingly cutthroat aviation jet charter and FBO market is the single most important thing you can do to increase your perceived value to your marketplace.” For more information or to contact Botta Aviation Copywriting & Marketing visit https://www.linkedin.com/in/bertbotta/ “Establishing authority and expert status in your market is a must if you want to demonstrate high perceived value and credibility to your audience.” For more information or to contact Kenneth Holland visit http://linkedin.com/in/kennethholland “Being a leader and authority in your field of expertise increases your worth in the market place.” For more information or to contact ENS Media visit https://www.linkedin.com/in/en-songtsa-b3978a51/ TRP recognizes Roy Landers as a top professional in small business development and consulting. “Establishing yourself as an expert or authority in your industry is the best way to increase your perceived value to your target market. When you position yourself as an authority who can deliver a quality service or product you create the maximum opportunity for profits and prosperity.” For more information or to contact Roy Landers visit www.landerslaw.com For more information, please visit http://www.TopRecommendedProfessional.com


News Article | May 1, 2017
Site: www.rdmag.com

It is a common trope in disaster movies: an earthquake strikes, causing the ground to rip open and swallow people and cars whole. The gaping earth might make for cinematic drama, but earthquake scientists have long held that it does not happen. Except, it can, according to new experimental research from Caltech. The work, appearing in the journal Natureon May 1, shows how the earth can split open -- and then quickly close back up -- during earthquakes along thrust faults. Thrust faults have been the site of some of the world's largest quakes, such as the 2011 Tohoku earthquake off the coast of Japan, which damaged the Fukushima nuclear power plant. They occur in weak areas of the earth's crust where one slab of rock compresses against another, sliding up and over it during an earthquake. A team of engineers and scientists from Caltech and École normale supérieure (ENS) in Paris have discovered that fast ruptures propagating up toward the earth's surface along a thrust fault can cause one side of a fault to twist away from the other, opening up a gap of up to a few meters that then snaps shut. Thrust fault earthquakes generally occur when two slabs of rock press against one another, and pressure overcomes the friction holding them in place. It has long been assumed that, at shallow depths the plates would just slide against one another for a short distance, without opening. However, researchers investigating the Tohoku earthquake found that not only did the fault slip at shallow depths, it did so by up to 50 meters in some places. That huge motion, which occurred just offshore, triggered a tsunami that caused damage to facilities along the coast of Japan, including at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. In the Nature paper, the team hypothesizes that the Tohoku earthquake rupture propagated up the fault and--once it neared the surface -- caused one slab of rock to twist away from another, opening a gap and momentarily removing any friction between the two walls. This allowed the fault to slip 50 meters. That opening of the fault was supposed to be impossible. "This is actually built into most computer models of earthquakes right now. The models have been programed in a way that dictates that the walls of the fault cannot separate from one another," says Ares Rosakis, Theodore von Kármán Professor of Aeronautics and Mechanical Engineering at Caltech and one of the senior authors of the Nature paper. "The findings demonstrate the value of experimentation and observation. Computer models can only be as realistic as their built-in assumptions allow them to be." The international team discovered the twisting phenomenon by simulating an earthquake in a Caltech facility that has been unofficially dubbed the "Seismological Wind Tunnel." The facility started as a collaboration between Rosakis, an engineer studying how materials fail, and Hiroo Kanamori, a seismologist exploring the physics of earthquakes and a coauthor of the Nature study. "The Caltech research environment helped us a great deal to have close collaboration across different scientific disciplines," Kanamori said. "We seismologists have benefited a great deal from collaboration with Professor Rosakis's group, because it is often very difficult to perform experiments to test our ideas in seismology." At the facility, researchers use advanced high-speed optical diagnostics to study how earthquake ruptures occur. To simulate a thrust fault earthquake in the lab, the researchers first cut in half a transparent block of plastic that has mechanical properties similar to that of rock. They then put the broken pieces back together under pressure, simulating the tectonic load of a fault line. Next, they place a small nickel-chromium wire fuse at the location where they want the epicenter of the quake to be. When they set off the fuse, the friction at the fuse's location is reduced, allowing a very fast rupture to propagate up the miniature fault. The material is photoelastic, meaning that it visually shows -- through light interference as it travels in the clear material -- the propagation of stress waves. The simulated quake is recorded using high-speed cameras and the resulting motion is captured by laser velocimeters (particle speed sensors). "This is a great example of collaboration between seismologists, tectonisists and engineers. And not to put too fine a point on it, US/French collaboration," says Harsha Bhat, coauthor of the paper and a research scientist at ENS. Bhat was previously a postdoctoral researcher at Caltech. The team was surprised to see that, as the rupture hit the surface, the fault twisted open and then snapped shut. Subsequent computer simulations--with models that were modified to remove the artificial rules against the fault opening--confirmed what the team observed experimentally: one slab can twist violently away from the other. This can happen both on land and on underwater thrust faults, meaning that this mechanism has the potential to change our understanding of how tsunamis are generated.


News Article | May 1, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

It is a common trope in disaster movies: an earthquake strikes, causing the ground to rip open and swallow people and cars whole. The gaping earth might make for cinematic drama, but earthquake scientists have long held that it does not happen. Except, it can, according to new experimental research from Caltech. The work, appearing in the journal Nature on May 1, shows how the earth can split open -- and then quickly close back up -- during earthquakes along thrust faults. Thrust faults have been the site of some of the world's largest quakes, such as the 2011 Tohoku earthquake off the coast of Japan, which damaged the Fukushima nuclear power plant. They occur in weak areas of the earth's crust where one slab of rock compresses against another, sliding up and over it during an earthquake. A team of engineers and scientists from Caltech and École normale supérieure (ENS) in Paris have discovered that fast ruptures propagating up toward the earth's surface along a thrust fault can cause one side of a fault to twist away from the other, opening up a gap of up to a few meters that then snaps shut. Thrust fault earthquakes generally occur when two slabs of rock press against one another, and pressure overcomes the friction holding them in place. It has long been assumed that, at shallow depths the plates would just slide against one another for a short distance, without opening. However, researchers investigating the Tohoku earthquake found that not only did the fault slip at shallow depths, it did so by up to 50 meters in some places. That huge motion, which occurred just offshore, triggered a tsunami that caused damage to facilities along the coast of Japan, including at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. In the Nature paper, the team hypothesizes that the Tohoku earthquake rupture propagated up the fault and--once it neared the surface -- caused one slab of rock to twist away from another, opening a gap and momentarily removing any friction between the two walls. This allowed the fault to slip 50 meters. That opening of the fault was supposed to be impossible. "This is actually built into most computer models of earthquakes right now. The models have been programed in a way that dictates that the walls of the fault cannot separate from one another," says Ares Rosakis, Theodore von Kármán Professor of Aeronautics and Mechanical Engineering at Caltech and one of the senior authors of the Nature paper. "The findings demonstrate the value of experimentation and observation. Computer models can only be as realistic as their built-in assumptions allow them to be." The international team discovered the twisting phenomenon by simulating an earthquake in a Caltech facility that has been unofficially dubbed the "Seismological Wind Tunnel." The facility started as a collaboration between Rosakis, an engineer studying how materials fail, and Hiroo Kanamori, a seismologist exploring the physics of earthquakes and a coauthor of the Nature study. "The Caltech research environment helped us a great deal to have close collaboration across different scientific disciplines," Kanamori said. "We seismologists have benefited a great deal from collaboration with Professor Rosakis's group, because it is often very difficult to perform experiments to test our ideas in seismology." At the facility, researchers use advanced high-speed optical diagnostics to study how earthquake ruptures occur. To simulate a thrust fault earthquake in the lab, the researchers first cut in half a transparent block of plastic that has mechanical properties similar to that of rock. They then put the broken pieces back together under pressure, simulating the tectonic load of a fault line. Next, they place a small nickel-chromium wire fuse at the location where they want the epicenter of the quake to be. When they set off the fuse, the friction at the fuse's location is reduced, allowing a very fast rupture to propagate up the miniature fault. The material is photoelastic, meaning that it visually shows -- through light interference as it travels in the clear material -- the propagation of stress waves. The simulated quake is recorded using high-speed cameras and the resulting motion is captured by laser velocimeters (particle speed sensors). "This is a great example of collaboration between seismologists, tectonisists and engineers. And not to put too fine a point on it, US/French collaboration," says Harsha Bhat, coauthor of the paper and a research scientist at ENS. Bhat was previously a postdoctoral researcher at Caltech. The team was surprised to see that, as the rupture hit the surface, the fault twisted open and then snapped shut. Subsequent computer simulations--with models that were modified to remove the artificial rules against the fault opening--confirmed what the team observed experimentally: one slab can twist violently away from the other. This can happen both on land and on underwater thrust faults, meaning that this mechanism has the potential to change our understanding of how tsunamis are generated. The paper is titled "Experimental evidence that thrust earthquake ruptures might open faults." The lead author is Vahe Gabuchian (MS '08, PhD '15), a former PhD student at Caltech's Graduate Aerospace Laboratories (GALCIT), and coauthors include Raúl Madariaga of ENS. This research was funded by the National Science Foundation. The study can be found online at http://www.


News Article | April 21, 2017
Site: www.scientificamerican.com

Earlier this month I mentioned that I had visited Rue Sophie Germain, the only street in Paris named after a woman mathematician. I was wrong! Just a few days after writing that post, I was taking a walk and stopped to photograph some street art when I noticed the word mathématicienne on a street sign. Surprised, I saw that I was at Rue Marie-Louise Dubreil-Jacotin, another Paris street named for a woman mathematician. Sophie is not alone! I have been basing my Paris mathematician street tourism on this helpful page from the MacTutor website. (Incidentally, MacTutor is one of my favorite math history resources. Check it out!) Rue Marie-Louise Dubreil-Jacotin was not on their Paris streets list yet, and that’s why I didn’t know about it. In their defense, the street was only named in 2008, so it may not even have existed when they first put it together. (I sent the MacTutor site authors a note about it, and they've since updated the list.) I was excited to see another street named for a mathématicienne, but I must confess I had never heard of Marie-Louise Dubreil-Jacotin until I stumbled on her street. Dubreil-Jacotin (1905-1972) was the first woman mathematician to be appointed to a full professorship in France and the second woman to earn a doctorate in pure mathematics in France. She placed second in the exam to get into the École Normale Supérieure, but when the official rankings came out, she was listed behind 20 men. Through a connection with a friend, she was able to attend anyway, a few months late. She graduated from the ENS in 1929 and married her classmate Paul Dubreil in 1930. She traveled with him to Göttingen, where she met Emmy Noether and got interested in algebra. She focused on fluid mechanics in her thesis research, though, and earned her doctorate in 1934. Her husband had an appointment at Nancy, to the east of Paris, for the first few years after their marriage, and she, not being allowed to get a position at the same university, worked in Rennes, Poitiers, and Lyon to the west and south. (How they made it work in the days before the fast TGV trains and Skype, especially considering they had a child, is hard for me to understand.) She was made a full professor at Poitiers in 1943, and eventually she and Paul were both able to get jobs in Paris. In addition to her research on fluid mechanics and algebra, she wrote a textbook and wrote about women in mathematics. To learn more about Marie-Louise Dubreil-Jacotin, check out her MacTutor biography or the article “Women mathematicians in France in the mid-twentieth century” by Yvette Kosmann-Schwarzbach. The MacTutor article also has a translation of a remembrance written for the École Normale Supérieure by her classmate and colleague Jean Leray in 1974, not long after Dubreil-Jacotin’s death in 1972. So not one but two streets in Paris are named for women mathematicians. If you’re willing to expand your range ever so slightly beyond the Boulevard Périphérique, you can even increase that number by 50 percent: Rue Emmy Noether is only a few meters from Paris in Saint-Ouen. I have not made my pilgrimage out there yet, but I plan to soon. Wrong in Public is a (thankfully very occasional) series in which I correct errors from previous posts. Read the previous post in this series: Wrong in Public: The Four-Color Theorem Edition

Loading ENS collaborators
Loading ENS collaborators