Dijon, France
Dijon, France
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Merah O.,ENESAD | Merah O.,Toulouse University Midi-Pyrénées | Merah O.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2015

Brassica juncea is mostly used for oil production which implies selection of genotypes with low glucosinolates level and high oil content. In contrast, condiment production needs varieties with high level in some glucosinolates including sinigrin. The genetic variability was studied mostly by molecular tools. The objectives were almost the decrease of glucosinolates level in order to use the oilcake for animal feed. The aim of this work is to study the genetic variability for different glucosinolates and their relationships with agronomical traits within a large collection of Brassica juncea genotypes for condiment uses. A collection of 190 genotypes from different origins was studied in Dijon (France). Oil content and total glucosinolates, and sinigrin and gluconapin levels were measured. Flowering and maturation durations, seed yield, and yield components were also measured. Large variability was observed between genotypes for the measured traits within the studied collection. Total glucosinolates varied twofold between extreme genotypes. Values of sinigrin content varied from 0 to more than 134 μmol.g-1. Correlations between glucosinolates traits and both phenological and agronomical characters are presented and discussed for theirpotential for industrial condiment uses. © 2015 Othmane Merah.

Jeudy C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Ruffel S.,CNRS Biochemistry and Plant Molecular Physiology Laboratory | Freixes S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Tillard P.,CNRS Biochemistry and Plant Molecular Physiology Laboratory | And 7 more authors.
New Phytologist | Year: 2010

Adaptation of Medicago truncatula to local nitrogen (N) limitation was investigated to provide new insights into local and systemic N signaling. The split-root technique allowed a characterization of the local and systemic responses of NO3 - or N2-fed plants to localized N limitation. 15N and 13C labeling were used to monitor plant nutrition. Plants expressing pMtENOD11-GUS and the sunn-2 hypernodulating mutant were used to unravel mechanisms involved in these responses. Unlike NO3 --fed plants, N2-fixing plants lacked the ability to compensate rapidly for a localized N limitation by up-regulating the N2-fixation activity of roots supplied elsewhere with N. However they displayed a long-term response via a growth stimulation of pre-existing nodules, and the generation of new nodules, likely through a decreased abortion rate of early nodulation events. Both these responses involve systemic signaling. The latter response is abolished in the sunn mutant, but the mutation does not prevent the first response. Local but also systemic regulatory mechanisms related to plant N status regulate de novo nodule development in Mt, and SUNN is required for this systemic regulation. By contrast, the stimulation of nodule growth triggered by systemic N signaling does not involve SUNN, indicating SUNN-independent signaling. © 2009 New Phytologist.

Faubladier C.,ENESAD | Jacotot E.,ENESAD | Berger C.,Danisco | Julliand V.,ENESAD
EAAP Scientific Series | Year: 2010

Zootechnical additives could be used in order to prevent the adverse impact of starch-rich diets in the hindgut of horses, by enhancing fiber digestibility or by stabilising the gut microflora. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a live or heat treated lactic-acid bacteria vs. a placebo on microbial communities and activities in the faeces of horses. Three pairs of mature French trotters (459±34 kg) were randomly assigned in a 3x3 Latin square design and received successively the three dietary treatments over three experimental periods: placebo, treatment 1 (5.109 CFU/day of each bacterial strain: Propionibacteria and Lactobacillus plantarum) and treatment 2 (50 g/day of cereal blend with equivalent 5.109 heat treated cells of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus farciminis). After fourteen days of adaptation to the dietary treatment, faecal samples were collected in order to count anaerobic flora (total, lacticolytic, amylolytic, cellulolytic). Lactic acid, volatile fatty acids and pH were measured on faecal fluid samples collected at the same time. When the live lactic-acid bacteria (treatment 1) was given, the concentration of the faecal fibrolytic microflora was numerically higher for 4 out of 6 supplemented horses and its activity for the first period was significantly higher (P≤0.05). In contrast, when the heat treated lactic bacteria (treatment 2) were fed, the amylolytic activity of the microflora was significantly higher in the faeces of supplemented horses (P≤0.05) without disturbing the fibrolytic activity of the ecosystem. These results suggest that these two new bacterial products had positive effects on the faecal microbial communities and activities in horses.

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