The Energy and Environmental Research Center in Grand Forks, North Dakota, United States is a research, development, demonstration, and commercialization facility for energy and environment technologies development. The center is a nonprofit division of the University of North Dakota.The center was founded in 1951 as the Robertson Lignite Research Laboratory, a federal facility under the United States Bureau of Mines. It became a federal energy technology center under the United States Department of Energy in 1977 and was defederalized in 1983. The center employs approximately 235 employees.The EERC conducts research, development, demonstration, and commercialization activities involving zero-emissions coal conversion; CO2 capture and sequestration; energy and water sustainability; hydrogen and fuel cells; advanced air emission control technologies, emphasizing SOx, NOx, air toxics, fine particulate, CO2, and mercury control; renewable energy; wind energy; water management; flood prevention; global climate change; waste utilization; energy efficiency; and contaminant cleanup.The EERC is located on more than 15 acres of land on the southeast corner of the UND campus in Grand Forks, North Dakota, and houses 254,000 square feet of laboratories, fabrication facilities, technology demonstration facilities, and offices. The EERC has a current contract portfolio of over $257 million and, and the EERC's estimated regional economic impact is $91.2 million. Since 1987, the EERC has had more than 1,100 clients in 50 states and 51 countries. Wikipedia.
Jiang J.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign |
Aulich T.,Energy and Environmental Research Center
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2012
To explore strategies for addressing the CO poisoning of Pt-based catalysts and sluggish anode reaction kinetics which have largely hindered the development of low temperature direct methanol fuel cells, electrocatalytic activity and durability of high-surface Pt toward methanol electrooxidation in alkaline media have been investigated in an intermediate temperature of 80-150 °C by means of voltammetry, chronoamperometry and single cell measurements. In this intermediate temperature range, Pt electrocatalyst is highly active and durable toward the methanol oxidation in alkaline media. Measured exchange current densities are of the order of magnitude of 10 -7-10 -6 A cm -2 and sustainable chronoamperometric currents are obtained at potentials as low as 0.16 V vs RHE. An alkaline methanol fuel cell operated at 120 °C using carbon-supported Pt as both anode and cathode electrocatalysts exhibits a peak power density of around 90 mW cm -2 and provides stable power output under constant current discharge. Accelerated electrooxidation of CO intermediate whose onset is close to that of the methanol electrooxidation and possible reaction of surface CO and hydroxide ions in the intermediate temperature alkaline media are proposed to account for the high activity and durability of Pt. Therefore, the CO-poisoning of Pt-based catalysts and sluggish methanol electrooxidation could be potentially addressed by the use of intermediate temperature alkaline media. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ignatchenko A.V.,Energy and Environmental Research Center
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2011
Computational modeling is a valuable tool for understanding atomic-level catalytic processes on metal oxides. Carboxylic acid adsorption and enolization with varied degrees of α branching on monoclinic zirconia's most important surfaces, (̄111), (111), and (̄101), have been studied by the density functional theory (DFT). Carboxylates on zirconia (̄111) and (111) surfaces are preferentially stabilized in the bidentate bridging mode, with O-H bond dissociation and hydrogen bonding to a 2-fold coordinated (2-fc) lattice oxygen. Carboxylic α hydrogen abstraction by another 2-fc lattice oxygen results in enolization of adsorbed carboxylates most readily on the (̄111) surface of monoclinic zirconia with activation energy ∼25 kcal/mol, which is not sensitive to acid branching. Enolization on the (111) surface requires higher activation energy, 29-33 kcal/mol depending on acid branching. This study demonstrates the origin of an important intermediate in the carboxylic acid ketonization mechanism - often named "surface ketene". © 2011 American Chemical Society.
Ghosh U.,University of Maryland, Baltimore |
Hawthorne S.B.,Energy and Environmental Research Center
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010
This research investigated the particle-scale processes that control aqueous equilibrium partitioning ofPAHsin manufactured gas plant (MGP) site sediments. Dominant particle types in impacted sediments (sand, wood, coal/coke, and pitch) were physically separated under a microscope for equilibrium assessments. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) combined with selected ion monitoring GC/MS and perdeuterated PAH internal standards were used to determine freely dissolved PAH concentrations in small (0.1-1 mL) water samples at concentrations as low as μg/L (for lower molecular weight PAHs) to ng/L (for higher molecular weight PAHs). For every particle class the initial release of PAHs into the aqueous phase was rapid, and an apparent equilibrium was reached in a matter of days. The average ratio of aqueous total PAH concentration for pitch vs coal/coke particles for eight sediment samples was 20. Thus, sediments that had aged in the field for many decades were not at equilibrium and were still going through a slow process of contaminant mass transfer between the different particle types. A possible consequence of this slow aging process is further lowering of the activity of the chemical as mass transfer is achieved to new sorption sites with time. This study also found that the presence of black carbon even at the level of 1/3 of sediment organic carbon does not necessarily imply a BC-dominated sorption behavior, rather source pitch particles if present may dominate PAH partitioning. To our knowledge this is the first report of equilibrium partitioning assessment conducted at the sediment particle scale. © 2010 American Chemical Society.
Energy and Environmental Research Center | Date: 2013-08-14
A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.
Energy and Environmental Research Center | Date: 2014-11-05
A method for removing residual filter cakes that remain adhered to a filter after typical particulate removal methodologies have been employed, such as pulse-jet filter element cleaning, for all cleanable filters used for air pollution control, dust control, or powder control.