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Romainville, France

di Giacomo F.,CEA Fontenay-aux-roses | di Giacomo F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | di Giacomo F.,University Paris Diderot | di Giacomo F.,University Paris - Sud | And 12 more authors.

Background Although mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells and hematopoietic progenitor cells can be achieved with a combination of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and plerixafor (AMD3100), improving approaches for hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization is clinically important. Design and Methods Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the extracellular matrix that regulates biology of hematopoietic stem cells. We studied the effects of a new family of synthetic oligosaccharides mimicking heparan sulfate on hematopoietic stem cell mobilization. These oligosaccharides were administered intravenously alone or in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and/or AMD3100 in mice. Mobilized hematopoietic cells were counted and phenotyped at different times and the ability of mobilized hematopoietic stem cells to reconstitute long-term hematopoiesis was determined by competitive transplantation into syngenic lethally irradiated mice followed by secondary transplantation. Results Mimetics of heparan sulfate induced rapid mobilization of B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, hematopoietic stem cells and hematopoietic progenitor cells. They increased the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells and hematopoietic progenitor cells more than 3-fold when added to the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor/AMD3100 association. Hematopoietic stem cells mobilized by mimetics of heparan sulfate or by the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor/AMD3100/mimetics association were as effective as hematopoietic stem cells mobilized by the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor/AMD3100 association for primary and secondary hematopoietic reconstitution of lethally irradiated mice. Conclusions This new family of mobilizing agents could alone or in combination with granu ocyte colony stimulating factor and/or AMD3100 mobilize a high number of hematopoietic stem cells that were able to maintain long-term hematopoiesis. These results strengthen the role of heparin sulfates in the retention of hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow and support the use of small glyco-drugs based on heparan sulfate in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and AMD3100 to improve high stem cell mobilization, particularly in a prospect of use in human therapeutics. © 2012 Ferrata Storti Foundation. Source

Hechler B.,University of Strasbourg | Freund M.,University of Strasbourg | Alame G.,University of Strasbourg | Leguay C.,University of Strasbourg | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

EP224283 combines in a single molecule idraparinux and tirofiban, which allows obtaining a predictable and sustained antiplatelet effect through the transfer of the pharmacokinetics properties of idraparinux to the anti-αIIbβ3 antagonist. The activity can be instantaneously neutralized by injection of avidin, a specific antidote. We have tested the effects of this new profile anticoagulant in various thrombosis models. The antithrombotic effect of EP224283 was compared with those of the parent compounds used alone or in association at doses achieving low to moderate inhibition of platelet aggregation ex vivo. In a model of systemic thromboembolism independent of thrombin generation, tirofiban and EP224283 had similar effects at equimolar doses. On the other hand, EP224283 was more potent than tirofiban or idraparinux under thrombin-dependent conditions. In a ferric chloride-induced thrombosis model, EP224283 was more potent than either parent compound or their combination. Similar results were obtained after atherosclerotic plaque rupture in ApoE(-/-) mice. Thus, the dual action of EP224283 exceeds that of the parent compounds used in combination. A possible explanation is that EP224283 could concentrate antithrombin inside the thrombus by binding to αIIbβ3 through the tirofiban moiety, as shown by immunolabeling of the occluded vessel. No prolongation of the bleeding time was observed at doses achieving strong antithrombotic effects, suggesting that low to moderate αIIbβ3 inhibition combined with factor Xa inhibition minimizes the bleeding risk. The favorable antithrombotic profile of EP224283 together with its possible neutralization by avidin makes it an interesting drug candidate for the treatment and prevention of acute ischemic events. Copyright © 2011 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Source

Olson S.T.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Swanson R.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Petitou M.,Endotis Pharma

EP217609 is a new dual-action parenteral anticoagulant that combines an indirect factor Xa inhibitor (fondaparinux analog) and a direct thrombin inhibitor (α-NAPAP analog) in a single molecule together with a biotin tag to allow avidin neutralization. EP217609 exhibits an unprecedented pharmacologic profile in showing high bioavailability, long plasma half-life, and potent antithrombotic activity in animals without the complications of thrombin rebound. Here we report the exceptional specificity and selectivity profile of EP217609. EP217609 inhibited thrombin with rapid kinetics (k on > 107M-1s-1), a high affinity (KI ∇ 30-40pM), and more than 1000-fold selectivity over other coagulation and fibrinolytic protease targets, comparing favorably with the best direct thrombin inhibitors known. EP217609 bound antithrombin with high affinity (KD ∇ 30nM) and activated the serpin to rapidly (kass ∼ 106M-1s-1) and selectively (> 20-fold) inhibit factor Xa. The dual inhibitor moieties of EP217609 acted largely independently with only modest linkage effects of ligand occupancy of one inhibitor moiety on the potency of the other (∼ 5-fold). In contrast, avidin binding effectively neutralized the potency of both inhibitor moieties (20- to 100-fold). These findings demonstrate the superior anticoagulant efficacy and rapid avidin neutralizability of EP217609 compared with anticoagulants that target thrombin or factor Xa alone. © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

Huet T.,Endotis Pharma | Kerbarh O.,Endotis Pharma | Schols D.,Rega Institute for Medical Research | Clayette P.,CEA Fontenay-aux-roses | And 11 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Enfuvirtide (also known as Fuzeon, T-20, or DP-178) is an antiretroviral fusion inhibitor which prevents human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) from entering host cells. This linear 36-mer synthetic peptide is indicated, in combination with other antiretroviral agents, for the treatment of HIV-1-infected individuals and AIDS patients with multidrug-resistant HIV infections. Although enfuvirtide is an efficient anti-HIV-1 drug, its clinical use is limited by a short plasma half-life, i.e., approximately 2 h, which requires twice-daily subcutaneous injections, often resulting in skin sensitivity reaction side effects at the injection sites. Ultimately, 80% of patients stop enfuvirtide treatment within 6 months because of these side effects. We report on the development of long-lasting enfuvirtide conjugates by the use of the site-specific conjugation of enfuvirtide to an antithrombin-binding carrier pentasaccharide (CP) through polyethylene glycol (PEG) linkers of various lengths. These conjugates showed consistent and broad anti-HIV-1 activity in the nanomolar range. The coupling of the CP to enfuvirtide only moderately affected the in vitro anti-HIV-1 activity in the presence of antithrombin. Most importantly, one of these conjugates, enfuvirtide-PEG12-CP (EP40111), exhibited a prolonged elimination half-life of more than 10 h in rat plasma compared to the half-life of native enfuvirtide, which was 2.8 h. On the basis of the pharmacokinetic properties of antithrombin-binding pentasaccharides, the anticipated half-life of EP40111 in humans would putatively be about 120 h, which would allow subcutaneous injection once a week instead of twice daily. In conclusion, EP40111 is a promising compound with strong potency as a novel long-lasting anti-HIV-1 drug. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Sapay N.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Cabannes E.,Endotis Pharma | Petitou M.,Endotis Pharma | Imberty A.,French National Center for Scientific Research

Heparan sulfate is a polysaccharide belonging to the glycaminoglycan family. It interacts with numerous proteins of the extracellular matrix, in particular cellular growth factors. The number of experimental protein-heparin sulfate complexes obtained by crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance is limited. Alternatively, computational approaches can be employed. Generally, they restrain the conformation of the glycosidic rings and linkages in order to reduce the complexity of the problem. Modeling the interaction between protein and heparan sulfate is indeed challenging because of the large size of the fragment needed for a strong binding, the flexibility brought by the glycosidic rings and linkages and the high density of negative charges. We propose a two-step method based on molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation. Molecular docking allows exploring the positioning of a rigid heparin sulfate fragment on the protein surface. Molecular dynamics refine selected docking models by explicitly representing solvent molecules and not restraining the polysaccharide backbone. The interaction of a hexamer of heparin sulfate was studied in interaction with fibroblast growth factor 2 and stromal cell-derived factor 1. This approach shed light on the plasticity of the growth factors interacting with heparan sulfate. This approach can be extended to the study of other protein/glycosaminoglycan complexes. © 2011 The Author. Source

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