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Risberg M.,Lulea University of Technology | Carlsson P.,Energy Technology Center in Pitea | Gebart R.,Lulea University of Technology
Applied Thermal Engineering

Cyclone gasification of biomass in combination with a gas engine has been considered as a process for combined heat and power production. In this work a numerical model of the cyclone gasification process of wood powder was developed intended to be used as a tool for future engineering design of cyclone gasifiers. The model is based on an Euler-Lagrange formulation for the multiphase flow where the biomass powder was treated as a dispersed phase and the gas as a continuous phase. The results from the simulation are compared with experimental measurement in a 500 kWth cyclone gasifier that uses wood powder as fuel. The model was able to predict the gas composition change with increasing equivalence ratio. The relative error for the main gas component was between 2.5 and 4.4%, 2.8 and 5.4%, and 2.6 and 17.3% for CO2, CO and H2. CH4 was predicted with a relative error of between 3.8 and 19.2%. Also the model was able to predict the char amount out from the gasifier with reasonable accuracy. The obtained lower heating value from the model was between 3.5 and 5.2 MJ/Nm3 whereas the calculated based on measurement was 4.0-5.3 MJ/Nm3. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Andersson J.,Lulea University of Technology | Lundgren J.,Lulea University of Technology | Marklund M.,Energy Technology Center in Pitea
Biomass and Bioenergy

The main objective with this work was to investigate techno-economically the opportunity for integrated gasification-based biomass-to-methanol production in an existing chemical pulp and paper mill. Three different system configurations using the pressurized entrained flow biomass gasification (PEBG) technology were studied, one stand-alone plant, one where the bark boiler in the mill was replaced by a PEBG unit and one with a co-integration of a black liquor gasifier operated in parallel with a PEBG unit. The cases were analysed in terms of overall energy efficiency (calculated as electricity-equivalents) and process economics. The economics was assessed under the current as well as possible future energy market conditions. An economic policy support was found to be necessary to make the methanol production competitive under all market scenarios. In a future energy market, integrating a PEBG unit to replace the bark boiler was the most beneficial case from an economic point of view. In this case the methanol production cost was reduced in the range of 11-18 Euro per MWh compared to the stand-alone case. The overall plant efficiency increased approximately 7%-units compared to the original operation of the mill and the non-integrated stand-alone case. In the case with co-integration of the two parallel gasifiers, an equal increase of the system efficiency was achieved, but the economic benefit was not as apparent. Under similar conditions as the current market and when methanol was sold to replace fossil gasoline, co-integration of the two parallel gasifiers was the best alternative based on received IRR. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Risberg M.,Lulea University of Technology | Ohrman O.G.W.,Energy Technology Center in Pitea | Gebart B.R.,Lulea University of Technology | Nilsson P.T.,Lund University | And 2 more authors.

Entrained flow gasification of biomass using the cyclone principle has been proposed in combination with a gas engine as a method for combined heat and power production in small to medium scale (<20 MW). This type of gasifier also has the potential to operate using ash rich fuels since the reactor temperature is lower than the ash melting temperature and the ash can be separated after being collected at the bottom of the cyclone. The purpose of this work was to assess the fuel flexibility of cyclone gasification by performing tests with five different types of fuels; torrefied spruce, peat, rice husk, bark and wood. All of the fuels were dried to below 15% moisture content and milled to a powder with a maximum particle size of around 1 mm. The experiments were carried out in a 500 kWth pilot gasifier with a 3-step gas cleaning process consisting of a multi-cyclone for removal of coarse particles, a bio-scrubber for tar removal and a wet electrostatic precipitator for removal of fine particles and droplets from the oil scrubber (aerosols). The lower heating value (LHV) of the clean producer gas was 4.09, 4.54, 4.84 and 4.57 MJ/Nm3 for peat, rice husk, bark and wood, respectively, at a fuel load of 400 kW and an equivalence ratio of 0.27. Torrefied fuel was gasified at an equivalence ratio of 0.2 which resulted in a LHV of 5.75 MJ/Nm3 which can be compared to 5.50 MJ/Nm3 for wood powder that was gasified at the same equivalence ratio. A particle sampling system was designed in order to collect ultrafine particles upstream and downstream the gasifier cleaning device. The results revealed that the gas cleaning successfully removed >99.9% of the particulate matter smaller than 1 μm. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Sjoberg E.,Lulea University of Technology | Sandstrom L.,Lulea University of Technology | Ohrman O.G.W.,Energy Technology Center in Pitea | Hedlund J.,Lulea University of Technology
Journal of Membrane Science

Membrane separation of CO2 from synthesis gas could be an energy efficient and simple alternative to other separation techniques. In this work, a membrane comprised of an about 0.7μm thick MFI film on a graded alumina support was used to separate CO2 from synthesis gas produced by pilot scale gasification of black liquor. The separation of CO2 from the synthesis gas was carried out at a feed pressure of 2.25MPa, a permeate pressure of 0.3MPa and room temperature. In the beginning of the experiment, when the H2S concentration in the feed was 0.5% and the concentration of water in the feed was 0.07%, a CO2/H2 separation factor of 10.4 and a CO2 flux of 67.0kgm-2h-1 were observed. However, as the H2S concentration in the feed to the membrane increased to 1.7%, the CO2/H2 separation factor and the CO2 flux decreased to 5 and 61.4kgm-2h-1, respectively. The results suggest that MFI membranes are promising candidates for the separation of CO2 from synthesis gas. © 2013. Source

Ohrman O.G.W.,Energy Technology Center in Pitea | Pettersson E.,Energy Technology Center in Pitea
Drying Technology

An interesting integrated configuration in a thermochemical conversion biorefinery that is producing dimethyl ether (DME) is to use a small fraction of the BioDME for dewatering of the solid biomass feedstock. Therefore, the use of liquid BioDME was investigated in this study for pressurized dewatering of biomass at room temperature. Water was removed in liquid form from wet sawdust and wet wood chips using liquid DME in a laboratory-scale batch unit. Both the sawdust and the wood chips could be dewatered in a short time (minutes) to a moisture content of 15% (w/w) from an initial content of approximately 55% (w/w). Longer DME treatment times (hours) lowered the moisture content even further down to 8% (w/w), indicating that the transport phenomena in the porous biomass and the solubility of DME in water influence the dewatering characteristics. The DME dewatering performance, 12-22 g DME per g water removed, was similar to literature data on coal dewatering using liquid DME. The present study showed that DME dewatering of the solid biomass feedstock has potential as an energy-efficient dewatering process, especially in an integrated thermochemical conversion biorefinery. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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