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Ananworanich J.,Red Cross | Ananworanich J.,Chulalongkorn University | Ananworanich J.,University of New South Wales | Bunupuradah T.,Red Cross | And 144 more authors.
AIDS Research and Therapy | Year: 2014

Background: This study assesses the relationships between lymphocyte and monocyte subsets and intelligence quotient (IQ) scores in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive, HIV-infected Thai children without advanced HIV disease.Findings: Sixty-seven ART-naive Thai children with CD4 between 15-24% underwent cognitive testing by Weschler intelligence scale and had 13 cell subsets performed by flow cytometry including naive, memory and activated subsets of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, activated and perivascular monocytes and B cells. Regression modelling with log10 cell count and cell percentage transformation was performed.Median age (IQR) was 9 (7-10) years, 33% were male, CDC stages N:A:B were 1:67:31%, median CD4% and count (IQR) were 21 (18-24)%, 597 (424-801) cells/mm3 and HIV RNA (IQR) was 4.6 (4.1-4.9) log10 copies/ml. Most (82%) lived at home, 45% had a biological parent as their primary caregiver, and 26 (49%) had low family income. The mean (SD) scores were 75 (13) for full scale IQ (FIQ), 73 (12) for verbal IQ (VIQ) and 80 (14) for performance IQ (PIQ). Adjusted multivariate regression analysis showed significant negative associations between B cell counts and FIQ, VIQ and PIQ (p < 0.01 for all); similar associations were found for B cell percentages (p < 0.05 for all).Conclusions: High B cell counts and percentages were strongly associated with poorer FIQ, VIQ and PIQ scores. Prospective, long-term assessment of cell subsets and determination of relevant B cell subpopulations could help further elucidate associations between lymphocyte subsets and neurocognitive development. © 2014 Ananworanich et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Tavel J.A.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Babiker A.,London International Coordinating Center | Carey C.,Sydney International Coordinating Center | Fisher M.,Protocol Team | And 82 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: The Study of Aldesleukin with and without antiretroviral therapy (STALWART) evaluated whether intermittent interleukin-2 (IL-2) alone or with antiretroviral therapy (ART) around IL-2 cycles increased CD4+ counts compared to no therapy. Methodology: Participants not on continuous ART with ≥300 CD4+ cells/mm3 were randomized to: no treatment; IL-2 for 5 consecutive days every 8 weeks for 3 cycles; or the same IL-2 regimen with 10 days of ART administered around each IL-2 cycle. CD4 + counts, HIV RNA, and HIV progression events were collected monthly. Principal Findings: A total of 267 participants were randomized. At week 32, the mean CD4+ count was 134 cells greater in the IL-2 alone group (p<0.001), and 133 cells greater in the IL-2 plus ART group (p<0.001) compared to the no therapy group. Twelve participants in the IL-2 groups compared to 1 participant in the group assigned to no therapy experienced an opportunistic event or died (HR 5.84, CI: 0.59 to 43.57; p = 0.009). Conclusions: IL-2 alone or with peri-cycle HAART increases CD4+ counts but was associated with a greater number of opportunistic events or deaths compared to no therapy. These results call into question the immunoprotective significance of IL-2-induced CD4+ cells. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00110812. Source

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