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Farmingdale, NY, United States

Mason J.,Energy Consultant
Oil and Gas Journal

Advances in well production technology are increasing well production rates. Up-to-date average well EURs are important because E&P companies use EUR expectations to book reserves. Average well production decline rates are important in assessing the average well EURs used by E&P companies for reserve bookings. Natural gas production in the Fayetteville shale is analyzed with monthly well production data compiled by the Arkansas Oil and Gas Commission (AOGC). The analyses are augmented with information from E&P company presentations. A change in well spacing, in and of itself, does not change total gas recovery for a given development area. This is demonstrated by changing the assumed 80-acre well spacing to 70 acres. The following well production analyses are based on monthly well production data. The initial production (IP) rate is the first 'full' month of well production, which is the second month of reported well production. Source

Alonso Pippo W.,University of Campinas | Luengo C.A.,University of Campinas | Alonsoamador Morales Alberteris L.,Energy Consultant | Garzone P.,ENEA | Cornacchia G.,ENEA
Waste and Biomass Valorization

Since last decade of twentieth century, the change in cane harvesting method from manual harvesting of burned cane to mechanical harvesting of green cane brought the real possibility of sugarcane-trash energy use. The sugarcane-trash, also called Sugarcane Agricultural Residues (SCAR) represents 1/3 of total sugarcane energy content. Despite SCAR is considered today the main unexplored energy reserve in the sugarcane agro-industry a negligible part of this residues is used. Starting from the analysis of the current situation and environmental aspects described in Part1 of the present work (Alonso Pippo et al. in Waste Biomass Valoriz 1), an assessment on socioeconomic aspects of SCAR and energy use was carried out. The impact of sugarcane mechanized harvesting on employment was described. The food versus biofuels production from crops was analyzed. SCAR characteristic in face 2nd generation biofuels requirements was treated. The social aspects related to land use were evaluated. A Linear Programming model for profitability maximization was used in order to estimate economical benefits derived from SCAR energy use. The model solution showed that among the variables should be considered in order to maximize profitability special attention deserves: sugarcane production and SCAR transportation cost. It seems to be that sugarcane mechanized harvesting combined with train transport are among the best infrastructure conditions to maximize the profit. When it is delivered to sugar-mill by train SCAR cost can be up to five times cheaper than when it is delivered using articulated lorries. Assuming SCAR energy use for electricity cogeneration as main priority, it was calculated the optimal size for sugarcane factory from techno-economic point of view. An added value/added cost analysis on SCAR energy use at a medium size factory was carried out. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011. Source

Pippo W.A.,University of Campinas | Luengo C.A.,University of Campinas | Alberteris L.A.M.,Energy Consultant | Garzone P.,ENEA | Cornacchia G.,ENEA
Waste and Biomass Valorization

The importance of Sugarcane-Trash energy use, also called Sugarcane Agricultural Residues (SCAR) or Barbojo was analyzed in the light of 2nd generation Biofuels. The current challenges and opportunities of SCAR energy use were treated. An analysis focused on current Brazilian situation and experiences around the world, was carried out. The most probable routes for 2nd generation Bioethanol production suitability: Biomass to Liquid and Bio-enzymatic were compared in Brazil. The Brazilian Sugarcane Agro-Industry particularities and its influence on SCAR energy use were analyzed. The most probable use of SCAR, in a short and mid term, is as boiler feedstock. The key environmental aspects related to SCAR use were analyzed. The SCAR decomposition process and its influence into the CO2 emission reduction were explained. The weed control effect of SCAR left in the field was examined. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010. Source

Milborrow D.J.,Energy Consultant
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy

Wind energy is developing very rapidly and over 30 GW of capacity was installed worldwide in 2009. It is also continuing to mature, with rotor diameters and ratings steadily increasing. Now there are several commercial designs available with rotor diameters exceeding 100 m and ratings exceeding 5 MW. Although the majority of developments are installed onshore, offshore wind is slowly taking off and there are plans for around 40 GW in Great Britain alone. The rapid growth has been accompanied by better understanding of the design issues, so that blades, towers, and other components are now lighter than they were 30 years ago and can be produced more efficiently. The most significant trend in recent years has been the move towards direct-drive generators, eliminating gearboxes that have, at times, been troublesome. Permanent magnet generators are delivering further weight savings, and research that is funded both by governments and manufacturers promises to deliver further improvements in cost effectiveness. © Author 2011. Source

Lauber V.,University of Salzburg | Buschmann M.,Energy Consultant
Lecture Notes in Energy

The transformation of the German electricity sector to a near-total renewable supply ("Eneigiewende") by 2050 or earlier was embodied into law in 2012. This seemed to consecrate a development which began with the passage of the Renewable Energy Act of 2000. Naturally, such a major transformation needs considerable vision, and over time needs determination from political and social forces to overcome resistance from established ideas, interests, practices, and organizational arrangements. After a historical overview of the institutional politics of RES-E (renewable energy sourced electricity), this chapter will look at three major challenges that German politics and society was/is faced with: launching very rapid, indeed disruptive RES-E growth (disrupting carbon lock-in); building or maintaining political support and an actor network capable of supporting this change; and reshaping the electricity system to accommodate fluctuating generation by wind and solar power. © Springer-Verlag London 2013. Source

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