Hannigan A.,University of Glasgow |
Hannigan A.,EnGeneIC |
Wilson J.B.,University of Glasgow
Molecular Cancer | Year: 2010
Background: The latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1) encoded by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncoprotein which acts by constitutive activation of various signalling pathways, including NF-κB. In so doing it leads to deregulated cell growth intrinsic to the cancer cell as well as having extrinsic affects upon the tumour microenvironment. These properties and that it is a foreign antigen, lead to the proposition that LMP1 may be a good therapeutic target in the treatment of EBV associated disease. LMP1 is expressed in several EBV-associated malignancies, notably in Hodgkin's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the viral protein is only detected in approximately 30%-50% of NPC samples, as such its role in carcinogenesis and tumour maintenance can be questioned and thus its relevance as a therapeutic target.Results: In order to explore if LMP1 has a continuous function in established tumours, its activity was inhibited through expression of a dominant negative LMP1 mutant in tumour cell lines derived from transgenic mice. LMP1 is the tumour predisposing oncogene in two different series of transgenic mice which separately give rise to either B-cell lymphomas or carcinomas. Inhibition of LMP1 activity in the carcinoma cell lines lead to a reduction in clonagenicity and clone viability in all of the cell lines tested, even those with low or below detection levels of LMP1. Inhibition of LMP1 activity in the transgenic B-cell lines was incompatible with growth and survival of the cells and no clones expressing the dominant negative LMP1 mutant could be established.Conclusions: LMP1 continues to provide a tumour cell growth function in cell lines established from LMP1 transgenic mouse tumours, of both B-cell and epithelial cell origin. LMP1 can perform this function, even when expressed at such low levels as to be undetectable, whereby evidence of its expression can only be inferred by its inhibition being detrimental to the growth of the cell. This raises the possibility that LMP1 still performs a pro-oncogenic function in the 50% to 70% of NPC tumours wherein LMP1 protein expression cannot be detected. This reinforces the basis for pursuing LMP1 as a therapeutic target in EBV associated LMP1-expressing malignancies. © 2010 Hannigan and Wilson; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
EnGeneIC | Date: 2013-11-22
A composition comprising intact killed bacterial cells that contain a therapeutic nucleic acid, a drug or a functional nucleic acid is useful for targeted delivery to mammalian cells. The targeted delivery optionally employs bispecific ligands, comprising a first arm that carries specificity for a killed bacterial cell surface structure and a second arm that carries specificity for a mammalian cell surface receptor, to target killed bacterial cells to specific mammalian cells and to cause endocytosis of the killed bacterial cells by the mammalian cells. Alternatively, the delivery method exploits the natural ability of phagocytic mammalian cells to engulf killed bacterial cells without the use of bispecific ligands.
EnGeneIC | Date: 2016-05-09
Pharmaceutical preparations, namely, formulated bacterial minicells for medical or clinical use for facilitating and allowing the delivery of therapeutic agents.
EnGeneIC | Date: 2015-10-02
Enhanced loading of small molecule compounds into intact, bacterially derived vesicles provides operational and therapeutic advantages.
EnGeneIC | Date: 2014-01-10
Intact bacterially derived minicells containing functional nucleic acids or plasmids encoding functional nucleic acids can reduce, in targeted mammalian cells, drug resistance, apoptosis resistance, and neoplasticity, respectively. Methodology that employs minicells to deliver functional nucleic acids, targeting the transcripts of proteins that contribute to drug resistance or apoptosis resistance, inter alia, can be combined with chemotherapy to increase the effectiveness of the chemotherapy.