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Windover P.,New West Technologies LLC | Tario J.,Energy Circle
World Electric Vehicle Journal | Year: 2012

Short sea shipping, the movement of freight along coasts and inland waterways, is more efficient and environmentally friendly for transporting large quantities of product. While marine transport may displace numerous diesel trucks, conventional propulsion systems still rely on petroleum fuels and the old engines found in most freight vessels produce harmful exhausts. An investigation was undertaken to determine the technical, economic, and environmental potential for an electric propulsion system in short sea shipping operations within New York State where numerous waterways provide a marine highway option that can be used for freight transport. Duty cycle information obtained from tugs during real-world operations in the New York City Harbor was used in the analysis. Three drivetrain configurations, a series hybrid-electric tug with energy storage, a series hybrid-electric tug with plug-in capability, and a series hybrid-electric tug with exchangeable energy storage capability were analyzed using the acquired load profiles. Modeling results indicate that the fuel savings is highly dependent on the application. The plug-in configuration is likely to be the most cost effective concept based on the large increase in additional fuel savings for the minimal cost to add this capability. This study shows the value of modeling with real-world duty cycles to estimate system benefits. An ongoing study evaluating the potential benefits of electric propulsion for New York State Canal Corporation maintenance vessels may identify a favorable application for this technology due to the low power requirements and regular recharging opportunities within their operations. © 2012 WEVA.

Levine C.R.,New York University | Levine C.R.,University of California at Berkeley | Yanai R.D.,New York University | Lampman G.G.,Energy Circle | And 5 more authors.
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2014

Statistical uncertainty analyses can be used to improve the efficiency of environmental monitoring, allowing sampling designs to maximize information gained relative to resources required for data collection and analysis. In this paper, we illustrate four methods of data analysis appropriate to four types of environmental monitoring designs. To analyze a long-term record from a single site, we applied a general linear model to weekly stream chemistry data at Biscuit Brook, NY, to simulate the effects of reducing sampling effort and to evaluate statistical confidence in the detection of change over time. To illustrate a detectable difference analysis, we analyzed a one-time survey of mercury concentrations in loon tissues in lakes in the Adirondack Park, NY, demonstrating the effects of sampling intensity on statistical power and the selection of a resampling interval. To illustrate a bootstrapping method, we analyzed the plot-level sampling intensity of forest inventory at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH, to quantify the sampling regime needed to achieve a desired confidence interval. Finally, to analyze time-series data from multiple sites, we assessed the number of lakes and the number of samples per year needed to monitor change over time in Adirondack lake chemistry using a repeated-measures mixed-effects model. Evaluations of time series and synoptic long-term monitoring data can help determine whether sampling should be re-allocated in space or time to optimize the use of financial and human resources. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Windecker A.,TRC | Ruder A.,Energy Circle
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment | Year: 2013

This paper presents in-service data collected from over 300 alternative fuel vehicles and over 80 fueling stations to help fleets determine what types of applications and alternative fuels may help them reduce their environmental impacts and fuel costs. The data were compiled in 2011 by over 30 organizations in New York State using a wide variety of commercial vehicle types and technologies. Fuel economy, incremental vehicle purchase cost, fueling station purchase cost, greenhouse gas reductions, and fuel cost savings data clarifies the performance of alternative fuel vehicles and fuel stations. Data were collected from a range of vehicle types, including school buses, delivery trucks, utility vans, street sweepers, snow plows, street pavers, bucket trucks, paratransit vans, and sedans. CNG, hybrid, LPG, and electric vehicles were tracked. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Jiang X.T.,Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute | Chow J.H.,Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute | Fardanesh B.,New York Power Authority | Maragal D.,New York Power Authority | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2015

This paper describes a new method for state estimation of a non-linear AC power system in a non-iterative manner. This method is based on the Kipnis-Shamir relinearization technique that is used to solve over-defined sets of polynomial equations. The technique transforms the equations to a higher dimensional linear space which allows the states to be solved in a non-iterative manner. Given accurate measurements, this new state estimation method provides the same results as traditional iterative state estimation methods, and the proposed method does not require an initial guess of system states nor does it have issues with convergence. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Walton M.L.,Energy Circle
Society and Natural Resources | Year: 2013

Three small discussion groups (30 participants) were convened in the Capital District of New York the summer of 2005 to discuss the proposal to open the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska to oil development. Q methodology was used to test the hypotheses that deliberative discussion encourages prosocial and pro-environmental preferences and influences participants to be more willing to forego the economic and energy security benefits of development in favor of wilderness protection. The findings supported the study hypotheses; however the participants' strong preexisting environmental bias made it difficult to separate the social influence of deliberation from majority influence. The findings also revealed that deliberation created new questions and uncertainties for many of the participants, resulting in postdiscussion preferences that may not be stable. The results complement the theoretical arguments for deliberative decision making and help bridge the gap between theory and empirical research. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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