Energy Research Institute ERI

Beijing, China

Energy Research Institute ERI

Beijing, China
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PubMed | University of Dayton, Centro Mediterraneo dei Cambiamenti Climatici CMCC, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Energy Research Institute ERI and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: Data in brief | Year: 2016

The data files contain the assumptions and results for the construction of cumulative availability curves for coal, oil and gas for the five Shared Socioeconomic Pathways. The files include the maximum availability (also known as cumulative extraction cost curves) and the assumptions that are applied to construct the SSPs. The data is differentiated into twenty regions. The resulting cumulative availability curves are plotted and the aggregate data as well as cumulative availability curves are compared across SSPs. The methodology, the data sources and the assumptions are documented in a related article (N. Bauer, J. Hilaire, R.J. Brecha, J. Edmonds, K. Jiang, E. Kriegler, H.-H. Rogner, F. Sferra, 2016) [1] under DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2016.05.088.


Omer A.,Energy Research Institute ERI
Journal of Polymer Engineering | Year: 2011

Sudan enjoys abundant solar, wind, hydro, and biomass resources. Like many tropical countries, Sudan has ample biomass resources that can be efficiently exploited in a manner that is both profitable and sustainable. Fuel-wood farming offers cost-effective and environmentally friendly energy solutions for Sudan, with the added benefit of providing sustainable livelihoods in rural areas. Biogas from biomass appears to have potential as an alternative energy in Sudan, which is potentially rich in biomass resources. This is an overview of some salient points and perspectives of biomass technology in Sudan. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts of biomass technology. This article provides an overview of biomass energy activities and highlights future plans concerning optimum technical and economical utilization of biomass energy available in Sudan. © 2011 by Walter de Gruyter. Berlin. Boston.


Dai H.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Xie X.,Energy Research Institute ERI | Xie X.,China National Renewable Energy Center | Xie Y.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Applied Energy | Year: 2016

This study assesses the economic impacts and environmental co-benefits of large-scale development of renewable energy (RE) in China toward 2050 using a dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model with distinguished improvements in the power sector. Two scenarios are constructed: a reference scenario assuming conventional development of RE and an REmax scenario assuming large-scale RE development by tapping China's RE potential. The results show that large-scale RE development would not incur a significant macroeconomic cost. On the contrary, it would have significant green growth effects that benefit the growth of upstream industries, reshape the energy structure, and bring substantial environmental co-benefits. If the share of RE reaches 56% in the total primary energy in 2050, then non-fossil power sectors will become a mainstay industry with value added accounting for 3.4% of the GDP, a share comparable to other sectors such as agriculture (2.5%), iron and steel (3.3%), and construction (2.1%). In RE max scenario, the large scale RE development will stimulate the output worth of $1.18 trillion from other RE related upstream industries and create 4.12 million jobs in 2050. In addition to economic benefits, it could substantially reduce the emissions of CO2 and air pollutants such as NOx, SO2. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Omer A.,Energy Research Institute ERI
Technical Proceedings of the 2013 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Expo, NSTI-Nanotech 2013 | Year: 2013

The move towards a low-carbon world, driven partly by climate science and partly by the business opportunities it offers, will need the promotion of environmentally friendly alternatives if an acceptable stabilisation level of atmospheric carbon dioxide is to be achieved. This requires the harnessing and use of natural resources that produce no air pollution or greenhouse gases (GHGs) and provides comfortable coexistence of humans, livestock, and plants. Ground source heat pump systems (GSHPs) are receiving increasing interest because of their potential to reduce primary energy consumption and thus reduce emissions of GHGs. The main objective of the research is to stimulate the uptake of the GSHPs. This paper describes the details of a prototype direct expansion GSHP test rig and details of the construction and installation of the heat pump, heat exchanger, heat injection fan and water supply system. It also presents a discussion of the experimental tests currently being carried out.


Omer A.M.,Energy Research Institute ERI
Green | Year: 2011

Sudan is an agricultural country with fertile soil and ample water resources, as well as livestock and forestry resources, and agricultural residues. Energy is one of the key factors in the development of Sudan's national economy. We present an overview of the energy situation in Sudan, with reference to its end uses and its regional distribution. We separate energy sources into two main types: conventional energy (biomass, petroleum products, and electricity) and non-conventional energy (solar power, wind energy, hydro-electric, etc.). Sudan has a relatively high abundance of sunshine and solar radiation, and has moderate biomass, hydro-electric and wind energy resources. Exploiting the available new and renewable energy sources to provide part of the local energy demand, as alternatives to conventional fossil energy, has become a major issue in Sudan's strategic planning of future energy policies. Sudan presents an important case study with respect to renewable energy, as it has a long history of meeting its energy needs by use of renewable sources; Sudan's portfolio is broad and diverse, due in part to the country's wide range of climates and landscapes. Like many African frontrunners in the utilisation of renewable energy, Sudan has a well-defined commitment to continue research, development, and implementation of new technologies. Sustainable low-carbon energy scenarios in the new century emphasize the importance of exploiting the untapped potential of renewable resources. Sudan's rural areas in particular, can benefit from this transition. The increased availability of reliable and efficient energy services will stimulate the development of new alternatives. We conclude that using renewable, environmentally friendly energy must be encouraged, promoted, implemented, and demonstrated by full-scale energy plants or collection devices, in particular for use in remote rural areas. Copyright © 2011 De Gruyter.


Elfadill N.G.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Elfadill N.G.,Energy Research Institute ERI | Hashim M.R.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Chahrour K.M.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Mohammed S.A.,Energy Research Institute ERI
Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2016

Sodium doped p-type Cu2O film deposited by electrochemical method was achieved by adding sodium alumina complex compound to the copper (II) lactic solution. The optimal incorporated Na content (measured in partial atomic percentage at. %) in Cu2O film was found to be approximately 1.39 at.%. As the Na content increased the resistivity dramatically decreased from (1.2 × 106 to 330) Ω·cm and the carrier concentration was also increased from (5.1 × 1014 to 1.7 × 1018) cm- 3.The XPS result shows the appearance of a binding energy at 1072.4 ± 0.2 eV corresponds to the presence of sodium related to sodium oxide. The Mott-Schottky plot confirms that the Cu2O film conductivity type was p-type and remains unchanged after the doping process. Cu2O/Si p-n heterojunction was fabricated using the undoped and the optimized Na-doped Cu2O film. The efficiency was improved from 0.05% to 0.45% or about nine times its value for the undoped. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Omer A.M.,Energy Research Institute ERI
Technical Proceedings of the 2011 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Expo, NSTI-Nanotech 2011 | Year: 2011

The imminent exhaustion of fossil energy resources and the increasing demand for energy were the motives for those reasonable in Sudan to put into practice an energy policy based on rational use of energy; and on exploitation of new, and renewable energy sources. After 1980, as the supply of conventional energy has not been able to follow the tremendous increase of the production demand in rural areas of Sudan, a renewed interest for the application of wind energy has shown in many places. Therefore, the Sudanese government began to pay more attention to wind energy utilisation in rural areas. Because the wind energy resource in many rural areas is sufficient for attractive application of wind pumps, and as fuel is insufficient, the wind pumps will be spread on a rather large scale in the near future. Wind is a form of renewable energy, which is always in a non-steady state due to the wide temporal and spatial variations of wind velocity. A number of years worth of data concerning wind speed in Sudan have been compiled, evaluated and presented in this article. The need for the provision of new data stations in order to enable a complete and reliable assessment of the overall wind power potential of the country is identified and specific locations suggested. This paper presents the background and ideas of the development of the concept as well as the main results, and experience gained during ongoing project up to now. In Sudan, various designs of wind machines for water pumping have been developed and some designs are presently manufactured commercially. Results suggest that wind power would be more profitably used for local and small-scale applications especially for remote rural areas. It is concluded that Sudan is blessed with abundant wind energy.


Omer A.,Energy Research Institute ERI
Advanced Materials - TechConnect Briefs 2016 | Year: 2016

Aims/Purpose: The increased availability of reliable and efficient energy services stimulates new development alternatives. This article discusses the potential for such integrated systems in the stationary and portable power market in response to the critical need for a cleaner energy technology. Throughout the theme several issues relating to renewable energies, environment, and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. It is concluded that green energies like wind, solar, groundsource heat pumps, and biomass must be promoted, implemented, and demonstrated from the economic and/or environmental point view. Biogas from biomass appears to have potential as an alternative energy source, which is potentially rich in biomass resources. This is an overview of some salient points and perspectives of biogas technology. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts of biogas technology. This article gives an overview of present and future use of biomass as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels, chemicals and other materials. However, to be truly competitive in an open market situation, higher value products are required. Results suggest that biogas technology must be encouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated, but especially in remote rural areas. Study design: Anticipated patterns of future energy use and consequent environmental impacts (acid precipitation, ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect or global warming) are comprehensively discussed in this article. Place and Duration of Study: National Centre for Research, Energy Research Institute (ERI), between January 2013 and July 2014. Methodology/Approach: An approach is needed to integrate renewable energies in a way to meet high building performance. However, because renewable energy sources are stochastic and geographically diffuse, their ability to match demand is determined by adoption of one of the following two approaches: the utilisation of a capture area greater than that occupied by the community to be supplied, or the reduction of the community's energy demands to a level commensurate with the locally available renewable resources. Results/Findings: The adoption of green or sustainable approaches to the way in which society is run is seen as an important strategy in finding a solution to the energy problem. The key factors to reducing and controlling CO2, which is the major contributor to global warming, are the use of alternative approaches to energy generation and the exploration of how these alternatives are used today and may be used in the future as green energy sources. Originality/Value: This study highlights the energy problem and the possible saving that can be achieved through the use of renewable energy technologies. Also, this study clarifies the background of the study, highlights the potential energy saving that could be achieved through use of renewable energy technologies and describes the objectives, approach and scope of the study. The move towards a de-carbonised world, driven partly by climate science and partly by the business opportunities it offers, will need the promotion of environmentally friendly alternatives, if an acceptable stabilisation level of atmospheric carbon dioxide is to be achieved. This requires the harnessing and use of natural resources that produce no air pollution or greenhouse gases and provides comfortable coexistence of human, livestock, and plants. The increased availability of reliable and efficient energy services stimulates new development alternatives. We present and focus a comprehensive review of energy sources, and the development of sustainable technologies to explore these energy sources. We conclude that using renewable energy technologies, efficient energy systems, energy savings techniques and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce climate changes.


Omer A.,Energy Research Institute ERI
Advanced Materials - TechConnect Briefs 2016 | Year: 2016

Biogas from biomass appears to have potential as an alternative energy source, which is potentially rich in biomass resources. This is an overview of some salient points and perspectives of biogas technology. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts of biogas technology. This communication gives an overview of present and future use of biomass as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels, chemicals and other materials. However, to be truly competitive in an open market situation, higher value products are required. Results suggest that biogas technology must be encouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated, but especially in remote rural areas.


Omer A.,Energy Research Institute ERI
Technical Proceedings of the 2012 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Expo, NSTI-Nanotech 2012 | Year: 2012

The move towards a low-carbon world, driven partly by climate science and partly by the business opportunities it offers, will need the promotion of environmentally friendly alternatives if an acceptable stabilisation level of atmospheric carbon dioxide is to be achieved. This requires the harnessing and use of natural resources that produce no air pollution or greenhouse gases (GHGs) and provides comfortable coexistence of humans, livestock, and plants. Ground source heat pump systems (GSHPs) are receiving increasing interest because of their potential to reduce primary energy consumption and thus reduce emissions of GHGs. The main objective of the research is to stimulate the uptake of the GSHPs. This paper describes the details of a prototype direct expansion GSHP test rig and details of the construction and installation of the heat pump, heat exchanger, heat injection fan and water supply system. It also presents a discussion of the experimental tests currently being carried out.

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