Borges C.L.T.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro |
Martins V.F.,Energy Research Company
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2012
This paper presents a methodology for active distribution networks dynamic expansion planning based on Genetic Algorithms, where Distributed Generation integration is considered together with conventional alternatives for expansion, such as, rewiring, network reconfiguration, installation of new protection devices, etc. All aspects related to the expansion planning problem, such as multiple objective analysis, reliability constraints, modeling under uncertainties of demand and power supplied by Distributed Generation units and multistage planning, which are usually dealt with separately, are considered in an integrated model. Uncertainties are represented through the use of multiple scenario analysis. Multiple stages are incorporated by an algorithm based on the pseudo-dynamic programming theory. Results obtained with a test system and with an actual large scale system are presented and demonstrate the flexibility of applying the model for different purposes active network planning. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wolf T.,University of Stuttgart |
Neumann P.,University of Stuttgart |
Nakamura K.,Energy Research Company |
Sumiya H.,Sumitomo Electric Industries |
And 3 more authors.
Physical Review X | Year: 2015
Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond are promising solid-state magnetometers. Single centers allow for high-spatial-resolution field imaging but are limited in their magnetic field sensitivity. Using defect-center ensembles, sensitivity can be scaled with √N p when N is the number of defects. In the present work, we use an ensemble of N ~ 1011 defect centers within an effective sensor volume of 8.5 × 10-4 mm3 for sensing at room temperature. By carefully eliminating noise sources and using highquality diamonds with large NV concentrations, we demonstrate, for such sensors, a sensitivity scaling as 1= √t p, where t is the total measurement time. The associated photon-shot-noise-limited magnetic-field sensitivity for ac signals of f = 20 kHz is 0.9 pT= √Hz. For a total measurement time of 100 s, we reach a standard deviation of about 100 fT. Further improvements using decoupling sequences and material optimization could lead to fT= √Hz p sensitivity.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2011
Energy Research Company (ERCo) proposes the development of an instrument to improve laser-decoating processes through novel real-time control technology. The technology allows for precise and selective removal of the desired coating layer while preserving any underlying coatings and the base material. Because of the real-time nature of the proposed device, using the instrument will not result in a reduction in the decoating rate. The quality of the decoating process will thereby be greatly improved while throughput of the laser decoating system will be unaffected. ERCo has demonstrated the technique in its laboratory and has shown that very accurate coating removal can be obtained. In Phase I, ERCo will demonstrate the device"s ability to automatically and accurately control the removal of topcoat and/or primer layers while preserving underlying layers and the substrate material. BENEFIT: The benefits are the accurate removal of coatings while preserving underlying layers and substrate materials with an instrument that is inexpensive and self contained. This will result in reduced maintenance costs for decoating operations. The federal and civilian markets are large. The federal market includes paint and coating removal from ships, aircraft, and related equipment. The civilian market includes paint removal from commercial jetliners, ships, and bridge maintenance.
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2015
Energy Research Company ERCo), in collaboration with the Safeguards Science and Technology Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory, proposes the development of a monitor of fuel rod integrity in spent nuclear fuel storage casks that utilizes spectroscopic measurements. Currently, dry storage casks are the only storage option for spent nuclear fuel in the United States once the fuel is cool enough to be removed from the spent fuel pool. In the absence of a domestic long term storage site or fuel reprocessing plant, the fuel rods will remain in these casks. However, there is no method for inspecting the integrity of fuel rods over time without opening the casks and removing the rods for inspection. The proposed sensor will allow for determining the integrity of the fuel rods from outside the cask. Gases are released from spent fuel rods that fracture. Since dry storage casks are filled with pure helium, no other gases are present in the cask at the time it is sealed. Detecting other gases inside the cask is therefore equivalent to detecting a failing fuel rod. The spectroscopic monitor will be capable of detecting the small quantities of gases in a cask that would be released from a single fractured rod. The concept will be proven in Phase I by making measurements of a gas that is released by a fractured fuel rod using the proposed spectroscopic method in a realistic optical configuration for a dry storage cask. These measurements will yield the design parameters necessary for designing and building a prototype in Phase II. With the concept proved, we will approach cask manufacturers for collaborations in Phase II and beyond. The direct commercial application is for monitoring dry storage casks at nuclear power stations and other locations. As of 2010, 63 licenses for spent fuel dry storage sites have been issued. The Nuclear Energy Institute predicts that by 2026, all but 3 of the 100 currently operating nuclear power reactors will require dry storage for their spent fuel. In addition to the dry storage cask application, we also plan to utilize the technology developed in this project to improve monitoring of nuclear materials in other contexts.
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: National Institutes of Health | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 300.00K | Year: 2015
DESCRIPTION provided by applicant Energy Research Company ERCo in a collaboration with The City College of New York CCNY and Columbia University Medical Center CUMC proposes developing the Vulnerable Plaque Amplified Optical Analyzer VPAOA a fiber optic catheter instrument based on patented amplified spectroscopy technology for detecting and analyzing vulnerable plaque VP in coronary arteries VP is a type of arterial plaque that is susceptible to sudden rupture often resulting in a heart attack or stroe and death An estimated of sudden heart attack fatalities are due to the formation of a thrombosis following the rupture of a VP When the fibrous cap that covers a VP is less than mm thick it is too thin to contain the plaque in the face of common stresses and is susceptible to sudden rupture With over heart attacks in the U S each year technology to diagnose VP and measure VP caps can be transformative for public health potentially saving thousands of lives and hundreds of millions of dollars in medical costs per year in the U S alone The sensor proposed in this project will detect VP and measure the thickness of the fibrous caps giving cardiologists the predictive knowledge of unstable plaques needed to prevent heart attacks most effectively Conclusively detecting VP is not possible with traditional clinical tools such as intravascular ultrasound IVUS optical coherence tomography OCT and high resolution magnetic resonance imaging MRI These are imaging not diagnostic methods and are therefore limited by their poor sensitivity and ability to predict rupture of VP Even the new near infrared NIR techniques can only provide limited information about a plaque and are plagued by the strong absorption of NIR radiation by water The proposed device overcomes these limitations and provides in vivo diagnostic information and imaging of VP Objectives Phase I of the project will result in a proof of concept prototype device tested on human artery specimens exhibiting different types of plaques Phase II will result in an advanced prototype suitable for testing in a medical center laboratory on suitable animals with VP as preparation for human testing Phase I Specific Aims and Methods to be Employed CCNY will build an amplified spectroscopy system on a laboratory bench and demonstrate signal amplification on human arterial specimens exhibiting plaques ERCo will build a prototype fiber optic catheter probe system capable of generating and analyzing the amplified spectra Finally the catheter probe system will be tested for the ability to i discriminate between VP and non VP specimens and ii measure cap thicknesses of VP plaques with high accuracy This will be done with blind tests on specimens analyzed by andquot gold standardandquot pathology methods at CUMC PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE The proposed project will result in an instrument that will give cardiologists the ability to conclusively diagnose unstable arterial plaques known as vulnerable plaques before a heart attack or stroke occurs potentially saving thousands of lives and hundreds of millions of dollars in medical treatment per year in the United States alone Vulnerable plaques are particularly dangerous because they are susceptible to sudden rupture often resulting in a heart attack or stroke and death Indeed it is estimated that of sudden heart attack fatalities are due to the formation of an arterial blockage known as a thrombosis following the rupture of a vulnerable plaque