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Abdel-Aal E.-S.M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Akhtar H.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Ali R.,University of Karachi | Ali R.,English Biscuit Manufacturers Pvt. Ltd
Nutrients | Year: 2013

The eye is a major sensory organ that requires special care for a healthy and productive lifestyle. Numerous studies have identified lutein and zeaxanthin to be essential components for eye health. Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoid pigments that impart yellow or orange color to various common foods such as cantaloupe, pasta, corn, carrots, orange/yellow peppers, fish, salmon and eggs. Their role in human health, in particular the health of the eye, is well established from epidemiological, clinical and interventional studies. They constitute the main pigments found in the yellow spot of the human retina which protect the macula from damage by blue light, improve visual acuity and scavenge harmful reactive oxygen species. They have also been linked with reduced risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts. Research over the past decade has focused on the development of carotenoid-rich foods to boost their intake especially in the elderly population. The aim of this article is to review recent scientific evidences supporting the benefits of lutein and zexanthin in preventing the onset of two major age-related eye diseases with diets rich in these carotenoids. The review also lists major dietary sources of lutein and zeaxanthin and refers to newly developed foods, daily intake, bioavailability and physiological effects in relation to eye health. Examples of the newly developed high-lutein functional foods are also underlined. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Ali R.,English Biscuit Manufacturers Pvt. Ltd | Ali R.,University of Karachi | Shakeel Khan M.,English Biscuit Manufacturers Pvt. Ltd | Shakeel Khan M.,University of Karachi | And 5 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2014

The samples of 18 different semi hard flour from four different mills were analyzed for damaged starch (DS) and for various other physicochemical properties through Kernalyzer, solvent retention capacity (SRC) profile, Farinograph, Micro Visco-Amylo-Graph and Glutomatic to establish the correlations that may exist among them. It was found that water absorption and dough development time from Farinograph, beginning of gelatinization, peak, trough and final viscosities from Micro Visco-Amylo-Graph, sodium carbonate and lactic acid values from SRC tests, retained and passed gluten from Glutomatic while the protein from Kernalyzer were closely related to damaged starch as determined by enzymatic analysis using Megazyme kit. The particle size analysis showed that amount of large particle i.e. >160 micron is inversely proportional to percentage of damaged starch. Alkaline water retention capacity (AWRC) and sodium carbonate SRC values are directly related as the increase in damaged starch will also increase the water absorption/ holding capacity of flour. The overall exercise has revealed that lengthy enzymatic damaged starch analysis which requires skilled manpower as well, may be replaced by certain instrumental and simple SRC analysis especially for commercial purposes where rapid tests are so much desired. An interesting correlation was found between the DS and the difference in water absorption measured from Farinograph and Glutomatic. It is clearly demonstrated that starch intact to gluten proteins is invisibly damaged during milling. © 2014, Pakistan Botanical Society. All rights received.


Ashraf S.,University of Karachi | Saeed S.M.G.,University of Karachi | Sayeed S.A.,University of Karachi | Ali R.,English Biscuit Manufacturers Pvt. Ltd
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2012

Microwaves are known to induce compositional, nutritional and functional changes in majority of the food systems. The objective of the present studies was to investigate the effect of microwave heating on protein solutibility and on the functional properties of a cereal, legume and their blends as such information will facilitate the processing and new product developments consisting of the above ingredients. The three samples i.e. a cereals (wheat flour & haleem flour) legumes (red bean flour) were used to evaluate the effects of microwave heating on their functional properties such as the water holding, oil binding, emulsifying, foaming capacities and the protein solubility index. It was found that all the microwave treated (MWT) samples produced significantly enhanced values of the above mentioned characteristics as compared to the microwave untreated (MWU) counter parts. The time for MWT as 50 s, 90 s and 300 s was found to alter the functionality of the three selected flours. Protein solubility in general was increased during MWT for a short period of time and decreased with increase in the time of treatment. The results have indicated that MWT of the raw materials for a limited time period will be helpful in designing the processing system and determining the quality of processed foods. © 2011 Friends Science Publishers.


Saeed S.M.G.,University of Karachi | Sayeed S.A.,University of Karachi | Ashraf S.,University of Karachi | Naz S.,University of Karachi | And 4 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

Lawsone a coloring component of the Henna (Lawsonia inermis) leaves was found to bind with proteins. Present study has suggested a new rapid method for the isolation of lawsone from L. inermis through the calcium ion using the Flash and Disc Counter Current Chromatography (DCC). The purified pigment structurally characterized by 2D, TLC and NMR spectroscopy, was found to be active against reactive oxygen species (ROS) by Chemeluminiscence assay using lymphocytes. Purified lawsone showed remarkable inhibitory activity on the oxidative burst response of the whole blood, polymorphonuclear cells (PMNCs), Mononuclear cells (MNCs) with IC50 as 13 ±1.6 μg/ml, 11±2.7 μg/ml. and 10±4.2 μg/ml respectively.


Saeed S.M.G.,University of Karachi | Sayeed S.A.,University of Karachi | Ashraf S.,University of Karachi | Qureshi A.,University of Karachi | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan | Year: 2013

Amaranth, a food color, is used in variety of food products to attract consumers, especially children. The purpose of the present study was to identify the component present in the food system which acts as a carrier of color and its distribution. The protein is the most possible candidate for color-conjugates and this was first explored by staining the resolved food proteins on PAGE simultaneously and separately with Amaranth as well as by Coomassie brilliant blue R250. It is the most widely used dye for protein assay. The color intensity of the Amaranth-protein complexes was slightly less than those of Coomassie brilliant blue R250, although the bands stained by Amaranth were very sharp, clearly separated and distinct. The staining procedure followed for Amaranth was quick. The impact of tryptic digestibility on amaranth-protein complexes has illustrated that dye may safely be used without any adverse effect. The possible mo0de of conjugation between amino acid and azo-bond is also discussed. The possible moode of conjugation between amino acid and azo-bond is also discussed.

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