News Article | April 17, 2017
All stakeholders in the scientific research enterprise -- researchers, institutions, publishers, funders, scientific societies, and federal agencies - should improve their practices and policies to respond to threats to the integrity of research WASHINGTON - All stakeholders in the scientific research enterprise -- researchers, institutions, publishers, funders, scientific societies, and federal agencies - should improve their practices and policies to respond to threats to the integrity of research, says a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Actions are needed to ensure the availability of data necessary for reproducing research, clarify authorship standards, protect whistleblowers, and make sure that negative as well as positive research findings are reported, among other steps. The report stresses the important role played by institutions and environments - not only individual researchers -- in supporting scientific integrity. And it recommends the establishment of an independent, nonprofit Research Integrity Advisory Board to support ongoing efforts to strengthen research integrity. The board should work with all stakeholders in the research enterprise to share expertise and approaches for minimizing and addressing research misconduct and detrimental practices. "The research enterprise is not broken, but it faces significant challenges in creating the conditions needed to foster and sustain the highest standards of integrity," said Robert Nerem, chair of the committee that wrote the report, and Institute Professor and Parker H. Petit Professor Emeritus, Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, Georgia Institute of Technology. "To meet these challenges, all parties in the research enterprise need to take deliberate steps to strengthen the self-correcting mechanisms that are part of research and to better align the realities of research with its values and ideals." A growing body of evidence indicates that substantial percentages of published results in some fields are not reproducible, the report says, noting that this is a complex phenomenon and much remains to be learned. While a certain level of irreproducibility due to unknown variables or errors is a normal part of research, data falsification and detrimental research practices -- such as inappropriate use of statistics or after-the-fact fitting of hypotheses to previously collected data -- apparently also play a role. In addition, new forms of detrimental research practices are appearing, such as predatory journals that do little or no editorial review or quality control of papers while charging authors substantial fees. And the number of retractions of journal articles has increased, with a significant percentage of those retractions due to research misconduct. The report cautions, however, that this increase does not necessarily indicate that the incidence of misconduct is increasing, as more-vigilant scrutiny by the community may be a contributing factor. The report endorses the definition of scientific misconduct proposed in the 1992 Academies report Responsible Science: "fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in proposing, performing, or reporting research." However, many practices that have until now been categorized as "questionable" research practices - for example, misleading use of statistics that falls short of falsification, and failure to retain research data -- should be recognized as "detrimental" research practices, the new report says. Detrimental research practices should be understood to include not only actions of individual researchers but also irresponsible or abusive actions by research institutions and journals. "The research process goes beyond the actions of individual researchers," said Nerem. "Research institutions, journals, scientific societies, and other parts of the research enterprise all can act in ways that either support or undermine integrity in research." Because research institutions play a central role in fostering research integrity, they should maintain the highest standards for research conduct, going beyond simple compliance with federal regulations and applying these standards to all research independent of the source of funding. Institutions' key responsibilities include creating and sustaining a research culture that fosters integrity and encourages adherence to best practices, as well as monitoring the integrity of their research environments. Senior leaders at each institution -- the president, other senior executives, and faculty leaders -- should guide and be actively engaged in these tasks. Furthermore, they must have the capacity to effectively investigate and address allegations of research misconduct and to address the conflict of interest that institutions may have in conducting these investigations -- for example, by incorporating external perspectives. In addition, research institutions and federal agencies should ensure that good faith whistleblowers - those who raise concerns about the integrity of research - are protected and their concerns addressed in a fair, thorough, and timely manner. Inadequate responses to such concerns have been a critical point of failure in many cases of misconduct where investigations were delayed or sidetracked. Currently, standards for transparency in many fields and disciplines do not adequately support reproducibility and the ability to build on previous work, the report says. Research sponsors and publishers should ensure that the information needed for a person knowledgeable about the field and its techniques to reproduce the reported results is made available at the time of publication or as soon as possible after that. Federal funding agencies and other research sponsors should also allocate sufficient funds to enable the long-term storage, archiving, and access of datasets and code necessary to replicate published findings. Researchers should routinely disclose all statistical tests carried out, including negative findings, the report says. Available evidence indicates that scientific publications are biased against presenting negative results and that the publication of negative results is on the decline. But routine reporting of negative findings will help avoid unproductive duplication of research and make research spending more productive. Dissemination of negative results also has prompted a questioning of established paradigms, leading ultimately to groundbreaking new discoveries. Research sponsors, research institutions, and journals should support and encourage this level of transparency. Scientific societies and journals should develop clear disciplinary authorship standards based on the principle that those who have made a significant intellectual contribution are authors. Those who engage in these activities should be designated as authors, and all authors should approve the final manuscript. Universal condemnation by all disciplines of gift or honorary authorship, coercive authorship, and ghost authorship would also contribute to changing the culture of research environments where these practices are still accepted. To bring a unified focus to addressing challenges in fostering research integrity across all disciplines and sectors, the report urges the establishment of a nonprofit, independent Research Integrity Advisory Board. The RIAB could facilitate the exchange of information on approaches to assessing and creating environments of the highest integrity and to handling allegations of misconduct and investigations. It could provide advice, support, encouragement, and where helpful advocacy on what needs to be done by research institutions, journal and book publishers, and other stakeholders in the research enterprise. The RIAB would have no direct role in investigations, regulation, or accreditation; instead it will serve as a neutral resource that helps the research enterprise respond to challenges. In addition, the report recommends that government agencies and private foundations fund research to quantify conditions in the research environment that may be linked to research misconduct and detrimental research practices, and to develop responses to these conditions. The study was sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey of the U.S. Department of the Interior, the Office of Research Integrity of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Office of the Inspector General of the National Science Foundation, the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Burroughs Wellcome Fund, the Society for Neuroscience, and the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine are private, nonprofit institutions that provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions related to science, technology, and medicine. They operate under an 1863 congressional charter to the National Academy of Sciences, signed by President Lincoln. For more information, visit http://national-academies. . A roster follows. Sara Frueh, Media Officer Joshua Blatt, Media Assistant Office of News and Public Information 202-334-2138; e-mail email@example.com national-academies.org/newsroom Follow us on Twitter at @theNASEM Copies of Fostering Integrity in Research are available from the National Academies Press on the Internet at http://www. or by calling 202-334-3313 or 1-800-624-6242. Reporters may obtain a copy from the Office of News and Public Information (contacts listed above). Robert M. Nerem1,2 (chair) Institute Professor and Parker H. Petit Professor Emeritus Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta Ann M. Arvin2 Lucile Packard Professor of Pediatrics, Vice Provost and Dean of Research, and Professor of Microbiology and Immunology Stanford University Stanford, Calif. C.K. (Tina) Gunsalus Director National Center for Professional and Research Ethics University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign Deborah G. Johnson Anne Shirley Carter Olsson Professor Emeritus of Applied Ethics Department of Science, Technology, and Society School of Engineering and Applied Science University of Virginia Charlottesville Michael A. Keller Ida M. Green University Librarian, and Director of Academic Information Resources University Libraries and Academic Information Resources Stanford University Stanford, Calif. W. Carl Lineberger3 E.U. Condon Distinguished Professor of Chemistry, and Fellow JILA University of Colorado Boulder Victoria Stodden Associate Professor of Statistics Institute for Data Sciences and Engineering University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign Sara E. Wilson Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, and Academic Director Bioengineering Graduate Program University of Kansas Lawrence Paul R. Wolpe Asa Griggs Candler Professor of Bioethics, and Director Center for Ethics Emory University Atlanta 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering 2 Member, National Academy of Medicine 3 Member, National Academy of Sciences
Tian M.,Engineering University |
Li R.,PLA 61135 Unit
Proceedings - 2012 5th International Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Design, ISCID 2012 | Year: 2012
The class label of each feature vector in the dataset is respectively added in the corresponding feature vector as a feature value, which build a new vector called altered feature vector, all of which compose the altered dataset. It is demostrated that an SVM based on the altered dataset has advantages such as high generilization performance and little structure risk, compared with an SVM based on the original dataset. When predicting the unkown feature vector, different class labels (1 and -1) are respectively added to the unkown feature vector, and 2 altered feature vectors are got. Two hyperplane function values are obtained by substituting the 2 altered feature vectors into the hyperplane function respectively, and the symol (1 or -1) of the function value with larger absolute value is conducted as the class label of the unkown feature vector. Experiments results show that the proposed mehtod can enhance the recognition performance of an SVM effectively. © 2012 IEEE.
News Article | January 8, 2016
Home > Press > Scientists call for new tools to explore the world's microbiomes Abstract: In October, an interdisciplinary group of scientists proposed forming a Unified Microbiome Initiative (UMI) to explore the world of microorganisms that are central to life on Earth and yet largely remain a mystery. An article in the journal ACS Nano describes the tools scientists will need to understand how microbes interact with each other and with us. Microbes live just about everywhere: in the oceans, in the soil, in the atmosphere, in forests and in and on our bodies. Research has demonstrated that their influence ranges widely and profoundly, from affecting human health to the climate. But scientists don't have the necessary tools to characterize communities of microbes, called microbiomes, and how they function. Rob Knight, Jeff F. Miller, Paul S. Weiss and colleagues detail what these technological needs are. The researchers are seeking the development of advanced tools in bioinformatics, high-resolution imaging, and the sequencing of microbial macromolecules and metabolites. They say that such technology would enable scientists to gain a deeper understanding of microbiomes. Armed with new knowledge, they could then tackle related medical and other challenges with greater agility than what is possible today. ### The authors acknowledge funding from the U.S. Office of Naval Research and the U.S. Department of Energy. About American Chemical Society The American Chemical Society is a nonprofit organization chartered by the U.S. Congress. With more than 158,000 members, ACS is the world's largest scientific society and a global leader in providing access to chemistry-related research through its multiple databases, peer-reviewed journals and scientific conferences. Its main offices are in Washington, D.C., and Columbus, Ohio. For more information, please click Contacts: Michael Bernstein 202-872-6042 Rob Knight, Ph.D. Departments of Pediatrics and Computer Science & Engineering University of California, San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093 or Jeff F. Miller, Ph.D. California NanoSystems Institute and the Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics University of California, Los Angeles Los Angeles, CA 90095 or Paul S. Weiss, Ph.D. California NanoSystems Institute and the Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry University of California, Los Angeles Los Angeles, CA 90095 If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.
News Article | December 15, 2016
WASHINGTON - To ensure the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) is responsive to changing environmental conditions like climate change and sea-level rise, as well as to changes in water management, a new report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine calls for a re-examination of the program's original restoration goals and recommends a forward-looking, systemwide analysis of Everglades restoration outcomes across a range of scenarios. This report is the sixth biennial assessment of the CERP, a multibillion-dollar effort between the state of Florida and federal government launched in 2000 to reverse the decline of the Everglades. A large and diverse aquatic ecosystem, the Everglades has been dramatically transformed over the past century owing to the diversion of its waters for urban and agricultural uses. The resulting large-scale changes to the landscape have diminished the natural resources and impacted vegetation and wildlife populations. The broad goals of the CERP are to re-establish the natural hydrologic characteristics of the Everglades, where feasible, and to create a water system that serves both the ecological needs of South Florida and the needs of its residents. Since the goals of this program were established, the scientific community has gained substantial new knowledge on pre-drainage hydrology, climate change, and sea-level rise that have important implications for the restoration plan. For example, climate change analyses highlight a need for increased water storage under scenarios of increased or decreased future precipitation. Additionally, based on new understanding of project feasibility and changes to Lake Okeechobee's water management rules, surface water storage capacity could be reduced by over 1 million acre feet. Reduced water storage could have serious ecological consequences in both the northern estuaries and the Everglades ecosystem if this shortfall is not addressed. Furthermore, estimated feasible underground storage has been reduced by approximately 60 percent of the storage originally envisioned in the CERP, reducing the benefits provided by the CERP in multiyear droughts. Forward-looking analysis should consider various scenarios for environmental changes and water storage, and study the implications on the ecosystem, the report says. Establishing the alternative future scenarios will better inform decision makers and stakeholders of the effects of short- and long-term decisions. The report states that such analyses should not slow the pace of restoration progress and that implementation of authorized projects should continue. "Despite important progress on CERP implementation, there has been insufficient attention on refining long-term systemwide goals and objectives and on the need to adapt CERP to radically changing system and planning constraints," said David B. Ashley, professor of engineering practice at the University of Southern California and chair of the committee that conducted the study and wrote the report. "Forward-looking analysis, in conjunction with adaptive management, will ensure that the CERP is based on the latest scientific and engineering knowledge and is robust enough to handle changing conditions." Since the CERP was launched, a scientific consensus has developed that the Everglades ecosystem contained much more water historically than previously thought, which means recreating that level of hydrology will require more new water and have different ecological outcomes than first anticipated in the planning. The committee highlighted this information as a pathway to explore new issues and opportunities that need to be considered in future CERP design options. Revised goals would also need to reflect the dynamic nature of the system and developing constraints imposed by climate change and sea-level rise. Although improved reporting of ecosystem restoration benefits is needed, several CERP projects are starting to show ecosystem benefits, especially in terms of water conditions that are increasingly similar to circumstances prior to building drainage systems. For example, there has been considerable progress in constructing the Picayune Strand Restoration Project, including canal plugging, road removal, and construction of pump stations. The Picayune Strand, the first CERP project under construction, is an area in Southwest Florida that was substantially disordered by a real estate development project, which disrupted the flow into the Ten Thousand Islands National Wildlife Refuge, altered regional groundwater flows in surrounding natural areas, and drained a large expanse of wetland habitat. Overall, the documented hydrologic improvements from the CERP to date involve a small proportion of the overall CERP footprint and are located on the periphery of the remnant Everglades. However, the large-scale Central Everglades restoration project was recently authorized by Congress. Additionally, according to the report, three major non-CERP projects that are essential to CERP progress are nearing completion in the next five years and are anticipated to provide large-scale benefits. Even though the restoration funding outlook has improved modestly in the last two years, the report finds that the funding pace remains slower and the project costs are greater than originally envisioned by the CERP, which could delay the completion of the program. In the first 16 years of the restoration project, originally planned for approximately 40 years, only 16 percent to 18 percent of the estimated total CERP cost has been funded, suggesting that substantial additional investment is needed to complete the project as envisioned. The study was sponsored by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Department of the Interior, and South Florida Water Management District. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine are private, nonprofit institutions that provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions related to science, technology, and medicine. They operate under an 1863 congressional charter to the National Academy of Sciences, signed by President Lincoln. For more information, visit http://national-academies. . A roster follows. Riya V. Anandwala, Media Relations Officer Rebecca Ray, Media Relations Assistant Office of News and Public Information 202-334-2138; e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org national-academies.org/newsroom Follow us on Twitter @theNASEM Copies of Progress Toward Restoring the Everglades: The Sixth Biennial Review, 2016 are available at http://www. or by calling 202-334-3313 or 1-800-624-6242. Reporters may obtain a copy from the Office of News and Public Information (contacts listed above). David B. Ashley (chair) Professor of Engineering Practice Sonny Astani Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Viterbi School of Engineering University of Southern California Los Angeles Mary Jane Angelo Professor and Director Environmental and Land Use Law Program Levin College of Law University of Florida Gainesville M. Siobhan Fennessy Jordan Professor of Biology and Environmental Science Department of Biology Kenyon College Gambier, Ohio Karl E. Havens Professor School of Forest Resources and Conservation Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences University of Florida Gainesville Wayne C. Huber Professor Emeritus Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering Oregon State University Corvallis Fernando R. Miralles-Wilhelm Professor Department of Atmospheric and Ocean Science University of Maryland College Park David H. Moreau Professor Department of City and Regional Planning University of North Carolina Chapel Hill James Saiers Professor of Hydrology and Associate Dean of Academic Affairs School of Forestry and Environmental Studies Yale University New Haven, Conn. Jeffrey R. Walters Harold Bailey Professor of Biology Department of Biology Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Blacksburg
Zhu Y.,Engineering University
2014 31th URSI General Assembly and Scientific Symposium, URSI GASS 2014 | Year: 2014
A novel compact eighth-mode substrate integrated waveguide (EMSIW) resonator is proposed. The dominant resonant mode of the proposed resonator is TE101 mode. Compared with the conventional SIW resonator, the size reduction of the resonator is up to more than 87.5%. By using source-load Cross coupling and magnetic coupling, a new filter with two EMSIW cavities is designed, which has four transmission zeros in the out-band. The measured results show good performance and agree well with the simulated results. © 2014 IEEE.
Zhu Y.,Engineering University |
Cai D.,Engineering University
2014 31th URSI General Assembly and Scientific Symposium, URSI GASS 2014 | Year: 2014
The presented filter has two transmission poles and five transmission zeros. The parallel coupling between two hairpin resonators, the open-circuited stubs result in three transmission zeros in the vicinity of the passband. The two stubs which share a common grounded via-hole contribute two additional transmission zeros in the upper stopband. The novel filter with 4.5% fractional bandwidth (FBW) has been designed and fabricated to verify the validity of the proposed method. Measured results are in good agreement with the electromagnetic simulation. The measured results show five transmission zeros in the stopband, located at 1.72GHz, 2.25GHz, 2.55 GHz, 3.17 GHz, 4.33 GHz, respectively. The circuit size of proposed bandpass filter only occupies 20 x 17mm2. © 2014 IEEE.
Bukhari I.A.,Engineering University |
Vollum R.L.,Imperial College London |
Ahmad S.,Engineering University |
Sagaseta J.,Imperial College London
Magazine of Concrete Research | Year: 2010
The current paper reviews existing design guidelines for strengthening beams in shear with carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets and proposes a modification to Concrete Society Technical Report TR55. It goes on to present the results of an experimental programme which evaluated the contribution of CFRP sheets towards the shear strength of continuous reinforced concrete (RC) beams. A total of seven, two-span concrete continuous beams with rectangular cross-sections were tested. The control beam was not strengthened, and the remaining six were strengthened with different arrangements of CFRP sheets. The experimental results show that the shear strength of the beams was significantly increased by the CFRP sheet and that it is beneficial to orientate the FRP at 45° to the axis of the beam. The shear strength of FRP strengthened beams is usually calculated by adding individual components of shear resistance from the concrete, steel stirrups and FRP. The superposition method of design is replaced in Eurocode 2 by the variable angle truss model in which all the shear is assumed to be resisted by the truss mechanism. The current paper proposes a methodology for strengthening beams with FRP that is consistent with Eurocode 2. © 2010 Thomas Telford Ltd.
Li T.-P.,Engineering University |
Wang G.-M.,Engineering University |
Liang J.-G.,Engineering University |
Zhang C.-X.,Engineering University
Wuli Xuebao/Acta Physica Sinica | Year: 2012
Split ring resonator arrays are difficult to achieve miniaturization because of their big sizes, while complementary split ring resonators are easy to damage the other parts of the microwave circuit because it is etched on the ground layer. In order to solve these problems, a novel double-layer dielectric composite right/left-handed transmission line structure is proposed and its equivalent relative permittivity and permeability are calculated. Then the influence of dimension parameters of this novel structure on transmission characteristics is analyzed. Finally two dual-band bandpass filters are designed and fabricaled by applying a new Minkowski fractal curve to this structure, and meanwhile the dual-band characteristic of this composite right/left transmission line is demonstrated. © 2012 Chinese Physical Society.
Yang P.,Engineering University
Proceedings - 2015 5th International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies, CSNT 2015 | Year: 2015
The low-power wireless data acquisition and transmission system based on ZigBee is designed.The main work include the following aspects: 1)The circuit design and the software design of the system. 2)The multi-channel sensor data acquisition interface and the software of the system design. 3)Low-power design method for the node software. 4)The system based on ZigBee is build and debugged. The results show that the system has some advantages with lower data error rate. It is able to meet the needs of remote monitoring of the parameters on industrial environment. © 2015 IEEE.
News Article | December 2, 2015
Abstract: Body sensors, which were once restricted to doctors' offices, have come a long way. They now allow any wearer to easily track heart rate, steps and sleep cycles around the clock. Soon, they could become even more versatile with the help of chewing gum. Scientists report in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces a unique sensing device made of gum and carbon nanotubes that can move with your most bendable parts and track your breathing. Scientists make a sticky, stretchy sensor out of chewing gum and nanotubes. Credit: American Chemical Society Most conventional sensors today are very sensitive and detect the slightest movement, but many are made out of metal. That means when they're twisted or pulled too much, they stop working. But for sensors to monitor the full range of a body's bending and stretching, they need a lot more give. To meet that need, some researchers have tried developing sensors using stretchy plastics and silicones. But what they gained in flexibility, they lost in sensitivity. Malcolm Xing and colleagues found a better solution right under their noses and in their mouths. To make their supple sensor, a team member chewed a typical piece of gum for 30 minutes, washed it with ethanol and let it sit overnight. The researchers then added a solution of carbon nanotubes, the sensing material. Simple pulling and folding coaxed the tubes to align properly. Human finger-bending and head-turning tests showed the material could keep working with high sensitivity even when strained 530 percent. The sensor also could detect humidity changes, a feature that could be used to track breathing, which releases water vapor with every exhale. About American Chemical Society The American Chemical Society is a nonprofit organization chartered by the U.S. Congress. With more than 158,000 members, ACS is the world's largest scientific society and a global leader in providing access to chemistry-related research through its multiple databases, peer-reviewed journals and scientific conferences. Its main offices are in Washington, D.C., and Columbus, Ohio. For more information, please click Contacts: Michael Bernstein 202-872-6042 Katie Cottingham, Ph.D. 301-775-8455 Malcolm Xing, Ph.D. Department of Mechanical Engineering Faculty of Engineering University of Manitoba Children's Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba Winnipeg, Canada If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.