Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar

Zagreb, Croatia

Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar

Zagreb, Croatia
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Robina V.K.G.,Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar | Havelka J.,University of Zagreb | Tomsic Z.,University of Zagreb
IET Conference Publications | Year: 2016

The purpose of this paper is to define real potential for biogas production in Croatia and to define the potential for biomethane production. The potential is defined on the basis of the type of raw material that can be used to produce biogas, i.e. biomethane. The existing situation was analysed on the basis of data for 2014 and estimates were made for the year 2020. Along with the presentation of results, methods of data analysis used to define the potential of biogas and potential for biomethane production are described. Croatian and EU legislation regarding biogas and biomethane is presented in the paper. Production and utilisation of biogas and biomethane exceeds the boundaries of one field. It includes agriculture, energy utilisation and environmental protection. National directives on biogas as part of IEE BiogasIN project suggest that in the future the energy obtained from biogas will have important role in the achievement of goals set in the 2009/28 EU Directive on renewable energy sources. In Croatia, legislation on biogas is explicitly stated in more than 20 legislative documents and different institutions are responsible for its implementation.


Lenz N.V.,University of Rijeka | Grgurev I.,Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar
International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy | Year: 2017

Energy poverty has become a rising issue in European Union (EU), especially in new member states, but still there is no uniform methodology in defining energy poverty and policy measures. The aim of our paper is to assess and compare the number of energy poor households in three new EU member states based on quantitative indicators like the number of energy poor households that use financial measures related to energy sector and the number of households that spend more than 10% of their income on energy. Our results show that the number of energy poor population increased in the period 2009-2014 in all three countries according to the level of monthly (Bulgaria and Romania) and guaranteed minimum allowances (Croatia), while the share of heating allowances decreased only in Romania, but is still very high. In all three countries the problem of energy poverty is present in 4 to 5 deciles. Additionally, the share of the population who consider that they cannot keep their homes warm is the biggest problem in Bulgaria (45%), then in Romania (14%) and Croatia (10%). © 2017, Econjournals. All rights reserved.


Balic D.,Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar | Maljkovic D.,Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar | Loncar D.,University of Zagreb
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2017

The contemporary energy system is faced with new challenges on the energy market. Both the rising share of renewable-based electricity (characterised by intermittent production) and increasing energy efficiency in buildings induce a reconsideration of the traditional role of conventional power plants coupled with district heating systems along with its impact on the energy system. Moreover, the price of electricity determined by the merit-order system additionally decreases the load factor of such plants, making them less competitive or even inflicting financial loss in operation. Research presented in this paper focuses on a novel approach towards conventional combined heat and power (CHP) plants coupled with district heating systems. It involves an analysis of dynamical performances of the district heating system – capability of energy accumulation and thermal inertia – in order to assess its potential to become part of ancillary services. It is concluded that the district heating system, i.e. network of pipelines can be considered as dynamical thermal energy storage in which excess energy can be stored during operation of the CHP plant. A comprehensive analysis of dynamic behaviour of the district heating system has been performed by means of a mathematical model developed as a part of this research. The model is implemented on a theoretical case consisting of a simplified district heating system with three final users and the pipeline network of 9000 m in length. The simulation has shown that the storage capacity of the network depends on the thermal load in the network and in such circumstances specific thermal capacity of the network amounts to 10.1 Wh/(km). If the thermal load is decreased by 13% at the peak the accumulation capability is decreased by 40%. Moreover, the thermal capacity of the network increases up to 13.7 Wh/(km) as the pipeline length declines to 1000 m which is characteristic of densely populated areas. The capability of energy accumulation is explored for different parameters, such as: external temperature, distance of the network, supply water temperature etc. It is shown that distance of final users from CHP plant has certain impact on the operation strategy as well. Final users closer to the CHP plant determines operation strategy in the case of short-term disturbances in heat supply, while the farther ones in the case of long-term disturbances. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Kos Grabar Robina V.,Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar | Kinderman Loncarevic A.,Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2017

The aim of this paper is to present an improved way of collection and compilation of data about solid biomass consumption in households in order to improve accuracy of official energy statistics data. The accurate, timely and reliable energy data significantly contribute to the consistency in national energy statistics, energy balance, as well as for many other obligatory reporting procedures which are requested and prescribed by national and international standards.When compiling energy statistics, statistics on renewables, particularly biomass consumption, it is often the most questionable as little or no available official data exists in the country. According to the international standards and definitions, solid biomass covers organic, non-fossil material of biological origin which may be used as fuel for heat production or electricity generation. In households, the most commonly used biomass are fuelwood and wood residues.In the process of compiling national energy statistics, national institutions responsible for official energy statistics usually estimate biomass consumption based on the reports on fuelwood cuts in state forests and official biomass production, although it is known that consumption is much higher. Over the past two decades, Energy Institute Hrvoje Požar worked intensively on the energy consumption data collection and particularly on the development of the tailored-made surveying methods for different final energy consumption sectors, particularly for the household sector. The similar methods were recommended to national statistics institutes in the countries in the region when providing technical assistance in developing energy statistics.This paper describes the survey results and methods applied for the determination of energy consumption in households and particularly biomass consumption in three selected countries: Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Macedonia, and recommendations for the further improvements. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.


White W.,Natural Resources Canada | Nybakk E.,Norwegian Forest And Landscape Institute | Kulisic B.,Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2013

The renewable energy sector (RES) often receives financial, institutional or educational support from the government. A significant challenge for the actors in the RES field is policy consistency. When investments are carried out, a prognosis for future policies must be made. If the future is uncertain, larger risk margins should be included in the investment appraisals. Sudden, unexpected policy changes are one type of uncertainty that makes it more difficult to attract capital. In this article, we discuss the consequences of discontinuities in policy support using a case study approach. In Ontario, feed-in tariffs were introduced in 2009 and resulted in a large uptake in the programme. In 2010, the subsidies were drastically cut, resulting in the RES community losing confidence that the government would offer consistent support to the sector. In Norway, a large new biodiesel plant was opened by the Minister of the Environment only a few weeks before the government announced a major change in the bioenergy policy. As a result, the new plant was closed and restructured, and the investors lost nearly all of their investments. The government lost political credibility, making it difficult to raise private capital for new investments in this sector in Norway. We do not argue that policies should not be changed, but the manner in which policies are changed plays an important role. Our study shows that large, unexpected changes in policies increase uncertainty and may have a negative impact on investments. This topic should be further researched. © 2013.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: REGIONS-2007-2-02 | Award Amount: 223.01K | Year: 2008

Central Eastern Europes rural areas have been facing great challenges due to their geographical handicaps and economic structural problems, although they possess an unexploited natural treasure: the thermal water. The overall concept of the CLUSTHERM project is: enabling the regional actors to bring the geothermal R&D achievements to the ground of local services and products. Access to research provision and the clustering between the economic and public actors could allow the dynamic, knowledge based development of these rural economies. A more concentrated research on geothermal resources can lead to the development of high added value products and services. The CLUSTHERM project aims to set up a new research driven cluster in Central Europe on thermal water utilization that will develop the capacity and research potential of Central Eastern Europes rural economies rich in thermal water to access and benefit from research on the exploitation. The direct objectives are: - analyse the RTD development and the needs of geothermal energy utilisation - promote synergies and catalyse links between regional, research and business actors (vertical clustering) - foster the transnational and cross-border co-operations between the regional actors (horizontal clustering) - develop and enhance transnational mutual learning through information exchange possibilities of regional stakeholders in creating research driven clusters and to disseminate good policy practices and benchmarking activities - develop joint action plan and research strategy among the participating regions to increase the regional economic competitiveness through concentrated use of natural resources


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: ENERGY.2013.9.2.1 | Award Amount: 2.22M | Year: 2014

As todays energy policy decisions are not only very complex, but also fundamentally political decisions, the necessity to build them on sound, unbiased and up-to-date information/knowledge makes energy policy analysis and advice from a broad array of non-commercial actors key to effective policy formulation. Taking this into account, it is the aim of this project to establish a multidisciplinary and independent energy think tank consisting of experts from the energy sector, top researchers, engineers, leading trade, economic, environmental, and legal experts who are experienced in delivering high quality policy advice and impact assessments. The think tank will provide policy makers at the European level with objective and unbiased policy advice as well as insights on policy options, including an assessment of their potential impact. Moreover, the think tank will bring to the attention of political decision-makers new trends in technology as well as the objectives and activities of important stakeholders that shape energy policy-making in Europe. In order to assess policy options concerning the four dimensions of sustainability (environmental, economic, social, institutional), the project will use an integrated assessment framework, backed by high-quality data resources available to the project consortium. To complement this, the project will establish innovative methods of stakeholder engagement and trend identification through the establishment of an Energy Observatory. Moreover, with transparency being of significant value, INSIGHT_E will make its models, assumptions, and scenarios available through a Scenario Information System. Implementing a flexible and at the same time profound information tool will bring about significant improvements to the policy making process and hence secure a climate-friendly energy policy.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: GC.SST.2012.2-3. | Award Amount: 14.34M | Year: 2013

LNG Blue Corridors unites/mobilizes the critical mass of experience (know-how, expertise, (industrial) parties and stakeholders) in LNG transport and infrastructure technology. It involves cooperation between heavy duty vehicle manufacturers, fuel suppliers, fuel distributors and fleet operators. The project includes a first definition of European LNG Blue Corridors, with strategic LNG refuelling points in order to guarantee LNG availability for road transport in a simple and cost effective way. The core of the project is the roll out and demonstration of the first stage of the roadmap of four LNG Blue Corridors involves the building of approx. 14 new LNG or L-CNG stations on critical points/locations in the Blue Corridors and the building up of a fleet of approx. 100 LNG Heavy Duty Vehicles and/or DF vehicles operating along the corridors. The project that is scheduled for 4 years has the ambition to connect over 12 Member States, to align to existing demonstrations running at national level, and to improve the knowledge and general awareness of LNG as alternative fuel for medium and long distance road transport.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: ENERGY.2009.9.1.1 | Award Amount: 1.30M | Year: 2009

The present project aims at bringing together EU competence on a transition towards a sustainable and low carbon energy system through energy innovation, encompassing transition planning, energy modeling activities, and technology assessment. This will be achieved by creating a platform in which techniques and data are collected, shared and harmonized. The Objectives of the project are to: Review models/tools used in the European Countries, taking in mind what is used outside Europe, and what are the requirements of the SETPlan (WP1, WP2) Identify and recommend common tools to be used in all countries and in the Energy Technology Information System, and gain consensus on these models (WP3). Identify and recommend existing technology databases and provide a roadmap for the development of these databases on a European and on a regional basis (WP4). Demonstrate the ability of the recommended tools to be used for energy planning (WP5) Identify the roadmap for the improvement and development of the tools in order to cover the needs of the SETPlan implementation (WP6). To achieve these objectives the project consortium consists of Institutions with a long experience in the fields of energy planning tools development and use. In order to ensure the direct links with the SETPlan development and requirements, the JRC, Institute of Energy will be part of the Steering Committee of the project. The final outcome of the project is expected to be a concrete list of tools, that can be used on a Member State level and on a European level which will be generally accepted, an initial set of input data for these models, and a roadmap for the development of both data and tools, in the future.


Krajacic G.,University of Zagreb | Loncar D.,University of Zagreb | Duic N.,University of Zagreb | Zeljko M.,Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar | And 3 more authors.
Applied Energy | Year: 2013

This paper analyses potential supporting schemes for pumped hydro storage (PHS) facilities in Croatia, which would guarantee recovery of the investment cost, with feed-in tariffs - for instance - which would guarantee payment for discharging wind-originated power as a reward for boosting the integration of renewable energy sources (RESs). The payment level acts as a floor basis for the PHS operator during the decision-making process to contract fixed payments for wind support or to act market-free on other market segments, through price arbitrage and reserve provision. The market share required for the efficient operation of a PHS facility and the levels of feed-in tariff (FIT) are set mathematically. Main findings put the level of FIT for an applied project in Croatia in the range 42-265. €/MW. h for an average load factor of 20%, depending on particular local conditions, such as the level of wind power curtailment in the system, the power price for charging the storage and the number of pumps and penstocks, which could lower the capital cost. It is claimed that not all services that PHS provides to the electricity system are adequately rewarded by the electricity market, and thus there is a serious uncertainty as to how investment costs in energy storage would be recovered. Other elements, outside the market, are likely to influence the operation of PHS, such as the regulated level of a desirable rate of curtailment of RES power excess, the adequate level of energy security and the reserve margins which PHS could help to ensure. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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