Vymazal J.,ENKI |
Vymazal J.,Czech University of Life Sciences
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2011
Constructed wetlands with horizontal sub-surface flow (HF CWs) have been in use in the Czech Republic since 1989. Evaluation of the long-term performance of horizontal sub-surface flow constructed wetlands in the Czech Republic indicates that removal of organics and suspended solids is very effective; efficiencies are steady throughout the year and are not affected by season and also by the length of operation. The results from systems treating wastewaters from combined sewer systems clearly indicate that HF CWs can very effectively cope with low inflow concentrations of organics and can provide effluent BOD5 concentrations less than 5mgl-1. Phosphorus removal is seasonally steady but low as Czech constructed wetlands do not use special filtration media with high sorption capacity. This is not a problem, because in the Czech Republic, there is currently no discharge limit for phosphorus for wastewater treatment plants up to 2000 person equivalents (PE). Removal of ammonia-N is limited by lack of dissolved oxygen in filtration beds caused by permanent saturation. The removal of ammonia-N is steady over the life of operation but is affected by season but the decrease in ammonia removal efficiency during winter is not large. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.
Vymazal J.,ENKI |
Vymazal J.,Czech University of Life Sciences |
Kropfelova L.,ENKI |
Kropfelova L.,Czech University of Life Sciences
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2011
Hybrid constructed wetland systems have recently been used to treat wastewaters where high demand for removal of ammonia is required. However, these systems have not been used too often for small on-site treatment systems. This is because in many countries ammonia is not limited in the discharge from small systems. Hybrid systems have a great potential to reduce both ammonia and nitrate concentrations at the same time. In our study we employed a three-stage constructed wetland system consisting of saturated vertical-flow (VF) bed (2.5m2, planted with Phragmites australis), free-drained VF bed (1.5m2, planted with P. australis) and horizontal-flow (HF) bed (6m2, planted with Phalaris arundinacea) in series. All wetlands were originally filled with crushed rock (4-8mm). However, nitrification was achieved only after the crushed rock was replaced with sand (0-4mm) in the free-drain wetland. Also, original size of crushed rock proved to be too vulnerable to clogging and therefore, in the first wetlands the upper 40cm was replaced by coarser fraction of crushed rock (16-32mm) before the second year of operation started. The system was fed with mechanically pretreated municipal wastewater and the total daily flow was divided into two batches 12h apart. The evaluation of the results from the period 2007 to 2008 indicated that such a system has a great potential for oxidation of ammonia and reduction of nitrate. The ammonia was substantially reduced in the free-drained VF bed and nitrate was effectively reduced in the final HF bed. The inflow mean NH4-N concentration of 29.9mg/l was reduced to 6.5mg/l with the average removal efficiency of 78.3%. At the same time the average nitrate-N concentration rose from 0.5 to only 2.7mg/l at the outflow. Removal of BOD5 and COD amounted to 94.5% and 84.4%, respectively, with respective average outflow concentrations of 10 and 50mg/l. Phosphorus was removed efficiently despite the fact that the system was not aimed at P removal and therefore no special media were used. Phosphorus removal amounted in 2008 to 65.4%, but the average outflow concentration of 1.8mg/l is still high. The results of the present study indicate very efficient performance of the hybrid constructed wetlands, but optimal loading parameters still need to be adjusted. The capital cost of the experimental system is comparable to the conventional on-site treatment plant but the operations and maintenance costs are about one third of the conventional plant. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Vymazal J.,Czech University of Life Sciences |
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2015
Hybrid constructed wetlands (HCWs) are very efficient in removal of total nitrogen. So far hybrid-constructed wetlands have been composed of various combinations of wetland units but most common combination is vertical flow-horizontal flow system. Also, multistage HCWs have recently been used. The present study describes the use of three-stage HCWs for treatment of municipal sewage. The system consists of saturated vertical flow, free-drain vertical and horizontal flow units in series. The experimental system with a total surface area of 10.1m2 has been operated for 19 months between March 2009 and October 2010. The results proved that multistage hybrid constructed wetland was able to remove efficiently organics, suspended solids and nitrogen. The overall removal efficiency amounted to 92.5%, 83.8%, 96.0%, 88.8% and 79.9% for BOD5, COD, TSS, NH4-N and TN, respectively. The aerobic vertical flow stage provided high degree of nitrification (removal rate of 4.17g NH4-Nm-2d-1) while remaining anaerobic stages (first and third) provided suitable conditions for denitrification (removal rates of 0.83g N-NO3m-2d-1 and 0.47g N-NO3m-2d-1, respectively). The outflow NH4-N concentrations were below 5mgl-1 throughout the monitored period including winter period when the air temperature dropped below -20°C. Plant biomass sequestered 28% and 26% of phosphorus and nitrogen inflow load, respectively. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Rejskova A.,ENKI |
Cizkova H.,University of South Bohemia |
Brom J.,ENKI |
Brom J.,University of South Bohemia |
Ecohydrology | Year: 2012
Transpiration, evapotranspiration and evaporative fraction (EF) were measured in a temperate zone wetland dominated by Phalaris arundinacea L. under extremely high temperature and intense irradiation conditions. The infrared (IR) camera recorded no temperature extremes within the stand, indicating that the stand was capable of regulating the overheating by transpiration. The transpiration rate of individual leaves (measured by the gas-exchange method) was positively correlated with the water vapour pressure deficit of the air (R 2 = 0·56, df = 1, 60, p < 0·001) reaching values of up to 7·8 mmol m -2 s -1 of leaf area. Evapotranspiration of the stand reached values of 5·3 and 5·9 mm day -1 on the 27 and 28 July 2005, respectively. The EF showed that more than one half of the available energy was consumed in the evapotranspiration processes. In the afternoon, the influence of hot air advection was obvious. A strong cooling effect of the wetland was shown. The results support the idea that wetlands sufficiently supplied with water are important in the energy and water budget of drained cultural landscapes. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Cizkova H.,University of South Bohemia |
Kvet J.,University of South Bohemia |
Comin F.A.,CSIC - Pyrenean Institute of Ecology |
Laiho R.,University of Helsinki |
And 2 more authors.
Aquatic Sciences | Year: 2013
The present area of European wetlands is only a fraction of their area before the start of large-scale human colonization of Europe. Many European wetlands have been exploited and managed for various purposes. Large wetland areas have been drained and reclaimed mainly for agriculture and establishment of human settlements. These threats to European wetlands persist. The main responses of European wetlands to ongoing climate change will vary according to wetland type and geographical location. Sea level rise will probably be the decisive factor affecting coastal wetlands, especially along the Atlantic coast. In the boreal part of Europe, increased temperatures will probably lead to increased annual evapotranspiration and lower organic matter accumulation in soil. The role of vast boreal wetlands as carbon sinks may thus be suppressed. In central and western Europe, the risk of floods may support the political will for ecosystem-unfriendly flood defence measures, which may threaten the hydrology of existing wetlands. Southern Europe will probably suffer most from water shortage, which may strengthen the competition for water resources between agriculture, industry and settlements on the one hand and nature conservancy, including wetland conservation, on the other. © 2011 Springer Basel AG.
Communications of the ACM | Year: 2010
Hesslerova P.,ENKI |
Hesslerova P.,Czech University of Life Sciences |
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management | Year: 2010
Monitoring the dissipation of the daily pulse of solar energy is one of the ways to assess functionality in landscapes. The temperature of the land cover indicates both balances among fluxes of solar energy (reflection, latent, and sensible heat) and conditions for matter retention in the landscape. Temperature is distributed across landscape depending on the type and structure of land cover, qualitative parameters (contents of chlorophyll and water), and the related process of evapotranspiration. The present study explains a method used for objectively diagnosing the ecological functions of the landscape, drawing theoretically from the Energy-Transport-Reaction model and using Landsat multispectral satellite data. The method is applied to 3 images taken in the northwest of the Czech Republic and in Saxony (Germany), in 1986, 1995, and 2004. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2010;6:249-259. © 2009 SETAC.
News Article | November 11, 2016
Cloud services are those services that are offered to users via the Internet from the server of cloud computing service provider. Such services provide scalable and easy access to various resources and applications, and are entirely managed by the cloud service providers. The examples of cloud services include web-based e-mail services, online backup solutions and data storage, document collaboration services, technical support services, and database processing among others. Cloud service providers supply the necessary software and hardware required for cloud service, thereby eliminating the need for organizations to deploy their own resources for managing networked services. The other advantage of cloud services over the traditional methods of providing infrastructure is faster deployment of services and reduction in in-house maintenance costs. On the basis of mode of delivery, the cloud services market is segmented into Platform as a Service (PaaS), Software as a Service (SaaS) and Infrastructure as a service (IaaS). The SaaS mode of delivery is further segmented into SMB and mobile corporate SaaS cloud services, corporate SaaS cloud services, SMB SaaS cloud services and others. North America is the largest contributor to the cloud services market due to the high penetration of internet in this region. This region is followed by Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of the World (RoW). Major benefits offered by cloud services are driving business organizations in implementing the use of cloud services. Cloud services maximize the effectiveness of shared resources and ensure the business organizations higher returns and faster paybacks. In addition, cloud services offer scalable solutions to growing business organizations at low cost of ownership. This drives business organizations to invest in such services that allow them to generate higher revenues by optimizing the available resources. However, the data security issues are the roadblocks that are adversely affecting the growth of this market. The increasing data hacking incidences using sophisticated tools result in loss of sensitive data, causing serious dents in the business revenues. Also, there are constant evolutions of new security threats that are affecting the quality of cloud services. Further, the small and medium businesses find it difficult to repeatedly invest in the customized solutions available for cloud services security. Due to such factors, the business organizations are reluctant in investing in the cloud services and prefer to carry on with conventional methods of network infrastructure. Some of the major players in the market are improving their existing services by adding new and innovative features. This helps them in staying competitively ahead in the market. For instance, Akamai Technologies, Inc., one of the leading cloud services providers, recently added Zone Apex Mapping feature to its Ion network acceleration technology. This feature reduces DNS resolution time and avoids HTTP redirects. Other major players in the market include VMware, Inc., (U.S.), Taleo Corporation (Ireland), Oracle Corporation, (U.S.), NetSuite Inc., (U.S.), Microsoft Corporation (U.S.), Joyent Inc., (U.S.), International Business Machines Corporation (U.S.), Hewlett-Packard (U.S.), Flexiant Limited (United Kingdom), ENKI Consulting (U.S.), Etelos Inc.,(U.S.), Citrix Systems Inc., (U.S.), Cisco Systems Inc., (U.S.), CA Technologies, Inc., (U.S.), and SAP AG (Germany). Persistence Market Research (PMR) is a third-platform research firm. Our research model is a unique collaboration of data analytics and market research methodology to help businesses achieve optimal performance. To support companies in overcoming complex business challenges, we follow a multi-disciplinary approach. At PMR, we unite various data streams from multi-dimensional sources. By deploying real-time data collection, big data, and customer experience analytics, we deliver business intelligence for organizations of all sizes.
News Article | December 13, 2016
Standard-crossing advancements lead the way to a connected world integrating energy harvesting wireless control and leading protocols such as IoTivity, AllJoyn, IBM Watson and Hemis SAN RAMON, CA and LAS VEGAS, NV--(Marketwired - Dec 13, 2016) - At the 2017 International CES (Las Vegas, January 5-8, 2017), the EnOcean Alliance will show its advancements of a self-powered Internet of Things (IoT). This includes a cooperation with the Open Connectivity Foundation (OCF) and with industry leader IBM to develop interoperable self-powered wireless solutions as a standard for the Internet of Things. At CES 2017, the EnOcean Alliance will be showing maintenance-free wireless products working within the OCF eco-system, helping to create a fully connected and interoperable smart home and smart building solution. EnOcean Alliance promoter BSC Computer and member Digital Concepts will demonstrate gateway solutions to enable seamless communication in the IoT by connecting the EnOcean wireless standard with leading protocols like IoTivity, AllJoyn and IBM Watson. Together with EnOcean Alliance promoter IBM, the organization will be showing the self-powered "sensor to cloud" IoT solution, which enables the integration of EnOcean´s wireless technology into the IBM Watson IoT Platform to conduct predictive and real-time analysis of facilities. Furthermore, the EnOcean Alliance will be demonstrating the latest speech controlled home automation systems, for example switching on lights or closing the blinds. The EnOcean Alliance has made this possible through the creation of the latest EnOcean to IP and remote commissioning specification, which will also be integrated in the new specification program of the organization. Thus, the EnOcean Alliance combines its expertise in battery-less, wireless smart buildings and smart homes with the approach of an interoperable, standard-crossing communication platform connecting everything. Visitors to CES can learn more about the EnOcean Alliance's IoT approach at the partner booth of the Open Connectivity Foundation (Sands, #40930) and at the Ubiant booth (Sands, #41363). The EnOcean Alliance is one of the most established organizations in the field of smartly connected buildings. Its mission is to enable and promote intelligent buildings, smart home and IoT applications through the creation of a broad range of interoperable battery-less and wireless solutions. More than 400 member companies already have established a broad solution portfolio based on the EnOcean wireless standard. This enables devices to work without wires and batteries for a highly flexible and maintenance-free operation. Way to a battery-less IoT "Thanks to our cooperation with strong partners, we build the basis to directly connect battery-less sensor solutions to the Internet and thus to open IoT platforms. The user doesn't need to worry about the technology used by the single components but can benefit from a seamless connectivity in his smart home -- the main concept of the IoT," says Graham Martin, Chairman of the EnOcean Alliance. Visitors to the show can experience the EnOcean Alliance's IoT approach at the following booths: Open Connectivity Foundation (Sands, #40930): The Open Connectivity Foundation (OCF) and the EnOcean Alliance partner to deliver seamless, interoperable connectivity for the Internet of Things. The two organizations and its members work together to enable self-powered wireless solutions using the OCF interoperable specification framework for industry-crossing communication in the IoT. The OCF framework works horizontally across and between IoT vertical segments and will benefit companies that want to develop products to address these markets. Using the OCF standard will remove the various "island" solutions and instead provide a common solution for smart home, industrial, healthcare and more. The OCF unifies the entirety of the former Open Interconnect Consortium (OIC) with leading companies at all levels -- silicon, software, platform, and finished-goods -- dedicated to providing this key interoperability element of an IoT solution. Ubiant (Sands, #41363): Ubiant will demonstrate its self-learning cloud solution called hemis. It is based on artificial intelligence to minimize energy consumption in buildings while maximizing the residents' well-being. The system's core is a cloud platform that connects applications for lighting, HVAC or blind control, as well as battery-less, wireless sensors and actuators or mobile devices, based on the EnOcean wireless standard. The Quickmove standard allows users to install, move or remove all components of the smart home system using a NFC-enabled mobile phone or tablet. Part of the hemis portfolio is Luminion, a smart candlestick visualizing energy consumption and comparing it to the hemis community. In addition to EnOcean Alliance's presence, several of its partners will be exhibiting at CES 2017 as well, including: BSC Computer and Digital Concepts (Sands, #40930): Gateway manufacturers BSC Computer and Digital Concepts will be demonstrating gateway solutions for seamless communication by connecting the EnOcean energy harvesting wireless standard (ISO/IEC 14543-3-1X) with the Internet Protocol (IP). Thus, sensors and remote configurable actuators, can be linked to the Internet. This is the foundation for the Internet of Things (IoT), a fully interoperable network, where data collected once can be reused for intelligent control of different devices regardless of the used technology, radio or manufacturer. EnOcean (Sands, #40464): EnOcean, the inventor and world leader in energy harvesting wireless technology, will demonstrate self-powered wireless solutions for the Internet of Things (IoT) at CES 2017. In the Smart Home Marketplace, the company will show how wireless switches, sensors and actuators can be powered by energy out of motion, light and temperature. The energy harvesting devices, devoid of wires and batteries, enable highly flexible and maintenance-free applications for smart homes and cloud services on the way to the Internet of Things. "With EnOcean´s more than 15 years experience in energy-harvesting, ultra-low power wireless communication and energy management, we enable self-powered wireless sensor solutions for the Internet of Things," says Andreas Schneider, co-founder and Chief Marketing Officer of EnOcean. "Together with strong partners, we will continue developing exciting new self-powered, maintenance-free applications for our customer's sensor solutions in the Internet of Things." NodOn (Sands, #40248): NodOn will present its plug&play NodOn smart home portfolio based on the EnOcean standard. A new highlight is the In-Wall Module, a little device, which can easily be mounted behind an existing wired wall switch. Within just a few minutes, the switch can talk EnOcean radio thanks to the little module. Thus, a formerly classical wired switch can now be seamlessly integrated in an EnOcean-based smart home. Using the module, the switch can be connected to the NodOn Home Automation Gateway or to several battery-less wireless controllers such as the NodOn Soft Remote, Wall Switch or Card Switch. Even an additional toggle switch can be added in less than ten minutes without any construction work needed. In addition, the NodOn portfolio also offers a Smart Plug that allows wireless control of electrical devices by using an EnOcean-compliant home automation gateway or a battery-less switch, and solar-powered Indoor Opening Sensors and Indoor Temperature Sensors. Additional members of the EnOcean Alliance exhibiting IoT solutions at CES 2017 include: Haier (LVCC, Central Hall, #15029), Honeywell International (Sands, Halls A-D, #42118), IBM (Veronese Suite, #2405), MyFox (Sands, #40944) and Zipato (Sands, #40227). Additionally, a common solution of EnOcean Alliance member products will be shown at the booth of Digitalstrom (Sands, #40139). Visitors to the show can also experience a new IoT solution by ENKI/Adeo (Eureka Park SANDS/ Floor 1/Hall G). About EnOcean Alliance Leading companies worldwide from the building sector formed the EnOcean Alliance to establish innovative maintenance-free wireless solutions for the Internet of Things, which are used for automation solutions for sustainable building projects -- making buildings more energy-efficient, more flexible and more cost effective. The core technology of the Alliance is energy harvesting wireless technology for flexibly positioned and service-free sensor solutions. The EnOcean Alliance aims to internationalize the energy harvesting wireless technology, and is dedicated to creating interoperability between the products of OEM partners. Basis for this is the international standard ISO/IEC 14543-3-1X, which is optimized for wireless solutions with ultra-low power consumption and energy harvesting. More than 400 companies currently belong to the EnOcean Alliance. The headquarters of the non-profit organization is located in San Ramon, California. www.enocean-alliance.org
News Article | February 22, 2017
Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "Global Cloud Computing Market Analysis & Trends - Industry Forecast to 2025" report to their offering. The Global Cloud Computing Market is poised to grow at a CAGR of around 27.5% over the next decade to reach approximately $1,250 billion by 2025. This industry report analyzes the market estimates and forecasts for all the given segments on global as well as regional levels presented in the research scope. The study provides historical market data for 2013, 2014 revenue estimations are presented for 2015 and forecasts from 2016 till 2025. The study focuses on market trends, leading players, supply chain trends, technological innovations, key developments, and future strategies. With comprehensive market assessment across the major geographies such as North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East, Latin America and Rest of the world the report is a valuable asset for the existing players, new entrants and the future investors. Some of the prominent trends that the market is witnessing include increasing applications of cloud computing solutions and expansion of global players into emerging regions. Based on deployment the market is categorized into public cloud, community cloud, private cloud and hybrid cloud. Depending on the service the market is segmented by platform as a service (PaaS), infrastructure as service (IaaS) and software as a service (SaaS). - The report provides a detailed analysis on current and future market trends to identify the investment opportunities - Market forecasts till 2025, using estimated market values as the base numbers - Key market trends across the business segments, Regions and Countries - Key developments and strategies observed in the market - Market Dynamics such as Drivers, Restraints, Opportunities and other trends - In-depth company profiles of key players and upcoming prominent players - Growth prospects among the emerging nations through 2025 - Market opportunities and recommendations for new investments 3 Market Overview 3.1 Current Trends 3.1.1 Increasing applications of cloud computing solutions 3.1.2 Expansion of global players into emerging regions 3.1.3 Recent Technological Developments of Cloud Computing 3.1.4 Growth Opportunities/Investment Opportunities 3.2 Drivers 3.3 Constraints 3.4 Industry Attractiveness 5 Cloud Computing Market, By Service 5.1 Platform as a Service (PaaS) 5.2 Infrastructure as Service (IaaS) 5.3 Software as a Service (SaaS) 8 Leading Companies 8.1 CA Technologies 8.2 Cisco Systems 8.3 Google 8.4 HP 8.5 Amazon.Com 8.6 IBM 8.7 Microsoft 8.8 SAP AG 8.9 Yahoo! Inc 8.10 Oracle 8.11 Flexiant 8.12 Citrix Systems, Inc. 8.13 ENKI Consulting 8.14 Akamai Technologies, Inc. 8.15 Citrix Systems, Inc. For more information about this report visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/54tvtd/global_cloud