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Enotria Winecellars Ltd and Cantine Settesoli S.C.A. | Date: 2011-09-27

Wines.


Trademark
ENOTRIA WINECELLARS Ltd and Cantine Settesoli S.C.A. | Date: 2011-12-28

Wines.


Trademark
Enotria Winecellars LTD and Cantine Settesoli S.C.A. | Date: 2011-05-03

Wines.


Trademark
Enotria Winecellars Ltd and Cantine Settesoli S.C.A. | Date: 2012-02-07

Wines.


Lane S.W.,University of Leeds | Lane S.W.,Enotria Winecellars Ltd. | Lane S.W.,University of Cardiff | Dennis C.A.,University of Leeds | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

A codon-optimised gene has been expressed in Escherichia coli to produce the coat protein (CP) of the Satellite Tobacco Necrosis Virus. This protein assembles in vivo into capsids closely resembling those of the T = 1 wild-type virus. These virus-like particles (VLPs) package the recombinant mRNA transcript and can be disassembled and reassembled using different buffer conditions. The X-ray crystal structure of the VLP has been solved and refined at 1.4Å resolution and shown to be very similar to that of wild-type Satellite Tobacco Necrosis Virus, except that icosahedral symmetry constraints could be removed to reveal differences between subunits, presumably owing to crystal packing. An additional low-resolution X-ray crystal structure determination revealed well-ordered RNA fragments lodged near the inside surface of the capsid, close to basic clusters formed by the N-terminal helices that project into the interior of the particle. The RNA consists of multiple copies of a 3-bp helical stem, with a single unpaired base at the 3′ end, and probably consists of a number of short stem-loops where the loop region is disordered. The arrangement of the RNA is different from that observed in other satellite viruses. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Bunka D.H.J.,University of Leeds | Bunka D.H.J.,Enotria Winecellars Ltd. | Lane S.W.,University of Leeds | Lane S.W.,Enotria Winecellars Ltd. | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

Using a recombinant, T = 1 Satellite Tobacco Necrosis Virus (STNV)-like particle expressed in Escherichia coli, we have established conditions for in vitro disassembly and reassembly of the viral capsid. In vivo assembly is dependent on the presence of the coat protein (CP) N-terminal region, and in vitro assembly requires RNA. Using immobilised CP monomers under reassembly conditions with "free" CP subunits, we have prepared a range of partially assembled CP species for RNA aptamer selection. SELEX directed against the RNA-binding face of the STNV CP resulted in the isolation of several clones, one of which (B3) matches the STNV-1 genome in 16 out of 25 nucleotide positions, including across a statistically significant 10/10 stretch. This 10-base region folds into a stem-loop displaying the motif ACAA and has been shown to bind to STNV CP. Analysis of the other aptamer sequences reveals that the majority can be folded into stem-loops displaying versions of this motif. Using a sequence and secondary structure search motif to analyse the genomic sequence of STNV-1, we identified 30 stem-loops displaying the sequence motif AxxA. The implication is that there are many stem-loops in the genome carrying essential recognition features for binding STNV CP. Secondary structure predictions of the genomic RNA using Mfold showed that only 8 out of 30 of these stem-loops would be formed in the lowest-energy structure. These results are consistent with an assembly mechanism based on kinetically driven folding of the RNA. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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