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Manhattan, KS, United States

Peiris K.H.S.,Kansas State University | Dong Y.,University of Minnesota | Bockus W.W.,Kansas State University | Dowell F.E.,Engineering and Wind Erosion Research Unit
Cereal Chemistry | Year: 2014

This report describes a method to estimate the bulk deoxynivalenol (DON) content of wheat grain samples with the single-kernel DON levels estimated by a single-kernel near-infrared (SKNIR) system combined with single-kernel weights. The described method estimated the bulk DON levels in 90% of 160 grain samples to within 6.7 ppm of DON when compared with the DON content determined with the gas chromatography- mass spectrometry method. The single-kernel DON analysis showed that the DON content among DON-containing kernels (DCKs) varied considerably. The analysis of the distribution of DON levels among all kernels and among the DCKs of grain samples is helpful for the in-depth evaluation of the effect of varieties or fungicides on Fusarium head blight (FHB) reactions. The SKNIR DON analysis and estimation of the single-kernel DON distribution patterns demonstrated in this study may be helpful for wheat breeders to evaluate the FHB resistance of varieties in relation to their resistance to the spread of the disease and resistance to DON accumulation. © 2014 AACC International, Inc.. Source


Diaz-Nigenda E.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Tatarko J.,Engineering and Wind Erosion Research Unit | Jazcilevich A.D.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Garcia A.R.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | And 2 more authors.
Aeolian Research | Year: 2010

Using wind erosion and air quality models, a study on the effect of PM10 from aeolian erosion episodes in Mexico City is presented. The important contribution of aeolian erosion on urban air quality, its genesis, morphology, location and regional implications such as the role played by surface confluences, the dry Lake of Texcoco and agricultural lands to the east and south-east of Mexico City is established. All analyzed episodes showed that wind erosion is a major cause of high PM10 concentrations in Mexico City. The wind erosion and air quality models used here provide useful computational tools to study the aeolian erosion phenomenon, its sources and impact on urban regions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Aw W.C.,University of New South Wales | Dowell F.E.,University of New South Wales | William J.,Engineering and Wind Erosion Research Unit | Ballard O.,University of New South Wales
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics | Year: 2012

The aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in determining species, gender, age, and the presence of the common endosymbiont Wolbachia in laboratory-reared Drosophila. NIRS measures the absorption of light by organic molecules. Initially, a calibration model was developed for each study. An independent set with flies not involved in initial crossvalidation was then used to validate the accuracy of each calibration model. Flies from the independent sets were correctly classified into Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans with 94% and 82% accuracy, respectively, whereas flies were successfully classified by gender with accuracy greater than 90%. In the age grading test, correlation plots of the actual and predicted age for males and females of D. melanogaster and D. simulans were shown to be overlapping between the adjacent age groups. It is, however, possible to predict the age of flies as less than 9 days of age with 62-88% accuracy and flies that are equal to or older than 9 days of age with 91-98% accuracy. Finally, we used NIRS to detect the presence of Wolbachia in flies. Flies from the independent sets were successfully identified as infected or not infected with Wolbachia with approximately 90% accuracy. These results suggest that NIRS has the potential to quantify the species, gender, and presence of Wolbachia in fly populations. However, additional optimization of the protocol may be necessary before the technique can reliably estimate fly age. © 2012 Aw et al. Source


Sikulu M.T.,QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute | Sikulu M.T.,Griffith University | Sikulu M.T.,Ifakara Health Institute | Majambere S.,Vector Group | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

We report on the accuracy of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict the age of Anopheles mosquitoes reared from wild larvae and a mixed age-wild adult population collected from pit traps after exposure to pyrethroids. The mosquitoes reared from wild larvae were estimated as <7 or ≥7 d old with an overall accuracy of 79%. The age categories of Anopheles mosquitoes that were not exposed to the insecticide papers were predicted with 78% accuracy whereas the age categories of resistant, susceptible and mosquitoes exposed to control papers were predicted with 82%, 78% and 79% accuracy, respectively. The ages of 85% of the wild-collected mixed-age Anopheles were predicted by NIRS as ≤8 d for both susceptible and resistant groups. The age structure of wild-collected mosquitoes was not significantly different for the pyrethroid-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes (P = 0.210). Based on these findings, NIRS chronological age estimation technique for Anopheles mosquitoes may be independent of insecticide exposure and the environmental conditions to which the mosquitoes are exposed. Source

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