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Topkaya S.O.,Energy Market Regulatory Authority
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews

Market reform, energy security and environmental protection are three primary energy policy goals of Turkish government. Although Turkey's abundant solar energy resources can directly address the government's energy policy goals, Turkey has not utilized solar power yet. Utilization of country's huge solar energy potential would decrease dependence on imported fossil fuels and contribute to fulfill environmental commitments. However, lack of regulatory and financial support for the development of solar power has considerably delayed the utilization of country's huge solar potential. The government has taken only modest steps to promote investment in solar power until the end of 2010 when a new feed-in tariff policy was adapted. Turkey's solar energy potential, PV technology status and prospect for concentrating solar power in Turkey have been explored in a number of studies; yet literature dealing with recent policy developments, associated investment environment and opportunities for solar power investors are limited. The aim of this paper is to set out the latest legal framework for investment in Turkey's emerging solar power market and to provide some guidelines to potential investors who appreciated country's huge solar energy potential. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All right reserved. Source

Erdogdu E.,Energy Market Regulatory Authority
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews

The last three decades have witnessed many electricity industry reform processes in more than half of the countries in the world. The reforms have aimed, inter alia, at encouraging private investments in electricity infrastructure, enhancing security of electricity supply and making power industry operate in line with the requirements of the sustainable development. Using an original panel dataset from 55 developed and developing countries covering the period from 1975 to 2010, this study aims at finding out to what extent these objectives have been materialized so far. Econometric models are used to identify the effects of electricity market liberalization on these variables. The research findings suggest that the progress toward the electricity market reform is associated with a decline in private investments in the electricity industries of developing countries, higher levels of self-sufficiency in electricity supply and lower CO2 emissions from electricity generation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Erdogdu E.,Energy Market Regulatory Authority
Applied Energy

On average, energy demand of Turkey is mounting by 8% annually, one of the highest rates in the world. Among primary energy sources, natural gas is the fastest growing one in Turkey. Gas consumption started at 0.5 bcm (billion cubic meters) in 1987 and reached approximately 35 bcm in 2007. Turkish natural gas usage is projected to further increase remarkably in coming years. The present paper focuses the characteristics of this demand and estimates short and long-run price and income elasticities of sectoral natural gas demand in Turkey. The future growth in this demand is also forecasted using an ARIMA modelling and the results are compared with official projections. The paper reveals that natural gas demand elasticities are quite low, meaning that consumers do not respond possible abusive price increases by decreasing their demand or substituting natural gas with other energy sources. Since consumers are prone to monopoly abuse by incumbent, there is a need for market regulation in Turkish natural gas market. Based on forecasts obtained, it is clear that the current official projections do not over/under-estimate natural gas demand although past official projections highly overestimated it. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Sirin S.M.,Energy Market Regulatory Authority
Energy Policy

Nuclear energy, which was once considered as the fuel of future and was abandoned after Chernobyl accident, has emerged recently in Developed and developing countries as an option to combat climate change, to secure supply and to achieve sustainable development. Turkey, a developing country where most of the electricity is produced from fossil fuels and which has energy security problems, has adopted a new legislation giving financial incentives for nuclear power plant construction, along with a tender in 2008. However, the tender ended in a stalemate after the Council of State's decision in November 2009. An evaluation of Turkey's nuclear policy in light of South Korea's nuclear experience gives us an explanation as to why Turkey failed in the last tender. Basically it was due to lack of a long term nuclear energy policy that comprehends social, economical, technical and political aspects of nuclear energy. Thus, it is argued that Turkey can benefit from nuclear energy if it formulates a comprehensive nuclear energy plan clearly interwoven with its economic development plans, establishes a proper legal framework and has domestic industry participation in nuclear technology development. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Turkish electricity market law (EML) came into force in 2001 aiming at establishing a financially strong, stable, transparent and competitive electricity market based on bilateral contracts. Also, a balancing and settlement system (BSS) was put into practice in November 2004 to create a market where uncontracted generation can be traded, and actual implementation of the BSS started on August, 1st 2006 following a 21-month virtual implementation period. However, BSS has always been criticized from its beginning as transferring excessive profits to private generation companies. The present paper analyzes the implementation of BSS and argues that current BSS not only undermines the healthy development of the electricity market in Turkey but also prevents power investments due to uncertainties it created. It concludes that since the inconsistency between the objectives of EML and results of BSS in practice is obvious, Turkish policy makers need to modify current electricity market policy in line with suggestions presented in the paper. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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