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Landry E.,EngenderHealth | Pett C.,EngenderHealth | Fiorentino R.,SUNY Downstate Medical Center | Ruminjo J.,EngenderHealth | Mattison C.,McMaster University
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth | Year: 2014

Background: Reliable, timely information is the foundation of decision making for functioning health systems; the quality of decision making rests on quality data. Routine monitoring, reporting, and review of cesarean section (CS) indications, decision-to-delivery intervals, and partograph use are important elements of quality improvement for maternity services. Methods: In 2009 and 2010, a sample of CS records from calendar year 2008 was reviewed at nine facilities in Bangladesh, Guinea, Mali, Niger, and Uganda. Data from patient records and hospital registers were collected on key aspects of care such as timing of key events, indications, partograph use, maternal and fetal outcomes. Qualitative interviews were conducted with key informants at all study sites to provide contextual background about CS services and record keeping practices. Results: A total of 2,941 records were reviewed and 57 key informant interviews were conducted. Patient record-keeping systems were of varying quality across study sites: at five sites, more than 20% of records could not be located. Across all sites, patient files were missing key aspects of CS care: timing of key events (e.g., examination, decision to perform CS), administration of prophylactic antibiotics, maternal complications, and maternal and fetal outcomes. Rates of partograph use were low at six sites: 0 to 23.9% of patient files at these sites had a completed partograph on file, and among those found, 2.1% to 65.1% were completed correctly. Information on fetal outcomes was missing in up to 40% of patient files. Conclusions: Deficits in the quality of CS patient records across a broad range of health facilities in low-resource settings in four sub-Saharan Africa countries and Bangladesh indicate an urgent need to improve record keeping. © 2014 Landry et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Ngongo C.,Entrance | Christie K.,Aberdeen Womens Center | Holden J.,Aberdeen Womens Center | Ford C.,Aberdeen Womens Center | Pett C.,EngenderHealth
Midwifery | Year: 2013

Midwives provide critical, life-saving care to women and babies. Effective midwives must be clinically competent, with the required knowledge, skills, and attitudes to provide quality care. Their success depends on an environment of supportive supervision, continuing education, enabling policies, and access to equipment and referral facilities.In Freetown, Sierra Leone, the Aberdeen Women's Centre launched a maternity unit with an emphasis on striving for excellence and providing ongoing professional development to its staff midwives. Its success was built upon fostering a sense of responsibility and teamwork, providing necessary resources, conforming to evidence-based standards, and building partnerships. An explicit philosophy of care was crucial for guiding clinical decision making.In its first two years of operation, the Aberdeen Women's Centre assisted 2076 births with two maternal deaths and 92 perinatal deaths. In-service education and supportive supervision facilitated the midwives' professional growth, leading to capable future leaders who are providing exemplary care to delivering mothers and their newborns in Freetown. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Masson P.,Cornell University | Li P.S.,Cornell University | Barone M.A.,EngenderHealth | Goldstein M.,Cornell University
Nature Reviews Urology | Year: 2010

Adult male circumcision reduces HIV transmission through vaginal intercourse and is being promoted in areas where HIV is widespread. Conventional surgical circumcision involves suturing and thus requires practitioners with surgical skills. It is also associated with complications, including bleeding and infection, especially in resource-poor settings. The ShangRing (Wuhu Snnda Medical Treatment Appliance Technology Co. Ltd, Wuhu City, China) has been used to perform thousands of circumcisions in adult men, principally in China. It consists of two concentric plastic rings that sandwich the foreskin of the penis, allowing circumcision without stitches or notable bleeding. As well as substantially reduced operative times, ShangRing adult male circumcision is associated with a low complication rate, and the technique can easily be taught to both physician and nonphysician personnel. The simple technique and successful outcomes associated with the ShangRing procedure mean that the device could enable standardization of adult male circumcision, helping HIV prevention efforts throughout the developing world. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Frajzyngier V.,EngenderHealth | Ruminjo J.,EngenderHealth | Barone M.A.,EngenderHealth
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2012

We reviewed literature examining predictors of urinary fistula repair outcomes in developing country settings, including fistula and patient characteristics, and perioperative factors. We searched Medline for articles published between January 1970 and December 2010, excluding articles that were (1) case reports, cases series or contained 20 or fewer subjects; (2) focused on fistula in developed countries; and (3) did not include a statistical analysis of the association between facility or individual-level factors and surgical outcomes. Twenty articles were included; 17 were observational studies. Surgical outcomes included fistula closure, residual incontinence after closure, and any incontinence (dry vs wet). Scarring and urethral involvement were associated with poor prognosis across all outcomes. Results from randomized controlled trials examining prophylactic antibiotic use and repair outcomes were inconclusive. Few observational studies examining perioperative interventions accounted for confounding by fistula severity. We conclude that a unified, standardized evidence-base for informing clinical practice is lacking. © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

Brazier E.,EngenderHealth | Fiorentino R.,EngenderHealth | Barry M.S.,EngenderHealth | Diallo M.,EngenderHealth
Health Policy and Planning | Year: 2015

This article presents results from a study that explored the association between community capacity for maternal health promotion and women's use of preventive and curative maternal health services. Implemented in the Republic of Guinea, the intervention aimed to build the capacity of community-level committees to heighten awareness about maternal health risks and to promote use of professional maternal health services throughout pregnancy and childbirth. Data were collected through a population-based survey. A total of 2335 women of reproductive age were interviewed, including 878 with a live birth or stillbirth since the launch of the intervention. An index of community capacity was created to explore the effect of living in a community with strong community-level resources and support for maternal health. Other composite variables were created to measure the content of women's antenatal counselling and their individual exposure to maternal health promotion activities at the community level. Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore the effect of community capacity and individual exposure variables on women's use of antenatal care (ANC) (≥4 visits), institutional delivery, and care for complications. Our results show that women living in communities with a high score on the Community Capacity Index were more than twice as likely as women in communities with low score to attend at least four ANC visits, to deliver in a health facility, and to seek care for perceived complications. Building the capacity of community-level cadres to promote maternity care-seeking by women in their villages is an important complement to facility-level interventions to increase the availability, quality and utilization of essential health services. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

Arrowsmith S.D.,EngenderHealth | Barone M.A.,EngenderHealth | Ruminjo J.,EngenderHealth
Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2013

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight the lack of consistency in the terminology and indicators related to obstetric fistula care and to put forward a call for consensus. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies show at least some degree of statistical correlation between outcome and the following clinical factors: degree of scarring/fibrosis, fistula location, fistula size, damage to the urethra, presence of circumferential fistula, bladder capacity, and prior attempt at fistula repair. SUMMARY: Consensus about basic definitions of clinical success does not yet exist. Opinions vary widely about the prognostic parameters for success or failure. Commonly agreed upon definitions and outcome measures will help ensure that site reviews are accurate and conducted fairly. To properly compare technical innovations with existing methods, agreement must be reached on definitions of success. Standardized indicators for mortality and morbidity associated with fistula repair will improve the evidence base and contribute to quality of care. Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Subramanian L.,EngenderHealth | Cisek C.,URS Corporation | Kanlisi N.,Ghana R3M Project | Pile J.M.,EngenderHealth
Patient Education and Counseling | Year: 2010

Objective: In 2003-2004 and 2007-2008, an initiative was implemented to improve client and provider knowledge and acceptance of no-scalpel vasectomy (NSV) in Ghana. Methods: At eight facilities, physicians were trained in NSV and staff received training in the provision of " male-friendly" services. Health promotion activities provided NSV information to prospective clients. Client-provider communication was assessed via a mystery client study (n=6). Knowledge and acceptance of NSV among potential clients were assessed with baseline and follow-up surveys (each n=200) in 2003-2004 and three follow-up panel surveys in 2008 (each n=240). Results: Trained health staff exhibited improved attitudes and knowledge regarding NSV. Mystery clients reported receiving accurate, nonjudgmental NSV counseling. Awareness of NSV among panel respondents doubled from 31% to 59% in 2003-2004 and remained high (44%) in 2008. The proportion of men who would consider NSV increased from 10% to 19% in 2007-2008. NSV procedures increased three-fold from 2003 (n=26) to 2004 (n=83) and 2007 (n=18) to 2008 (n=53). Conclusion: Provider training in client-centered services, coupled with targeted health promotion, improved client and provider knowledge and acceptance of NSV in an African context. Practice implications: Complementary, sustained provider training and health promotion are needed to maintain NSV service quality and acceptance. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Fetene N.W.,EngenderHealth | Feleke A.D.,Health Science University
BMC Public Health | Year: 2010

Background. For patients in all health-care settings HIV screening is recommended after the patient is notified that testing will be performed unless the patient declines. The nation's physicians and other health care providers should assume a much more active role in promoting HIV testing. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which missed opportunities for earlier HIV testing and diagnosis occur in the health facilities of north east Ethiopia. Methods. A confidential client exit interview and medical record review was made on 427 clients who attended health facilities of Dessie town between November-December 2008. Data collection was done by counselors trained on Provider Initiated Counseling and Testing (PICT) and data collection tool included demographics, reason for visit to health facilities, HIV test initiation by service providers, clients self risk perception, clients willingness and acceptance of HIV test, HIV test result and review of client medical records. Results. Among 427 clients, missed opportunities for HIV testing were found in 76.1% (325) of clients. HIV test initiation was made by data collecting counselors during interview period and 80.0% (260) of clients not initiated by service providers were found to be willing to have HIV test. Large number, 43.0% (112), of the willing clients actually tested for HIV. Of the tested clients, 13.4% (15) were found to be HIV positive. Most, 60% (9), of HIV positive clients who lost the opportunities of diagnosis felt themselves as having no risk for HIV infection. Missed opportunities for HIV diagnosis of 51.7% (15), overall HIV test acceptance rate of 36.5% (154) and positivity rate of 6.9% (29) were found. Conclusions. The missed opportunities for earlier HIV test and diagnosis of patients attending health facilities were found to be high and frequent. Testing only clients with HIV risk misses large number of HIV positive patients. Asking clients' willingness for HIV testing should be conducted by all service providers irrespective of the clients' risk behaviors for HIV infection or the type of services they need. © 2010 Fetene and Feleke; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Sokal D.C.,Clinical science Unit | Li P.S.,New York Medical College | Zulu R.,University of Lusaka | Awori Q.D.,Engender Health | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2014

Objective: To compare clinical profiles of Shang Ring versus conventional circumcisions. Design: Parallel group open-label randomized controlled trial with one-to-one allocations in 2 sites. Methods: We enrolled HIV-negative men aged 18-54 years in Homa Bay, Kenya, and Lusaka, Zambia and followed them at 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 60 days after Shang Ring versus conventional circumcision. We compared the duration of surgery, postoperative pain using a visual analog scale, adverse events rates, time to complete wound healing by clinical assessment, participant acceptability, and provider preferences between circumcision groups. Results: We randomized 200 men to each group; 197 and 201 contributed to the Shang Ring and conventional surgery analyses, respectively. Adverse event rates were similar between groups. Pain scores at most time points were similar, however, the Shang Ring group reported higher scores for worst pain during erections (3.5 ± 1.9 vs. 2.3 ± 1.7; P > 0.001). Significantly more men were satisfied with the cosmetic appearance following Shang Ring male circumcision (MC), 95.7% versus 85.9% (P = 0.02) in Kenya, and 96.8% versus 71.3% (P > 0.01) in Zambia. Although median time to complete wound healing was 43 days in both groups, conventional circumcisions healed on average 5.2 days sooner (P > 0.001). Shang Ring procedures took one-third the time of conventional MC, 7 versus 20 minutes. All circumcision providers preferred the Shang Ring. Conclusions: Safety profiles of the 2 techniques were similar, all MC providers preferred the Shang Ring technique, and study participants preferred the Shang Ring's cosmetic results. The Shang Ring should be considered for adult MC as programs scale-up. © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Tuncalp O.,Family and Reproductive Health | Isah A.,EngenderHealth | Landry E.,EngenderHealth | Stanton C.K.,Family and Reproductive Health
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth | Year: 2014

Background: Obstetric fistula continues to have devastating effects on the physical, social, and economic lives of thousands of women in many low-resource settings. Governments require credible estimates of the backlog of existing cases requiring care to effectively plan for the treatment of fistula cases. Our study aims to quantify the backlog of obstetric fistula cases within two states via community-based screenings and to assess the questions in the Demographic Health Survey (DHS) fistula module.Methods: The screening sites, all lower level health facilities, were selected based on their geographic coverage, prior relationships with the communities and availability of fistula surgery facilities in the state. This cross-sectional study included women who presented for fistula screenings at study facilities based on their perceived fistula-like symptoms. Research assistants administered the pre-screening questionnaire. Nurse-midwives then conducted a medical exam. Univariate and bivariate analyses are presented.Results: A total of 268 women attended the screenings. Based on the pre-screening interview, the backlog of fistula cases reported was 75 (28% of women screened). The backlog identified after the medical exam was 26 fistula cases (29.5% of women screened) in Kebbi State sites and 12 cases in Cross River State sites (6.7%). Verification assessment showed that the DHS questionnaire had 92% sensitivity, 83% specificity with 47% positive predictive value and 98% negative predictive value for identifying women afflicted by fistula among women who came for the screenings.Conclusions: This methodology, involving effective, locally appropriate messaging and community outreach followed up with medical examination by nurse-midwives at lower level facilities, is challenging, but represents a promising approach to identify the backlog of women needing surgery and to link them with surgical facilities. © 2014 Tunçalp et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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