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Schwartz M.,Energy Resources International Inc. | Steyn J.,Energy Resources International Inc.
Nuclear Engineering International | Year: 2011

A study has found that the spot market price for conversion services, which accounts for about 7% of the total value of natural UF 6, is driven by factors associated with the market price for uranium concentrates and not by activities that are directly related to the market for conversion services. World requirements for UF 6 conversion services under the reference nuclear power growth forecast are projected to increase by about 53% between 2010 and 2030. Areva in France currently holds approximately 27% of the world market and half of its current commitments are estimated to be in Western Europe, with 32% in the US, 14% in East Asia. Secondary UF 6 supplies could amount to approximately 20 million kgU per year between 2011 and 2013, dip to 13 million kgU following the conclusion of the US-Russia highly enriched uranium (HEU) Agreement in 2013, and increase to about 16 million kgu by 2018, as underfeeding increases among the enrichers.


Meade T.,Energy Resources International Inc. | Schwartz M.,Energy Resources International Inc.
Nuclear Engineering International | Year: 2011

A reasonable balance between available supply and power plant requirements exists at present and is forecast for the long term, while the decreasing effect of the Fukushima Daiichi accident after Tsunami might further improve the supply margin. The Areva Georges Besse (GB) II centrifuge plant began commercial operations in April 2011 and is scheduled to reach full capacity of 7.5 million SWU per year in 2016. USEC's present enrichment capability comes from the 8 million SWU/yr Paducah gaseous diffusion plant (PGDP) located in Paducali, Kentucky. CNEIC has approximately 1.0 million SWU per year of centrifuge enrichment capability located at two sites in China, Hanzhong enrichment plant in Shaanxi province and the Lanzhou enrichment plant in Gansu province. Argentina is working to upgrade and reactivate the Pilcaniyeu gaseous diffusion plant, which originally shut down in 1989, by September 2011.


Steyn J.,Energy Resources International Inc. | Meade T.,Energy Resources International Inc.
Nuclear Engineering International | Year: 2011

The nuclear power station accident that resulted from an earthquake and associated tsunami at the Fukushima Daiichi site in Japan on March 11, 2011, resulted in nuclear fuel and uranium requirements being reduced in Japan and Germany, and possibly in Switzerland in the 2030s. It is however highlighted that the recent delineation of additional reserves at Ranger is expected to allow mine production through about 2020, while milling operations could continue beyond that. Production in Russian neighbor Ukraine is expected to be more than doubled by 2014 in order to reduce the costs incurred by reliance on imports to meet domestic requirements. In addition, the US and Russian governments are holding significant uranium inventories, primarily in the form of HEU but also in the form of depleted uranium.


Supko E.M.,Energy Resources International Inc. | Waldrop K.,EPRI
14th International High-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference, IHLRWMC 2013: Integrating Storage, Transportation, and Disposal | Year: 2013

In 2010, EPRI performed a study of the accelerated transfer of spent fuel (SNF) from spent fuel storage pools (SFP) to dry storage. Following the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, some organizations issued a renewed call for of/loading SNF from SFPs to dry storage. Their reasoning was that this would lessen the potential consequences from a loss-of-SFP-cooling accident by decreasing the heat load and source term available for release. In 2012, EPRI issued an updated analysis that utilizes more realistic assumptions regarding the timing for accelerated transfer of SNF to dry storage, examines the challenges associated with accelerated transfer of SNF to dry storage, and evaluates the dose and cost impacts, and the reduction in SFP decay heat and source term associated with accelerated transfer of SNF to dry storage. That report is entitled, Impacts Associated with Transfer of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Spent Fuel Storage Pools to Dry Storage After Five Years of Cooling, Revision 1, #1025206 (EPRI 2012).


Schwartz M.,Energy Resources International Inc. | Supko E.,Energy Resources International Inc.
Nuclear Engineering International | Year: 2011

Worldwide fuel fabrication capacity for light water reactor fuel exceeds demand, and is expected to remain through 2030, while China is planning to increase its indigenous capacity to support a portion of its own nuclear expansion. In September 2010, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) reported that 90% of all US nuclear power plants were operating without fuel failures, a significant improvement over 2007 when that figure was 70%. In an 2008 agreement with Kazatomprom, Areva will provide engineering support for the construction of fuel fabrication lines with an annual capacity of 1200 MTU at the Ulba Metallurgical Plant in Kazakhstan. Westinghouse and China's State Nuclear Baoti Zirconium Industry Company, Ltd. (SNZ) announced in 2009 a joint venture to build and operate a plant to produce nuclear grade zirconium sponge at Nantong in Jiangsu province. A fuel fabrication plant at Baotou in Inner Mongolla and now the China North Nuclear Fuel Co., fabricates fuel for two Canadian pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) in China.


Schwartz M.H.,Energy Resources International Inc. | Steyn J.,Energy Resources International Inc.
Nuclear Engineering International | Year: 2010

Current uranium conversion capacity could decrease behind requirements as early as 2013 although the uncertainties of secondary supply play a crucial role. During the year 2009, the spot market price for conversion services, which accounts for about 5% of the total value of natural UF 6 has increased significantly, and is now within about 15% of the long- term market price. World requirements under the Energy Resources International reference nuclear power growth forecast for uranium in all forms, as UF 6, uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4) and uranium thoxide (UO 3) are projected to rise gradually from the present level of approximately 64,000 million tons uranium (MTU) to 102,000 MTU by 2030, an increase of 62.7%. Areva has announced that it would build a new UF 6 conversion complex at Maivesi and Pierrelatte, Comurhex. The new complex would be capable of converting 15,000 MTU per year beginning in 2012.


Supko E.M.,Energy Resources International Inc. | Machiels A.,EPRI | Sowder A.,EPRI
13th International High-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference 2011, IHLRWMC 2011 | Year: 2011

Growing global interest in nuclear power has spurred interest in fuel cycles beyond the current once-through fuel cycle utilized in the U.S. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has conducted several studies that compare the fuel cycle costs and waste management parameters of the current U.S. once-through fuel cycle with those associated with advanced fuel cycles that the U.S. may consider in the future. These economic modeling efforts can be used to help inform policy and technology development decisions regarding advanced fuel cycles. This paper evaluates and compares the costs for the following four fuel cycles: (1) Once-through; (2) Single-recycling of plutonium (Pu) as mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in light water reactors (LWRs); (3) Multi-recycling of plutonium as MOX fuel in fast burner reactors (FRs); and (4) Multi-recycling of plutonium and minor actinides as MOX-FR fuel in fast breeder reactors.


Supko E.M.,Energy Resources International Inc. | Kessler J.H.,EPRI
13th International High-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference 2011, IHLRWMC 2011 | Year: 2011

A study published in the Spring 2003 issue of Science and Global Security, entitled "Reducing the Hazards from Stored Spent Power-Reactor Fuel in the United States, " concluded that the risks of a postulated terrorist attack targeting spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage pools justified the transfer of all SNF cooled more than five years into dry storage.1 The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed this assessment and issued a white paper stating that it did not believe such a recommendation was justified in light of additional security measures implemented at nuclear plants and the associated impacts associated with the early movement of SNF into dry storage.2 While the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) agrees that moving SNF fuel into dry storage after five years is not justified, EPRI's members requested a study be made of the impacts of doing so. In this paper, EPRI examines the cost impacts and worker dose impacts associated with moving SNF to dry storage once it has cooled for five years, based on the results of an EPRI report, "Impacts Associated with Transfer of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Spent Fuel Storage Pools to Dry Storage After Five Years of Cooling, " that was published in November 2010 (EPRI 2010).3.

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