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Foley A.M.,Queen's University of Belfast | Foley A.M.,University College Cork | O Gallachoir B.P.,University College Cork | McKeogh E.J.,University College Cork | And 2 more authors.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

Over the last decade there has been a rapid global increase in wind power stimulated by energy and climate policies. However, as wind power is inherently variable and stochastic over a range of time scales, additional system balancing is required to ensure system reliability and stability. This paper reviews the technical, policy and market challenges to achieving ambitious wind power penetration targets in Ireland's All-Island Grid and examines a number of measures proposed to address these challenges. Current government policy in Ireland is to address these challenges with additional grid reinforcement, interconnection and open-cycle gas plant. More recently smart grid combined with demand side management and electric vehicles have also been presented as options to mitigate the variability of wind power. In addition, the transmission system operators have developed wind farm specific grid codes requiring improved turbine controls and wind power forecasting techniques. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Awad M.,Energy Consultant | Khair O.,Strategy and Business Planning Manager | Hamdoun H.,University of Aberdeen
INTELEC, International Telecommunications Energy Conference (Proceedings) | Year: 2016

This paper presents an Energy Optimization Model (EOM) for Mobile Service Providers (MSP) that enables the optimization of power efficiency and the integration of optimum renewable and clean energy sources into the mobile network. The model approach drives both Operational Expenditure (OPEX) and Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) reduction via re-engineering power provisioning and site solutions. The features for the selection of Base Transceiver Station (BTS) type based on low power consumption are discussed within the context of establishing a direct impact on the site construction, power source type and dimensioning, and hence, the network cost structure. The K-mean clustering algorithm is used to cluster sites based on those features. HOMER® software was used to optimize the solution within each cluster of sites. This follows a multi-objective optimization function with power saving and CO2 emission as the dominant target factors and the cost, OPEX, Operation & Maintenance (O&M) as constraints. We focus on the lowest power optimization in this paper. Network energy optimization for between clusters (intra-cluster) is performed. Both Traffic and power profile data from Zain-Sudan MSP during the two month period from May-to-July 2013, is obtained and used as input to the EOM model. The optimum parameters for the set of solutions are then determined for deployment under budget & cost constraints. Renewable energy power generation profile for solar and wind from Laqawa site in the South-West of Sudan is used. Results indicate the effectiveness of the EOM model in finding optimum solutions per cluster of sites while facilitating for multi-objective optimization formulation across geographical regions and site types. © 2015 IEEE.


News Article | December 1, 2016
Site: www.PR.com

SMi Reports: Floating LNG 2017 will feature an exclusive spotlight on floating infrastructure models and concepts when it returns to London next February. London, United Kingdom, December 01, 2016 --( Taking place on the 13th-14th February, Floating LNG 2017 is a platform to meet and discuss new and current projects, LNG market dynamics, advances in construction and technology, new business opportunities and how to make the most of them. In the past decade, many floating LNG projects have been built or commissioned and new projects are being put under considerations. However, despite the challenging market conditions and with the oil price still causing havoc, the floating liquefied natural gas (FLNG) market is showing no sign of stopping. Following this, SMi’s Floating LNG 2017 will feature three exclusive presentations to provide an overview of the scope and cost drivers for a variety of floating infrastructure models and concepts that have contributed to this rapid growth. • Christopher Bergsland from Affinity Ship will give insight into where the LNG shipping market is heading as well as analyse the factors facilitating the short term market such as LNG supply and demand, FSRU market and FLNG market. • Tom Haylock from Aragon will deliver an overview on the FLNG value chain and advise attendees on how to ensure their FLNG project is cost effective in the current market. • David Haynes, Director & Principal Consultants of Penguin Energy Consultant will provide an update on the latest technology and processing scale for topside design as well as the challenges that can occurred when implementing design into practice. For further information or to register for this event, visit http://www.floating-lng.co.uk/prcom Other speakers at this year’s event include key decision makers from KBR, Enagas, Aragon, International Energy Agency, Moffatt & Nichol, Forbes Communications, Holmwood Consulting Limited, EC Cyprus Natural Hydrocarbons Company Ltd, Douglas West-Wood, Amec Foster Wheeler Iberia, Affinity Ship, Penguin Energy Consultants, FGE, Norton Rose Fulbright LLP and many more. Over 15 key presentations featuring latest topics on Floating LNG: Global prospects for floating LNG, worldwide development of FSRUs, overcoming key technology challenges from liquefaction through to regasification, the influence of geopolitics on the supply and demand of FLNG, how the oil – gas price margin impact the FLNG market and much more. The event agenda also includes two post conference workshops, taking place on 15th February 2017: • Workshop A: Developing a FLNG Project. Hosted by Penguin Energy Consultants. • Workshop B: Legal and commercial issues affecting the FLNG industry. Hosted by Norton Rose Fulbright LLP. Early bird places are strictly limited, those interested are advised to register before the 16th December to secure their place and save £100. Visit http://www.floating-lng.co.uk/prcom to view the complete list of speakers, the two-day event schedule and information on the workshops, delegates, sponsors and supporters. Floating LNG 2017 is proudly sponsored by Peter Brotherhood. Floating LNG 2017 is proudly supported by LNG Industry, Cedigaz, GNL Global, Interfax and European Gas Hub, Global LNG Hub, Petroleum Africa and many more. 5th annual Floating LNG 2017 13th-14th February 2017 Copthorne Tara Hotel, London, UK http://www.floating-lng.co.uk/prcom Sponsors and Delegates Registration: Contact Andrew Gibbons on +44(0) 207 827 6156, agibbons@smi-online.co.uk Media: Contact Theresa Chung on tchung@smi-online.co.uk About SMi Group: Established since 1993, the SMi Group is a global event-production company that specializes in Business-to-Business Conferences, Workshops, Masterclasses and online Communities. We create and deliver events in the Defence, Security, Energy, Utilities, Finance and Pharmaceutical industries. We pride ourselves on having access to the world most forward thinking opinion leaders and visionaries, allowing us to bring our communities together to Learn, Engage, Share and Network. More information can be found at http://www.smi-online.co.uk London, United Kingdom, December 01, 2016 --( PR.com )-- With a wide range of FLNG projects under consideration, in construction, or in commissioning, SMi's upcoming Floating LNG conference will feature an exclusive spotlight on floating infrastructure models and concepts when it returns to London next February.Taking place on the 13th-14th February, Floating LNG 2017 is a platform to meet and discuss new and current projects, LNG market dynamics, advances in construction and technology, new business opportunities and how to make the most of them.In the past decade, many floating LNG projects have been built or commissioned and new projects are being put under considerations. However, despite the challenging market conditions and with the oil price still causing havoc, the floating liquefied natural gas (FLNG) market is showing no sign of stopping. Following this, SMi’s Floating LNG 2017 will feature three exclusive presentations to provide an overview of the scope and cost drivers for a variety of floating infrastructure models and concepts that have contributed to this rapid growth.• Christopher Bergsland from Affinity Ship will give insight into where the LNG shipping market is heading as well as analyse the factors facilitating the short term market such as LNG supply and demand, FSRU market and FLNG market.• Tom Haylock from Aragon will deliver an overview on the FLNG value chain and advise attendees on how to ensure their FLNG project is cost effective in the current market.• David Haynes, Director & Principal Consultants of Penguin Energy Consultant will provide an update on the latest technology and processing scale for topside design as well as the challenges that can occurred when implementing design into practice.For further information or to register for this event, visit http://www.floating-lng.co.uk/prcomOther speakers at this year’s event include key decision makers from KBR, Enagas, Aragon, International Energy Agency, Moffatt & Nichol, Forbes Communications, Holmwood Consulting Limited, EC Cyprus Natural Hydrocarbons Company Ltd, Douglas West-Wood, Amec Foster Wheeler Iberia, Affinity Ship, Penguin Energy Consultants, FGE, Norton Rose Fulbright LLP and many more.Over 15 key presentations featuring latest topics on Floating LNG: Global prospects for floating LNG, worldwide development of FSRUs, overcoming key technology challenges from liquefaction through to regasification, the influence of geopolitics on the supply and demand of FLNG, how the oil – gas price margin impact the FLNG market and much more.The event agenda also includes two post conference workshops, taking place on 15th February 2017:• Workshop A: Developing a FLNG Project. Hosted by Penguin Energy Consultants.• Workshop B: Legal and commercial issues affecting the FLNG industry. Hosted by Norton Rose Fulbright LLP.Early bird places are strictly limited, those interested are advised to register before the 16th December to secure their place and save £100.Visit http://www.floating-lng.co.uk/prcom to view the complete list of speakers, the two-day event schedule and information on the workshops, delegates, sponsors and supporters.Floating LNG 2017 is proudly sponsored by Peter Brotherhood.Floating LNG 2017 is proudly supported by LNG Industry, Cedigaz, GNL Global, Interfax and European Gas Hub, Global LNG Hub, Petroleum Africa and many more.5th annual Floating LNG 201713th-14th February 2017Copthorne Tara Hotel, London, UKhttp://www.floating-lng.co.uk/prcomSponsors and Delegates Registration: Contact Andrew Gibbons on +44(0) 207 827 6156, agibbons@smi-online.co.ukMedia: Contact Theresa Chung on tchung@smi-online.co.ukAbout SMi Group:Established since 1993, the SMi Group is a global event-production company that specializes in Business-to-Business Conferences, Workshops, Masterclasses and online Communities. We create and deliver events in the Defence, Security, Energy, Utilities, Finance and Pharmaceutical industries. We pride ourselves on having access to the world most forward thinking opinion leaders and visionaries, allowing us to bring our communities together to Learn, Engage, Share and Network. More information can be found at http://www.smi-online.co.uk Click here to view the list of recent Press Releases from SMi Group


News Article | December 2, 2016
Site: www.PR.com

Receive press releases from TEAM (Energy Auditing Agency Ltd.): By Email The feasibility study and requirement to fit heat meters by December 2016 has been delayed until 2017 as part of the Heat Network Regulations. Find out more.. Milton Keynes, United Kingdom, December 02, 2016 --( The Heat Network (Metering and Billing) Regulations 2014 came into force in December 2014 under the EU Energy Efficiency Directive. It affects all businesses within the UK that supply and charge for heating, cooling or hot water to a final customer through communal heating or a district heating network (heat suppliers) including multi tenanted buildings with a shared heating and cooling system. Subject to meters or heat cost allocators being determined as viable for installation and being installed, the heat supplier must ensure that the bills and billing information for the consumption of heating, cooling and hot water are accurate, based on actual consumption and compliant with the regulations. The first phase of the Heat Network Regulations 2014 required participants to submit notification of communal and district heating systems by 31st December 2015. However, the heat metering viability tool which was intended to identify all those areas where heat sub-metering must be installed is currently being revised by the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS). Therefore, pending the revision of the tool it is advised that no further assessments should be undertaken. BEIS is working towards launching a public consultation in early 2017 on a revised methodology for assessing the cost effectiveness of metering for district and communal heat networks. Accordingly, the Regulatory Delivery (RD) will take a pragmatic approach for any non-compliance with this requirement until a new tool and re-testing date is in place. The consultation will also seek views on some additional areas where the regulations could benefit from clarification following the first two years of implementation. Following the planned public consultation, BEIS intend to launch the new cost effectiveness tool and accompanying regulatory amendments later in 2017. Justine Grant, Senior Energy Consultant at TEAM, said, "The Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) has confirmed that it would not be appropriate for them (the FCA) to impose fines or other disciplinary measures in respect of a breach of the requirement within the heat network (metering and billing) regulations 2014 (as amended), that certain heat suppliers must test whether it is cost-effective to fit heat meters in multi-occupancy buildings, and where appropriate, fit them by 31st December 2016." Heat Network (Metering and Billing) Regulations 2014 - Timetable for Compliance; The following are dates where the regulation states that requirements need to be met: • From 18th December 2014, the fitting of building level meters on multi-occupancy buildings, where more than one final customer is charged for the heat supplied, is required. • From 18th December 2014 meters, must be fitted for any district heating connection to a newly constructed building or where a major renovation of building on a district heating network. • From 31st December 2014 heat suppliers, must meet the billing requirements or for new builds from when the network commences operation. • From 31st December 2015, the notification for new build systems must be made on or before it commences operation. • The date from which final customer meters must be fitted subject to cost-effective tests will be detailed in the amended regulations planned for 2017. How TEAM Can Help... TEAM's Energy Services can help organisations comply with the Heat Network Regulations 2014. Want to find out more? Get in touch by calling our experts on 01908 690018 or email enquiries@teamenergy.com. Milton Keynes, United Kingdom, December 02, 2016 --( PR.com )-- The National Measurement and Regulation Office (NMRO) has announced that the feasibility study and requirement to fit heat meters by December 2016 has been delayed until 2017.The Heat Network (Metering and Billing) Regulations 2014 came into force in December 2014 under the EU Energy Efficiency Directive.It affects all businesses within the UK that supply and charge for heating, cooling or hot water to a final customer through communal heating or a district heating network (heat suppliers) including multi tenanted buildings with a shared heating and cooling system. Subject to meters or heat cost allocators being determined as viable for installation and being installed, the heat supplier must ensure that the bills and billing information for the consumption of heating, cooling and hot water are accurate, based on actual consumption and compliant with the regulations.The first phase of the Heat Network Regulations 2014 required participants to submit notification of communal and district heating systems by 31st December 2015. However, the heat metering viability tool which was intended to identify all those areas where heat sub-metering must be installed is currently being revised by the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS). Therefore, pending the revision of the tool it is advised that no further assessments should be undertaken.BEIS is working towards launching a public consultation in early 2017 on a revised methodology for assessing the cost effectiveness of metering for district and communal heat networks. Accordingly, the Regulatory Delivery (RD) will take a pragmatic approach for any non-compliance with this requirement until a new tool and re-testing date is in place. The consultation will also seek views on some additional areas where the regulations could benefit from clarification following the first two years of implementation.Following the planned public consultation, BEIS intend to launch the new cost effectiveness tool and accompanying regulatory amendments later in 2017.Justine Grant, Senior Energy Consultant at TEAM, said, "The Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) has confirmed that it would not be appropriate for them (the FCA) to impose fines or other disciplinary measures in respect of a breach of the requirement within the heat network (metering and billing) regulations 2014 (as amended), that certain heat suppliers must test whether it is cost-effective to fit heat meters in multi-occupancy buildings, and where appropriate, fit them by 31st December 2016."Heat Network (Metering and Billing) Regulations 2014 - Timetable for Compliance;The following are dates where the regulation states that requirements need to be met:• From 18th December 2014, the fitting of building level meters on multi-occupancy buildings, where more than one final customer is charged for the heat supplied, is required.• From 18th December 2014 meters, must be fitted for any district heating connection to a newly constructed building or where a major renovation of building on a district heating network.• From 31st December 2014 heat suppliers, must meet the billing requirements or for new builds from when the network commences operation.• From 31st December 2015, the notification for new build systems must be made on or before it commences operation.• The date from which final customer meters must be fitted subject to cost-effective tests will be detailed in the amended regulations planned for 2017.How TEAM Can Help...TEAM's Energy Services can help organisations comply with the Heat Network Regulations 2014. Want to find out more? Get in touch by calling our experts on 01908 690018 or email enquiries@teamenergy.com. Click here to view the list of recent Press Releases from TEAM (Energy Auditing Agency Ltd.)


Ferroni F.,Energy Consultant | Hopkirk R.J.,Engineering Research and Development
Energy Policy | Year: 2016

Many people believe renewable energy sources to be capable of substituting fossil or nuclear energy. However there exist very few scientifically sound studies, which apply due diligence to substantiating this impression. In the present paper, the case of photovoltaic power sources in regions of moderate insolation is analysed critically by using the concept of Energy Return on Energy Invested (ERoEI, also called EROI). But the methodology for calculating the ERoEI differs greatly from author-to-author. The main differences between solar PV Systems are between the current ERoEI and what is called the extended ERoEI (ERoEI EXT). The current methodology recommended by the International Energy Agency is not strictly applicable for comparing photovoltaic (PV) power generation with other systems. The main reasons are due to the fact that on one hand, solar electricity is very material-intensive, labour-intensive and capital-intensive and on the other hand the solar radiation exhibits a rather low power density. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Alonso Pippo W.,University of Campinas | Luengo C.A.,University of Campinas | Alonsoamador Morales Alberteris L.,Energy Consultant | Garzone P.,ENEA | Cornacchia G.,ENEA
Waste and Biomass Valorization | Year: 2011

Since last decade of twentieth century, the change in cane harvesting method from manual harvesting of burned cane to mechanical harvesting of green cane brought the real possibility of sugarcane-trash energy use. The sugarcane-trash, also called Sugarcane Agricultural Residues (SCAR) represents 1/3 of total sugarcane energy content. Despite SCAR is considered today the main unexplored energy reserve in the sugarcane agro-industry a negligible part of this residues is used. Starting from the analysis of the current situation and environmental aspects described in Part1 of the present work (Alonso Pippo et al. in Waste Biomass Valoriz 1), an assessment on socioeconomic aspects of SCAR and energy use was carried out. The impact of sugarcane mechanized harvesting on employment was described. The food versus biofuels production from crops was analyzed. SCAR characteristic in face 2nd generation biofuels requirements was treated. The social aspects related to land use were evaluated. A Linear Programming model for profitability maximization was used in order to estimate economical benefits derived from SCAR energy use. The model solution showed that among the variables should be considered in order to maximize profitability special attention deserves: sugarcane production and SCAR transportation cost. It seems to be that sugarcane mechanized harvesting combined with train transport are among the best infrastructure conditions to maximize the profit. When it is delivered to sugar-mill by train SCAR cost can be up to five times cheaper than when it is delivered using articulated lorries. Assuming SCAR energy use for electricity cogeneration as main priority, it was calculated the optimal size for sugarcane factory from techno-economic point of view. An added value/added cost analysis on SCAR energy use at a medium size factory was carried out. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.


Pippo W.A.,University of Campinas | Luengo C.A.,University of Campinas | Alberteris L.A.M.,Energy Consultant | Garzone P.,ENEA | Cornacchia G.,ENEA
Waste and Biomass Valorization | Year: 2011

The importance of Sugarcane-Trash energy use, also called Sugarcane Agricultural Residues (SCAR) or Barbojo was analyzed in the light of 2nd generation Biofuels. The current challenges and opportunities of SCAR energy use were treated. An analysis focused on current Brazilian situation and experiences around the world, was carried out. The most probable routes for 2nd generation Bioethanol production suitability: Biomass to Liquid and Bio-enzymatic were compared in Brazil. The Brazilian Sugarcane Agro-Industry particularities and its influence on SCAR energy use were analyzed. The most probable use of SCAR, in a short and mid term, is as boiler feedstock. The key environmental aspects related to SCAR use were analyzed. The SCAR decomposition process and its influence into the CO2 emission reduction were explained. The weed control effect of SCAR left in the field was examined. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.


Mason J.,Energy Consultant
Oil and Gas Journal | Year: 2012

Advances in well production technology are increasing well production rates. Up-to-date average well EURs are important because E&P companies use EUR expectations to book reserves. Average well production decline rates are important in assessing the average well EURs used by E&P companies for reserve bookings. Natural gas production in the Fayetteville shale is analyzed with monthly well production data compiled by the Arkansas Oil and Gas Commission (AOGC). The analyses are augmented with information from E&P company presentations. A change in well spacing, in and of itself, does not change total gas recovery for a given development area. This is demonstrated by changing the assumed 80-acre well spacing to 70 acres. The following well production analyses are based on monthly well production data. The initial production (IP) rate is the first 'full' month of well production, which is the second month of reported well production.


Milborrow D.J.,Energy Consultant
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy | Year: 2011

Wind energy is developing very rapidly and over 30 GW of capacity was installed worldwide in 2009. It is also continuing to mature, with rotor diameters and ratings steadily increasing. Now there are several commercial designs available with rotor diameters exceeding 100 m and ratings exceeding 5 MW. Although the majority of developments are installed onshore, offshore wind is slowly taking off and there are plans for around 40 GW in Great Britain alone. The rapid growth has been accompanied by better understanding of the design issues, so that blades, towers, and other components are now lighter than they were 30 years ago and can be produced more efficiently. The most significant trend in recent years has been the move towards direct-drive generators, eliminating gearboxes that have, at times, been troublesome. Permanent magnet generators are delivering further weight savings, and research that is funded both by governments and manufacturers promises to deliver further improvements in cost effectiveness. © Author 2011.


Narra M.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute | Balasubramanian V.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute | Kurchania A.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute | Pathak B.S.,Energy Consultant | Shyam M.,Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2016

Biomethanation of rice straw (RS) was studied in a batch mode at high total solid content (TSC) of 25% in outdoor pilot scale digesters. Performance was monitored for over six months by supplementing Nickel and Cobalt 15 and 10 mg kg−1 RS to each of mesophilic and thermophilic digesters for 35 and 21 days retention time (RT), respectively. The average biogas production from mesophilic and thermophilic digesters were found varying 310 and 396 L kg−1 TS, respectively. The corresponding figures for the control digesters were 225 and 270 L kg−1 TS. Around 37 and 46% higher biogas production was recorded by supplementing the micronutrients in mesophilic and thermophilic digesters, respectively. Methane content in biogas was 57–59%. Matured compost had nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents of 1.0–1.2, 1.3–2.2, and 1.2–2.1%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the present process is faster, requires less than 85% water and produces green energy in addition to manure in less time compared to conventional process. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

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