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Glen Ellyn, IL, United States

Baulch H.M.,University of Saskatchewan | Futter M.N.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Futter M.N.,Trent University | Jin L.,New York University | And 10 more authors.
Inland Waters | Year: 2013

We report results from a spatially intensive monitoring and modelling study to assess phosphorus (P) dynamics in the Beaver River, a tributary of Lake Simcoe, Ontario. We established multiple monitoring stations (9 flow and 24 water quality stations) from headwaters to near the outflow that were operated for 2 field seasons, complementing longer term data from a flow monitoring site and water chemistry monitoring site. We applied the Branched-INCA-P model, which allows fully distributed simulations supported by highly distributed monitoring data. Using spatially distributed data helped better understand variable P and sediment dynamics across the catchment and identify key model uncertainties and uncertainties related to catchment P management. Measured and modelled total P concentrations often exceeded provisional water quality thresholds in many areas of the catchment and highlight the value of studying water quality across multiple subcatchments rather than at a single site. Total P export coefficients differed widely among subcatchments, ranging from 2.1-21.4 kg km-2 y-1 over a single year. Export coefficients were most strongly (negatively) related to the proportion of wetland cover in subcatchments. The INCA-P model captured spatial variation in P concentrations relatively well, but short-term temporal variability in the observed data was not well simulated across sites, in part due to unmodelled hydrological phenomena including beaver activity and unknown drivers of P peaks that were not associated with hydrological events.

Futter M.N.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Poste A.E.,Trent University | Butterfield D.,Enmosys | Dillon P.J.,Trent University | And 3 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2012

We present a new, catchment-scale, process-based dynamic model for simulating mercury (Hg) in soils and surface waters. The Integrated Catchments Model for Mercury (INCA-Hg) simulates transport of gaseous, dissolved and solid Hg and transformations between elemental (Hg 0), ionic (Hg(II)) and methyl (MeHg) Hg in natural and semi-natural landscapes. The mathematical description represents the model as a series of linked, first-order differential equations describing chemical and hydrological processes in catchment soils and waters which we believe control surface water Hg dynamics. The model simulates daily time series between one and 100years long and can be applied to catchments ranging in size from <1 to ~10,000km 2. Here we present applications of the model to two boreal forest headwater catchments in central Canada where we were able to reproduce observed patterns of stream water total mercury (THg) and MeHg fluxes and concentrations. Model performance was assessed using Monte Carlo techniques. Simulated in-stream THg and MeHg concentrations were sensitive to hydrologic controls and terrestrial and aquatic process rates. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Futter M.N.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Erlandsson M.A.,University of Reading | Butterfield D.,Enmosys | Whitehead P.G.,University of Oxford | And 2 more authors.
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences | Year: 2014

Runoff generation processes and pathways vary widely between catchments. Credible simulations of solute and pollutant transport in surface waters are dependent on models which facilitate appropriate, catchment-specific representations of perceptual models of the runoff generation process. Here, we present a flexible, semi-distributed landscape-scale rainfall-runoff modelling toolkit suitable for simulating a broad range of user-specified perceptual models of runoff generation and stream flow occurring in different climatic regions and landscape types. PERSiST (the Precipitation, Evapotranspiration and Runoff Simulator for Solute Transport) is designed for simulating present-day hydrology; projecting possible future effects of climate or land use change on runoff and catchment water storage; and generating hydrologic inputs for the Integrated Catchments (INCA) family of models. PERSiST has limited data requirements and is calibrated using observed time series of precipitation, air temperature and runoff at one or more points in a river network. Here, we apply PERSiST to the river Thames in the UK and describe a Monte Carlo tool for model calibration, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis.© Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

Jin L.,New York University | Whitehead P.G.,University of Oxford | Sarkar S.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur | Sinha R.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Sciences: Processes and Impacts | Year: 2015

Anthropogenic climate change has impacted and will continue to impact the natural environment and people around the world. Increasing temperatures and altered rainfall patterns combined with socio-economic factors such as population changes, land use changes and water transfers will affect flows and nutrient fluxes in river systems. The Ganga river, one of the largest river systems in the world, supports approximately 10% global population and more than 700 cities. Changes in the Ganga river system are likely to have a significant impact on water availability, water quality, aquatic habitats and people. In order to investigate these potential changes on the flow and water quality of the Ganga river, a multi-branch version of INCA Phosphorus (INCA-P) model has been applied to the entire river system. The model is used to quantify the impacts from a changing climate, population growth, additional agricultural land, pollution control and water transfers for 2041-2060 and 2080-2099. The results provide valuable information about potential effects of different management strategies on catchment water quality. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Sharma B.M.,TERI University | Bharat G.K.,TERI University | Tayal S.,TERI University | Larssen T.,Norwegian Institute for Water Research | And 7 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2015

Many perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They have been widely used in production processes and daily-use products or may result from degradation of precursor compounds in products or the environment. India, with its developing industrialization and population moving from traditional to contemporary lifestyles, represents an interesting case study to investigate PFAS emission and exposure along steep environmental and socioeconomic gradients. This study assesses PFAS concentrations in river and groundwater (used in this region as drinking water) from several locations along the Ganges River and estimates direct emissions, specifically for PFOS and PFOA. 15 PFAS were frequently detected in the river with the highest concentrations observed for PFHxA (0.4-4.7 ng L-1) and PFBS (

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