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Robina V.K.G.,Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar | Havelka J.,University of Zagreb | Tomsic Z.,University of Zagreb
IET Conference Publications | Year: 2016

The purpose of this paper is to define real potential for biogas production in Croatia and to define the potential for biomethane production. The potential is defined on the basis of the type of raw material that can be used to produce biogas, i.e. biomethane. The existing situation was analysed on the basis of data for 2014 and estimates were made for the year 2020. Along with the presentation of results, methods of data analysis used to define the potential of biogas and potential for biomethane production are described. Croatian and EU legislation regarding biogas and biomethane is presented in the paper. Production and utilisation of biogas and biomethane exceeds the boundaries of one field. It includes agriculture, energy utilisation and environmental protection. National directives on biogas as part of IEE BiogasIN project suggest that in the future the energy obtained from biogas will have important role in the achievement of goals set in the 2009/28 EU Directive on renewable energy sources. In Croatia, legislation on biogas is explicitly stated in more than 20 legislative documents and different institutions are responsible for its implementation.


White W.,Natural Resources Canada | Nybakk E.,Norwegian Forest And Landscape Institute | Kulisic B.,Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2013

The renewable energy sector (RES) often receives financial, institutional or educational support from the government. A significant challenge for the actors in the RES field is policy consistency. When investments are carried out, a prognosis for future policies must be made. If the future is uncertain, larger risk margins should be included in the investment appraisals. Sudden, unexpected policy changes are one type of uncertainty that makes it more difficult to attract capital. In this article, we discuss the consequences of discontinuities in policy support using a case study approach. In Ontario, feed-in tariffs were introduced in 2009 and resulted in a large uptake in the programme. In 2010, the subsidies were drastically cut, resulting in the RES community losing confidence that the government would offer consistent support to the sector. In Norway, a large new biodiesel plant was opened by the Minister of the Environment only a few weeks before the government announced a major change in the bioenergy policy. As a result, the new plant was closed and restructured, and the investors lost nearly all of their investments. The government lost political credibility, making it difficult to raise private capital for new investments in this sector in Norway. We do not argue that policies should not be changed, but the manner in which policies are changed plays an important role. Our study shows that large, unexpected changes in policies increase uncertainty and may have a negative impact on investments. This topic should be further researched. © 2013.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: REGIONS-2007-2-02 | Award Amount: 223.01K | Year: 2008

Central Eastern Europes rural areas have been facing great challenges due to their geographical handicaps and economic structural problems, although they possess an unexploited natural treasure: the thermal water. The overall concept of the CLUSTHERM project is: enabling the regional actors to bring the geothermal R&D achievements to the ground of local services and products. Access to research provision and the clustering between the economic and public actors could allow the dynamic, knowledge based development of these rural economies. A more concentrated research on geothermal resources can lead to the development of high added value products and services. The CLUSTHERM project aims to set up a new research driven cluster in Central Europe on thermal water utilization that will develop the capacity and research potential of Central Eastern Europes rural economies rich in thermal water to access and benefit from research on the exploitation. The direct objectives are: - analyse the RTD development and the needs of geothermal energy utilisation - promote synergies and catalyse links between regional, research and business actors (vertical clustering) - foster the transnational and cross-border co-operations between the regional actors (horizontal clustering) - develop and enhance transnational mutual learning through information exchange possibilities of regional stakeholders in creating research driven clusters and to disseminate good policy practices and benchmarking activities - develop joint action plan and research strategy among the participating regions to increase the regional economic competitiveness through concentrated use of natural resources


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: ENERGY.2013.9.2.1 | Award Amount: 2.22M | Year: 2014

As todays energy policy decisions are not only very complex, but also fundamentally political decisions, the necessity to build them on sound, unbiased and up-to-date information/knowledge makes energy policy analysis and advice from a broad array of non-commercial actors key to effective policy formulation. Taking this into account, it is the aim of this project to establish a multidisciplinary and independent energy think tank consisting of experts from the energy sector, top researchers, engineers, leading trade, economic, environmental, and legal experts who are experienced in delivering high quality policy advice and impact assessments. The think tank will provide policy makers at the European level with objective and unbiased policy advice as well as insights on policy options, including an assessment of their potential impact. Moreover, the think tank will bring to the attention of political decision-makers new trends in technology as well as the objectives and activities of important stakeholders that shape energy policy-making in Europe. In order to assess policy options concerning the four dimensions of sustainability (environmental, economic, social, institutional), the project will use an integrated assessment framework, backed by high-quality data resources available to the project consortium. To complement this, the project will establish innovative methods of stakeholder engagement and trend identification through the establishment of an Energy Observatory. Moreover, with transparency being of significant value, INSIGHT_E will make its models, assumptions, and scenarios available through a Scenario Information System. Implementing a flexible and at the same time profound information tool will bring about significant improvements to the policy making process and hence secure a climate-friendly energy policy.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: GC.SST.2012.2-3. | Award Amount: 14.34M | Year: 2013

LNG Blue Corridors unites/mobilizes the critical mass of experience (know-how, expertise, (industrial) parties and stakeholders) in LNG transport and infrastructure technology. It involves cooperation between heavy duty vehicle manufacturers, fuel suppliers, fuel distributors and fleet operators. The project includes a first definition of European LNG Blue Corridors, with strategic LNG refuelling points in order to guarantee LNG availability for road transport in a simple and cost effective way. The core of the project is the roll out and demonstration of the first stage of the roadmap of four LNG Blue Corridors involves the building of approx. 14 new LNG or L-CNG stations on critical points/locations in the Blue Corridors and the building up of a fleet of approx. 100 LNG Heavy Duty Vehicles and/or DF vehicles operating along the corridors. The project that is scheduled for 4 years has the ambition to connect over 12 Member States, to align to existing demonstrations running at national level, and to improve the knowledge and general awareness of LNG as alternative fuel for medium and long distance road transport.


Kulisic B.,Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar | Par V.,University of Zagreb | Metzler R.,MVV DECON GmbH
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2015

Energy planning relies on potential assessments where the role of each energy source in the energy balance will correspond to the attributed potential.Biogas is a gaseous renewable energy fuel derived from biomass. It origins from numerous substrates and provides all useful energy forms which makes biogas potential assessment challenging. Biogas production and utilization has also side-effects from which a country could both benefit, and, if not properly addressed, suffer.Practice proves that a demand based approach to agricultural biogas potential assessment is not providing the value(s) to which either energy or rural development policy planning can work with. The problem stems from three main challenges: (a) biogas rarely occurs in monodigestion, (b) co-digestion has to compete with other non-food sectors for co-substrates, (c) biogas production needs constant inputs.Paper provides methodology to assess the technical and economical on-farm biogas potential of a geographic region. Technical potential assessment links resource based, statistical data with spatial data of single farms to detect farms with plausible biogas production. Return on investment is used to trim the technical to economic potential. Results provide sufficient data for developing on-farm biogas production and its conversion to useful energy forms in energy planning.The methodology is applied to Croatia as a case study. The results indicate discrepancy between the existing biogas supporting measures and features of the Croatian livestock sector. In addition, the results suggest that biogas potential is underestimated which is potentially loss in public money dedicated for development of renewable energy sector. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Majstrovic G.,Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar | Polen W.,United States Energy Association
Energy and Environment | Year: 2015

The Southeast Europe Cooperation Initiative Transmission System Planning Project (SECI TSP) is a unique development assistance collaboration supported by the transmission system operators of Southeast Europe (SEE), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the United States Energy Association (USEA). Members of the SECI TSP include 10 transmission system operators from Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Romania and Turkey. Slovenia, Greece and Italy participate in the SECI TSP as observers.This paper provides a brief introduction to the SECI TSP and reviews results of a SECI TSP study of the capacity of the high voltage electricity transmission network in SEE to integrate wind power. The analysis results from wind power plant (WPP) data collected and verified by 12 TSOs (including Slovenia and Greece) through a series of detailed questionnaires (324 inputs collected) and intensive regional cooperation supported by USAID and USEA since 2000. Besides that, large set of input data on hourly WPP generation profiles for each SECI country for the 2020 planning horizon was employed from the Pan-European Market Database (87,600 output data). Historical data on WPP generation was used as a reference when such data was available, as well as the data available from the national wind integration studies.The study identifies limiting factors for large scale WPP integration in SEE, contains an analysis of expected WPP output variation, forecasts reserve capacities in the region, identifies network bottleneck resulting from large scale wind integration, and calculates the impact of WPP on regional network losses.The study results indicate that owing to the sub-regional characteristics of wind patterns, the countries of SEE could reduce by approximately 50% the amount of reserve capacity needed to balance intermittent wind production if such capacity is provided on a regional basis as opposed to the traditional country-by-country approach. This would open up more than 2,000MW of capacity to be available to the regional electricity market as opposed to holding them in reserve on an individual, country-by country basis. Also, more than 30 regional network bottlenecks were identified as a result of large scale WPP integration through different load flow scenarios.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: ENERGY.2009.9.1.1 | Award Amount: 1.30M | Year: 2009

The present project aims at bringing together EU competence on a transition towards a sustainable and low carbon energy system through energy innovation, encompassing transition planning, energy modeling activities, and technology assessment. This will be achieved by creating a platform in which techniques and data are collected, shared and harmonized. The Objectives of the project are to: Review models/tools used in the European Countries, taking in mind what is used outside Europe, and what are the requirements of the SETPlan (WP1, WP2) Identify and recommend common tools to be used in all countries and in the Energy Technology Information System, and gain consensus on these models (WP3). Identify and recommend existing technology databases and provide a roadmap for the development of these databases on a European and on a regional basis (WP4). Demonstrate the ability of the recommended tools to be used for energy planning (WP5) Identify the roadmap for the improvement and development of the tools in order to cover the needs of the SETPlan implementation (WP6). To achieve these objectives the project consortium consists of Institutions with a long experience in the fields of energy planning tools development and use. In order to ensure the direct links with the SETPlan development and requirements, the JRC, Institute of Energy will be part of the Steering Committee of the project. The final outcome of the project is expected to be a concrete list of tools, that can be used on a Member State level and on a European level which will be generally accepted, an initial set of input data for these models, and a roadmap for the development of both data and tools, in the future.


Krajacic G.,University of Zagreb | Loncar D.,University of Zagreb | Duic N.,University of Zagreb | Zeljko M.,Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar | And 3 more authors.
Applied Energy | Year: 2013

This paper analyses potential supporting schemes for pumped hydro storage (PHS) facilities in Croatia, which would guarantee recovery of the investment cost, with feed-in tariffs - for instance - which would guarantee payment for discharging wind-originated power as a reward for boosting the integration of renewable energy sources (RESs). The payment level acts as a floor basis for the PHS operator during the decision-making process to contract fixed payments for wind support or to act market-free on other market segments, through price arbitrage and reserve provision. The market share required for the efficient operation of a PHS facility and the levels of feed-in tariff (FIT) are set mathematically. Main findings put the level of FIT for an applied project in Croatia in the range 42-265. €/MW. h for an average load factor of 20%, depending on particular local conditions, such as the level of wind power curtailment in the system, the power price for charging the storage and the number of pumps and penstocks, which could lower the capital cost. It is claimed that not all services that PHS provides to the electricity system are adequately rewarded by the electricity market, and thus there is a serious uncertainty as to how investment costs in energy storage would be recovered. Other elements, outside the market, are likely to influence the operation of PHS, such as the regulated level of a desirable rate of curtailment of RES power excess, the adequate level of energy security and the reserve margins which PHS could help to ensure. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Matosovic M.,Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar | Tomsic Z.,University of Zagreb
ENERGYCON 2014 - IEEE International Energy Conference | Year: 2014

Optimization of power generation technology mix using portfolio theory is related to finding the optimal set of technologies under acceptable level of (price) risk which will provide minimal cost of electricity production for the generation company, or provide maximum profit. On the other hand, a generation company can set the cost of production as a fixed parameter, and then look for optimal set of technologies which would minimize price risk. © 2014 IEEE.

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