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Saarbrücken, Germany

Sotoud H.,University of Lubeck | Gribbon P.,European Screening Port GmbH | Ellinger B.,European Screening Port GmbH | Reinshagen J.,European Screening Port GmbH | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Biomolecular Screening | Year: 2013

Protein phosphatases (PP) are interesting drug targets. However, their ubiquitous presence and involvement in different, partially opposing signal pathways suggest that specificity may be achieved rather by targeting their interaction with subunits determining substrate specificity than the enzyme itself. An interesting subunit is phosphatase inhibitor-1 (I-1), which, in its protein kinase A-phosphorylated form (I-1P), inhibits the catalytic subunit of type 1 phosphatase (PP1c). In the current study, we established a colorimetric and a fluorescence-based assay system for the identification of compounds interfering with the inhibitory effect of I-1P on PP1c. The fluorescence assay exhibited 500-fold higher sensitivity toward PP1c. A nine-residue peptide containing the PP1c-binding motif (RVxF) of I-1 stimulated PP1c activity in the presence of I-1P (EC50 27 μM and 2.3 μM in the colorimetric and fluorescence assay, respectively). This suggests that the peptide interfered with the inhibitory effect of I-1P on PP1c and represents a proof-of-principle. The calculated Z′ factor for PP1c (0.84) and the PP1c-I-1P complex (0.73) confirmed the suitability of the fluorescence assay for high-throughput screenings (HTS). By testing several thousand small molecules, we suggest the advantages of kinetic measurements over single-point measurements using the fluorescence-based assay in an HTS format. © 2013 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening. Source

Scholz T.,University of Heidelberg | Heyl C.L.,University of Heidelberg | Bernardi D.,Endotherm Life Science Molecules | Zimmermann S.,University of Heidelberg | And 2 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2013

A di-bromo substituted nitrovinylfuran with reported broad-spectrum antibacterial activity was found to be a potent inhibitor of MurA, a key enzyme in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Further characterization of the compound was carried out to assess its reactivity towards thiol nucleophiles, its stability and degradation under aqueous conditions, inhibitory potential at other enzymes, and antibacterial and cytotoxic activity. Our results indicate that the nitrovinylfuran derivative is reactive towards cysteine residues in proteins, as demonstrated by the irreversible inhibition of MurA and bacterial methionine aminopeptidase. Experiments with proteins and model thiols indicate that the compound forms covalent adducts with SH groups and induces intermolecular disulfide bonds, with the intermediate formation of a monobromide derivative. The parent molecule as well as most of its breakdown products are potent antibiotics with MIC values below 4 μg/mL and are active against multiresistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Further development of the bromonitrovinyl scaffold towards antibiotics with clinical relevance, however, requires optimization of the antibiotic-cytotoxic selectivity profile. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Bourgonje V.J.A.,University Utrecht | Vos M.A.,University Utrecht | Ozdemir S.,Catholic University of Leuven | Ozdemir S.,Akdeniz University | And 15 more authors.
Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology | Year: 2013

Background-L-type calcium channel (LTCC) and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) have been implicated in repolarizationdependent arrhythmias, but also modulate calcium and contractility. Although LTCC inhibition is negative inotropic, NCX inhibition has the opposite effect. Combined block may, therefore, offer an advantage for hemodynamics and antiarrhythmic efficiency, particularly in diseased hearts. In a model of proarrhythmia, the dog with chronic atrioventricular block, we investigated whether combined inhibition of NCX and LTCC with SEA-0400 is effective against dofetilide-induced torsade de pointes arrhythmias (TdP), while maintaining calcium homeostasis and hemodynamics. Methods and Results-Left ventricular pressure (LVP) and ECG were monitored during infusion of SEA-0400 and verapamil in anesthetized dogs. Different doses were tested against dofetilide-induced TdP in chronic atrioventricular block dogs. In ventricular myocytes, effects of SEA-0400 were tested on action potentials, calcium transients, and early afterdepolarizations. In cardiomyocytes, SEA-0400 (1 μmol/L) blocked 66±3% of outward NCX, 50±2% of inward NCX, and 33±9% of LTCC current. SEA-0400 had no effect on systolic calcium, but slowed relaxation, despite action potential shortening, and increased diastolic calcium. SEA-0400 stabilized dofetilide-induced lability of repolarization and suppressed early afterdepolarizations. In vivo, SEA-0400 (0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg) had no effect on left ventricular pressure and suppressed dofetilide-induced TdPs dose dependently. Verapamil (0.3 mg/kg) also inhibited TdP, but caused a 15±8% drop of left ventricular pressure. A lower dose of verapamil without effects on left ventricular pressure (0.06 mg/kg) was not antiarrhythmic. Conclusions-In chronic atrioventricular block dogs, SEA-0400 treatment is effective against TdP. Unlike specific inhibition of LTCC, combined NCX and LTCC inhibition has no negative effects on cardiac hemodynamics. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Kattner L.,Endotherm Life Science Molecules | Bernardi D.,Endotherm Life Science Molecules | Rauch E.,Endotherm Life Science Molecules
Anticancer Research | Year: 2015

In recent years it has been recognized that vitamin D deficiency is associated with a wide range of diseases, including various types of cancers. Due to the enormous medical importance of vitamin D and its metabolites, their status in blood serum has to be accurately measured. Thus, the metabolites actually used as reference standards and also others of relevant biological activity have to be provided for validation and continuous improvement of appropriate diagnostic devices. Efficient chemical syntheses of vitamin D derivatives described in the literature are herein proven in a comparative study and applied to the synthesis of some of the most relevant natural metabolites as representative examples. © 2015, International Institute of Anticancer Research. All rights reserved. Source

Kattner L.,Endotherm Life Science Molecules | Rauch E.,Endotherm Life Science Molecules
Anticancer research | Year: 2016

Due to the widespread impact of vitamin D on human health, the development of appropriate assays to detect deficiency of all vitamin D metabolites of pharmacological interest is being continuously improved. Although over 50 naturally-occurring metabolites of vitamin D are known to date, only very few are routinely detected in commercially available assays. This is particularly true regarding C3-epimers of vitamin D3 and D2, which not only may interfere in analytical measurements with other metabolites of interest, but also have controversial and not yet fully understood physiological functions. In this study we optimized a synthetic method to obtain various vitamin D3 and D2 C3-epimers in order to make them available in gram quantities for further evaluation and for their use in assay development or drug discovery. Particularly, the inversion of the C3-OH group at the A-ring of vitamin D2, which, in turn, serves as a suitable starting material for most of chemical syntheses of vitamin D metabolites, can be converted to the corresponding C3-epimer under so-called "Mitsunobu conditions". Thus, the C3-OH group is converted into the corresponding ester by treatment with an aromatic acid, subsequent addition of an azodicarboxlate and triphenylphoshine, leading to the corresponding ester, concomitant to the inversion of the stereogenic center at C3. Reduction or saponification of the resulting ester finally leads to the corresponding C3-epimer, that may serve as starting material for a wide variety of vitamin D3 and D2 C3-epimers. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved. Source

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