Villenave-d'Ornon, France
Villenave-d'Ornon, France

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Naumov G.I.,State Institute for Genetics | Naumova E.S.,State Institute for Genetics | Masneuf-Pomarede I.,ENITA de Bordeaux | Masneuf-Pomarede I.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2010

Direct genetic testing for hybrid sterility unambiguously showed that the newly described yeast Saccharomyces arboricolus Wang et Bai is reproductively isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus, Saccharomyces cariocanus, Saccharomyces kudriavzevii, Saccharomyces mikatae and Saccharomyces paradoxus and, therefore, represents a new biological species of the genus Saccharomyces. Combined phylogenetic analysis of the rDNA repeat sequences (18S, 26S, ITS), nuclear ACT1 and mitochondrial ATP9 genes revealed that S. arboricolus, along with S. kudriavzevii and S. bayanus, is distantly related to the other four biological species. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Masneuf-Pomarede I.,ENITA de Bordeaux | Bely M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Marullo P.,SARCO | Lonvaud-Funel A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Dubourdieu D.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2010

Among Saccharomyces yeast, S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus var. uvarum are related species, sharing the same ecosystem in sympatry. The physiological and technological properties of a large collection of genetically-identified S. bayanus var. uvarum wine strains were investigated in a biometric study and their fermentation behavior was compared at 24°C and 13°C. The variability of the phenotypic traits was considered at both intraspecific and interspecific levels. Low ethanol tolerance at 24°C and production of high levels of 2-phenylethanol and its acetate were clearly revealed as discriminative technological traits, distinguishing the S. bayanus var. uvarum strains from S. cerevisiae. Although some S. bayanus var. uvarum strains produced very small amounts of acetic acid, this was not a species-specific trait. , as the distribution of values was similar in both species. Fermentation kinetics at 24°C showed that S. bayanus var. uvarum maintained a high fermentation rate after Vmax, with low nitrogen requirements, but stuck fermentations were observed at later stages. In contrast, a shorter lag phase compared with S. cerevisiae, higher cell viability, and the ability to complete alcoholic fermentation at 13°C confirmed the low-temperature adaptation trait of S. bayanus var. uvarum. This study produced a phenotypic characterization data set for a collection of S. bayanus var. uvarum strains, thus paving the way for industrial developments using this species as a new genetic resource. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Villate L.,University of Rennes 1 | Villate L.,Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology | Esmenjaud D.,University of Rennes 1 | Van Helden M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2010

Asexuality is an important mode of reproduction in eukaryotic taxa and has a theoretical advantage over sexual reproduction because of the increased ability to propagate genes. Despite this advantage, hidden signs of cryptic sex have been discovered in the genomes of asexual organisms. This has provided an interesting way to address the evolutionary impact of sex in plant and animal populations. However, the identification of rare sexual reproduction events in mainly asexual species has remained a challenging task. We examined the reproductive history in populations of the plant parasitic nematode Xiphinema index by genotyping individuals collected from six grapevine fields using seven microsatellite markers. A high level of linkage disequilibrium and heterozygous excess suggested a clonality rate of 95-100%. However, we also detected rare sexual reproduction events within these highly clonal populations. By combining highly polymorphic markers with an appropriate hierarchical sampling, and using both Bayesian and multivariate analysis with phylogenetic reconstructions, we were able to identify a small number of sexually produced individuals at the overlapping zones between different genetic clusters. This suggested that sexual reproduction was favoured when and where two nematode patches came into contact. Among fields, a high degree of genetic differentiation indicated a low level of gene flow between populations. Rare genotypes that were shared by several populations suggested passive dispersal by human activities, possibly through the introduction of infected plants from nurseries. We conclude that our method can be used to detect and locate sexual events in various predominantly asexual species. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Andre F.,Jülich Research Center | van Leeuwen C.,ENITA de Bordeaux | Saussez S.,Catholic University of Louvain | Van Durmen R.,Catholic University of Louvain | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Applied Geophysics | Year: 2012

Detailed knowledge of soil properties regulating soil water availability for the vines is of prime importance for optimal vineyard management. As soil characteristics may vary strongly over short distances, specific tools are required for efficient assessment and monitoring of soil water distribution and dynamics with fine spatial resolution. In that respect, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), electromagnetic induction (EMI) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys were carried out in a vineyard in southern France in order to produce high-resolution maps of soil stratigraphy and to retrieve soil hydrogeophysical properties of the different soil layers. The results presented in this paper show large spatial variations in vineyard soil properties, which are in accordance with the distribution of the different soil types within the study area. This is particularly observable from EMI and ERT data, which show strong spatial correlation with large areas of comparable values delimited by well-defined discontinuities, revealing sharp variations of soil characteristics over short distances. These discontinuities almost systematically correspond to the limits of the vineyard plots, though areas of contrasting soil electrical conductivity values are also found within some plots. Furthermore, the patterns of soil electrical conductivity and resistivity are in good agreement with soil stratigraphy observed from GPR measurements. Finally, these results also highlighted anthropogenic soil compaction resulting from agricultural practices during too wet soil conditions as a likely explanation to vine vigor problems observed locally in the vineyard, which is corroborated by the observation of lower values of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for the vine in zones where soil compaction was evidenced by both geophysical measurements and soil profile description. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..


Bagheri T.,Islamic Azad University at Gorgan | Bagheri T.,Gonbad University | Imanpoor M.R.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Jafari V.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Bennetau-Pelissero C.,ENITA de Bordeaux
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2013

A long-term feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the inclusion of soybean meal in diets for goldfish (Carassius auratus) on fish reproduction. In the present study, 20 weeks after hatching, goldfish with an initial average weight of 2±0.03g (mean±SD) were divided into 12 groups (three tanks per dietary treatment) and fed 400gkg-1 crude protein diets. The four experimental diets were as follows: diet 1, fish meal (FM); diet 2, 35% soybean meal (SBM35%); diet 3, 65% soybean meal (SBM65%); diet 4, 100% soybean meal (SBM100%). After feeding with experimental diets, the impact on reproduction was investigated. In both males and females, the plasma testosterone (T) was significantly decreased, while 17β-estradiol (E2) levels were significantly increased. Levels of 17α, hydroxyprogesterone. (17-OH-P) did not differ as a result of soybean meal feeding in either males or females. The average number of eggs spawned and sperm quality were reduced on feeding with soybean inclusion. Histological examination showed impact on oocyte maturation progress and spermatogenesis process in female and male fish, respectively. In addition, feeding goldfish with soybean meal until maturation caused reduction in fertilization and hatching rates in parallel to increasing soybean meal inclusion. The results demonstrated that inclusion of soybean meal might cause sex hormone biosynthesis disruption and reproductive impairments in fish, ultimately decreased fertilization as well as hatching rates in the offspring. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Shinkaruk S.,ENITA de Bordeaux | Carreau C.,ENITA de Bordeaux | Flouriot G.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Bennetau-Pelissero C.,ENITA de Bordeaux | Potier M.,ENITA de Bordeaux
Nutrients | Year: 2010

Equol, one of the main metabolites of daidzein, is a chiral compound with pleiotropic effects on cellular signaling. This property may induce activation/inhibition of the estrogen receptors (ER) α or β and therefore, explain the beneficial/deleterious effects of equol on estrogen-dependent diseases. With its asymmetric centre at position C-3, equol can exist in two enantiomeric forms (R- and S-equol). To elucidate the yet unclear mechanisms of ER activation/inhibition by equol, we performed a comprehensive analysis of ERα and ERβ transactivation by racemic equol, as well as by enantiomerically pure forms. Racemic equol was prepared by catalytic hydrogenation from daidzein and separated into enantiomers by chiral HPLC. The configuration assignment was performed by optical rotatory power measurements. The ER-induced transactivation by R- and Sequol (0.1-10 μM) and 17β -estradiol (E2, 10 nM) was studied using transient transfections of ERα and ERβ in CHO, HepG2 and HeLa cell lines. R- and S-equol induce ER transactivation in an opposite fashion according to the cellular context. R-equol and Sequol are more potent in inducing ERα in an AF-2 and AF-1 permissive cell line, respectively. Involvement of ERα transactivation functions (AF-1 and AF-2) in these effects has been examined. Both AF-1 and AF-2 are involved in racemic equol, R-equol and S-equol induced ERα transcriptional activity. These results could be of interest to find a specific ligand modulating ER transactivation and could contribute to explaining the diversity of equol actions in vivo. © 2010 by the authors. licensee Molecular Diversity Preservation International, Basel, Switzerland.


Sarrazin E.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | Sarrazin E.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Shinkaruk S.,ENITA de Bordeaux | Pons M.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

A four-step purification method was developed to isolate a citrus odorant detected by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), which was apparently specific to Sauternes botrytized wines. A fragmentation pattern of the odorant was obtained by multidimensional gas chromatography- mass spectrometry- olfactometry (MDGC-MS-O). The exact mass measurement was used to determine its elemental formula as C6H12OS. On the basis of these data, the unusual structure of 3-propyl-1,2-oxathiolane was synthesized and characterized for the first time. This confirmed its identification. Its occurrence in Sauternes wine extracts was demonstrated to result from the thermal oxidative degradation of 3-sulfanylhexanol disulfide (3,3'-disulfanediyldihexan-1-ol) in the GC injector. This disulfide was synthesized and then firmly identified for the first time in Sauternes wine. Although the presence of 3-sulfanylhexanol oxidation products had previously been reported in natural extracts (but not wine), the full oxidation pathway from 3-sulfanylhexanol to 3-propyl-γ-sultine via 3,3'- disulfanediyldihexan-1-ol was clearly established for the first time. Because the disulfide has mainly been detected in Sauternes botrytized wines, this finding suggested a singular reactivity of 3-sulfanylhexanol in botrytized wines, thus opening up a wide range of new opportunities in wine chemistry. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Pons M.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | Dauphin B.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | La Guerche S.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | Pons A.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Analysis of wines from different grape varieties marked by sometimes intense aromatic nuances of fresh mushroom was performed by gas chromatography coupled with olfactometry. This analysis has led to the identification of several odoriferous zones, which were recalling a fresh mushroom odor. Two trace compounds responsible for these odoriferous zones, 1-nonen-3-one and 1-octen-3-one, have been identified and their content has been determined by using either a multidimensional gas chromatography technique coupled to olfactometry and mass spectrometry detection (in the case of 1-nonen-3-one) or the preparation of the derivative with O-2,3,4,5,6- pentafluorobenzylhydroxylamine hydrochloride in the presence of the deuterated form, as the internal standard (in the case of 1-octen-3-one), then gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detection. The assays allowed the quantification of these compounds at concentration levels sometimes well above their detection and recognition olfactory threshold. We show that adding nitrogen compounds to the altered wines, such as an amino acid (glycine) or a tripeptide (glutathione), led to lower concentrations of 1-octen-3-one in wines and diminished smell of fresh mushrooms. The study of the reaction in a model medium, whose composition is close to wine, by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry demonstrated the formation of adducts between 1-octen-3-one and glycine, and 1-octen-3-one and glutathione characterized by NMR. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Naumova E.S.,State Institute for Genetics and Selection of Industrial Microorganisms | Naumov G.I.,State Institute for Genetics and Selection of Industrial Microorganisms | Michailova Y.V.,State Institute for Genetics and Selection of Industrial Microorganisms | Martynenko N.N.,Moscow State University | Masneuf-Pomarede I.,ENITA de Bordeaux
Research in Microbiology | Year: 2011

Intraspecies polymorphism of the yeast Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum was studied using the polymerase chain reaction with a microsatellite primer (GTG)5. Sixty-nine strains of different origins were analyzed. There existed a correlation between PCR patterns of the strains and the source of their isolation: the type of wine and the particular winemaking region. Southern hybridization analysis revealed for the first time introgression between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. bayanus var. uvarum. Two strains isolated from alcoholic beverages in Hungary and identified by genetic analysis as S. bayanus var. uvarum were found to harbor a number of S. cerevisiae subtelomeric sequences: Y', SUC, RTM and MAL. © 2010 Institut Pasteur.


Boltovets P.,Institute of Semiconductor Physics of Ukraine | Shinkaruk S.,ENITA de Bordeaux | Bennetau-Pelissero C.,ENITA de Bordeaux | Bennetau B.,CNRS Institute of Molecular Sciences | Snopok B.,Institute of Semiconductor Physics of Ukraine
Talanta | Year: 2011

Competitive inhibition serological assay for detection of the phytoestrogen glycitein (Glyc) was developed using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique with protein conjugates and polyclonal antibodies initially designed for the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The efficiency of the approach to the quantification of the soy isoflavone glycitein in water was investigated using the competitive reaction of analyte (free Glyc)and immobilized Glyc-BSA-conjugate with polyclonal antibodies. It was shown that the efficiency to detect Glyc drastically depends on the pH level of the probe solution. With the decrease in pH from 7.4 to 4.0, (i) the affinity of the specific reaction increases and (ii) the level of unspecific sorption becomes saturated. Non-specific adsorption to a SPR sensor surface obscures the specific component and shaded specific response at higher pH (6.0-7.4) when used serum for the quantification of specific analytes. The standard curves obtained in acidic solutions (pH 4-5) indicate that the linear part of the dependence completely covers the range between detection limit (0.1 μg/ml) and Glyc solubility in water (0.9 μg/ml). The difference in SPR- and ELISA-based analytical protocols as well as the requirements for increasing the efficiency in quantitative SPR analysis using purified antibodies is discussed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.

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