Bethesda, MD, United States
Bethesda, MD, United States

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An explosive device composed of: a flux compression generator operative to produce a high intensity electric current when activated; and an electrical payload connected to the generator and constructed to receive the high intensity electric current and cause energy in the current to generate a plate or shaped projectile in the payload and to launch the projectiles into an explosive or insensitive reactive material target for the purpose of initiating the reactive material at single or multiple points.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Army | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 149.95K | Year: 2015

ENIG, in collaboration with SRI, proposes to develop a modeling methodology with predictive and inferential capabilities to address the challenges of designing body armor to resist realistic multiple impacts from burst fire events. Our toolkit will provide an end-to-end modeling capability, grounded in the statistics of realistic impacts from small-arms fire, which would address the final materials state of a body armor system. ENIG will predict armor performance after an initial impact, predict the location of possible subsequent impacts, and update the materials model with these subsequent impacts. Initially, as a proof-of-concept, ENIG will focus the statistics of realistic burst fire impacts, examine the effect of multiple impacts from a Type IV, armor-piercing rifle threat on a ESAPI consisting of a boron carbide ceramic with a ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene backing. Multiple sets of impact validation studies will be performed to evaluate the ballistic resistance of this system. Methodologies developed here will be used evaluate a variety of small-arms systems, under a range of conditions. The end goal is to provide rigorous probabilistic risk assessments for body armor performance, which would enable better decision-making concerning armor design, materials selection, and requirements generation.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 149.98K | Year: 2015

ABSTRACT: Enig Associates, Inc., a small business providing advanced modeling and simulation capabilities to the DoD and DoE, is proposing an innovative and novel electrical approach, using explosive-driven flux compression generators (FCG) to convert explosive chemical energy to electromagnetic energy with very high current output and superb energy conversion efficiency and then Joule heat light metal load in sub millisecond time scale to heat up load from solid metal state to first ionization plasma state going through multi-phase transitions to generate artificial man-made plasma cloud in the ionosphere. The target plasma cloud will be composed of 1025 ion-electron pairs of a few eV temperature propagating initially as hemispherical shell, cylindrical shell, or plasma jet depending on the choice of load material and geometry. The proposed STTR program will have University of Maryland, Space Plasma Physics (SPP) group as our university partner. SPP will perform analytical/computational studies of the generated plasma and plasma cloud interacting with the ionosphere and the geomagnetic field. Both theoretical and computational tools will be utilized in designing an integrated generator device whose form factor fits inside a sounding rocket.; BENEFIT: The developed technology will be tested and demonstrated in the 2nd Phase of the STTR program in a high-altitude magnetized vacuum chamber with detailed diagnostics to validate plasma parameters. A sounding rocket can be utilized to demonstrate the device performance in actual test environments. Once proven successful, the space plasma generator can be used to smooth out ionosphere disturbances to assure reliable communications and navigation in theater, or to provide novel capabilities for RF systems. Advanced plasma generators could also replace civilian systems used as tracers in various upper atmospheric research areas.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Army | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 99.99K | Year: 2013

This research considers combinations of emerging technologies to provide an advanced warhead to be used in a C-RAM role. The warhead is used as a counter measure to attack and detonate incoming mortar rounds at safe distance from friendly troops. The warhead produces enhanced blast waves of such level that incapacitates the mortar during its flight. Highly energetic blast waves are generated from highly developed electromagnetic explosive devices called flux compression generators (FCG). These generators have been developed in form factors suitable for any contemplated C-RAM weapon that would be used to engage unfriendly munitions. FCGs produce tens of mega-amps of electrical current and very high corresponding magnetic fields that can be applied to several mechanisms to create enhanced blast-wave characteristics . One mechanism involves use of electrical current applied to the reaction zone of detonating high explosives to increase detonation velocity and pressure. A second mechanism creates near volumetric ignition of reactive materials for microsecond release of energy. The combined effects result in far greater energy, pressure, and impulse transmitted into the air about the device. The research addresses application of the mechanisms, optimization, and design of an integrated warhead for C-RAM application. Large-scale shock wave physics codes as well as FCG circuit solver codes will be used during the analysis and design exercises. Follow-on efforts will provide testing of concepts and proof of principle warhead demonstrations. Results will provide an advanced C-RAM warhead for Army use. Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control is a team member and experimentalist on the effort.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Army | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.47M | Year: 2011

ENIG proposes an innovative and novel approach, using pulsed power to convert explosive chemical energy into lethal jets to attack MOUT targets when fired from light weapons. The device is in the form of a precursor warhead optimized to maximize cavity diameter in brick and concrete targets so that an effective follow-through munition can be delivered within combatant structures. The warhead is compatible with weight/size constraints of light weapons having diameters of 66-84 mm. The precursor device is completely autonomous carrying small on-board power for seeding the pulsed power system. Electrical energy generated powers liners of metal and reactive materials into jet penetrators that represent more effective precursors to facilitate main munition lethality. In prior ENIG efforts, devices were designed and laboratory tests have demonstrated jet formation and penetration technology. Phase I efforts have resulted in moving technology forward and identifying configurations that can utilize this technology into viable warhead systems. ENIG has teamed with technology partners for present development, including Lockheed Martin Missile Fire Control (LMMFC) for transition into various weapon platforms. Phase I benefited from support and technical exchange between AMRDEC, DARPA and AFRL/RDHP. Both DARPA and AFRL have provided continuing Letters of Support for Phase II.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 749.79K | Year: 2011

The modeling of our heat transfer concepts and the examination of experimental test configurations has led to a test device comprised of several elements: a thermoelectric cooling and power conditioning stage, a waveform generation stage, and a pulsed discharge cooler stage. The proposed Phase II work discussed here is predominantly focused on a laboratory demonstration of the pulsed discharge stage to be carried out by subcontractors Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company and HY-Tech Research. The experimental and analytic campaign described here will culminate in the required demonstration of heat transfer out of our pulsed discharge cooler stage of 50kW over 20 hrs or more. Modeling improvements are planned to address more fully the electrodynamics of ionization within the device, the role of NOx ions, and non-local transport phenomena. We are also coupled with a diagnostic effort to allow the validation of the air chemistry code. The experimental campaign will begin with low voltage assessments of our proprietary cathode in vacuum and extend these to full level operation in vacuum and in air. Further experiments will explore the heat transfer in the discharge, beginning with single pulses, and later moving to long, repetitive operation leading to time demonstration test series.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Missile Defense Agency | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 99.91K | Year: 2016

Circuit card assembly (CCA) reliability is dependent on solder joints, which join components to printed circuit boards (PCBs). Board users strive to mitigate risks associated with gold-embrittled solder joints. Enig Associates, Inc. (ENIG), in collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories, proposes to develop a risk-forecasting tool for quantifying the risks associated with gold-embrittled solder joints in electronic assemblies. The team will utilize existing Finite Element (FE) and kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) tools and modeling approaches to predict the evolution of gold-embrittlement on PCB-level, surface mounted devices. FE models, developed in Comsol Multiphysics and/or ANSYS, will assess stress concentrations in the solder joint adhesion layer, as a function of time and as a result of fabrication and environmental stresses. KMC models will examine the dynamics of intermetallic diffusion in the solid and adhesion layer. Results will be used to estimate bonding area strength in the FE model and to evaluate solder joint performance under transient loads. Approved for Public Release 16-MDA-8620 (1 April 16)


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Army | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 4.14M | Year: 2012

Enig Associates, Inc., a small business providing advanced modeling and simulation capabilities to the DoD and DoE, is proposing an innovative and novel electrical approach, using explosive-driven flux compression generators (FCG) to convert explosive chemical energy to electromagnetic energy with very high current output and superb energy conversion efficiency and then enhance explosive load to ultimately enhance the detonation speed with electromagnetic energy. Electrical conditioning can also be applied to munition casing to control fragmentation and blast pattern and directionality. Both theoretical and computational tools will be utilized in designing an integrated munition with augmented explosion, selectable fragmentation, and controlled blast to provide scalable and adaptive lethal effects against targets. The proposed Phase II program will use Lockheed Martin Missiles & Fire Control (LMMFC) and SAIC (Albuquerque) as our Phase II subcontractors.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 149.95K | Year: 2015

ABSTRACT:ENIG, in collaboration with SRI International (Menlo Park, CA), proposes to develop a modeling methodology with predictive and inferential capabilities to address the mechanical limits of structural reactive materials (SRMs) using subcritical mechanical material responses, (i.e. pre-reacted state). ENIGs toolkit, in conjunction with material fragmentation tests, will provide an end-to-end modeling capability, grounded in the microstructural response of the constituent materials, to address impulsive loading of reactive structural material systems. This effort will develop models and design tests that will provide both fundamental and fragmentation data for SRMs. Models and tests developed for this effort will allow the Air Force to use results obtained from nondestructive testing techniques to predict fragmentation size and shape distribution from impulsively loaded SRMs. Physics-based computational models capable of computing the size, shape, and velocity distributions of SRM fragments will treat fragmentation as a process of the interaction initiation, growth, and coalescence of cracks using a system of multi-scale hydrocode calculations. ENIG will draw upon our extensive experience in characterizing ballistic damage in ceramics, polymers, composites, metals, and combinations of these material classes. This effort will design procedures and experiments that can be conducted at the Air Force Research Laboratory, Munitions Directorate, Eglin AFB.BENEFIT:The goal of this project is to develop experimental methods and measurements for safely and accurately extracting fundamental materials, properties from as manufactured Structural Reactive Material components using nondestructive evaluation techniques. The modeling tools and methodologies developed from this program may be applied to a wide variety of materials including, glass fiber composite systems, novel structural composites, multi-phased metallic structures, and complex ceramic systems. The potential impact on civilian and military applications is unlimited. Impacted industries would potentially include: advanced munitions, aviation, and automotive. The technologies developed here could be integrated with existing software to address design issues.


Patent
Enig Associates, Inc. | Date: 2014-12-19

A hybrid gun device composed of two barrels (1,10) that accept energy from combustion of standard propellant (6), one barrel (10) being operative to produce a high intensity electric current to add accelerating energy to a projectile (7) in the second barrel (1) and at least one coil (8) stage to convert energy between electrical and kinetic to cause the projectile (7) to be launched at hypervelocity.

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