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Sinagra E.,Cervello | Sinagra E.,Endoscopy and Gastroenterology Unit | Perricone G.,Cervello | Perricone G.,Hepatology and Gastroenterology Unit | And 3 more authors.
Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2014

Background Propranolol is recommended for prophylaxis of variceal bleeding in cirrhosis. Carvedilol is a nonselective beta-blocker with a mild anti-alfa-1-adrenergic activity. Several studies have compared carvedilol and propranolol, yielding inconsistent results. Aim To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the randomised clinical trials comparing carvedilol with propranolol for hepatic vein pressure gradient reduction. Methods Studies were searched on the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane library databases up to November 2013. The weighted mean difference in percent hepatic vein pressure gradient reduction and the relative risk of failure to achieve a hemodynamic response (reduction ≥20% of baseline or to ≤12 mmHg) with each drug were used as measures of treatment efficacy. Results Five studies (175 patients) were included. Indication to treatment was primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding in 76% of patients. There were overall three acute (60-90 min after drug administration) and three long-term (after 7-90 days of therapy) comparisons. The summary mean weighted difference in % of reduction in hepatic vein pressure gradient was: acute -7.70 (CI -12.40, -3.00), long-term -6.81 (CI -11.35, -2.26), overall -7.24 (CI -10.50, -3.97), favouring carvedilol. The summary relative risk of failure to achieve a hemodynamic response with carvedilol was 0.66 (CI 0.44, 1.00). Adverse events were nonsignificantly more frequent and serious with carvedilol. However, quality of trials was mostly unsatisfactory. Conclusions Carvedilol reduces portal hypertension significantly more than propranolol. However, available data do not allow a satisfactory comparison of adverse events. These results suggest a potential for a cautious clinical use. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Elli L.,University of Milan | Buscarini E.,Maggiore Hospital Crema | Conte D.,University of Milan | di Giulio E.,University of Rome La Sapienza | And 15 more authors.
Digestive and Liver Disease | Year: 2015

In 2013, four Italian Gastroenterological Societies (the Italian Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, the Italian Society of Hospital Gastroenterologists and Endoscopists, the Italian Society of Endoscopy, and the Italian Society of Gastroenterology) formed a joint panel of experts with the aim of preparing an official statement on transition medicine in Gastroenterology. The transition of adolescents from paediatric to adult care is a crucial moment in managing chronic diseases such as celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, liver disease and liver transplantation. Improved medical treatment and availability of new drugs and surgical techniques have improved the prognosis of many paediatric disorders, prolonging survival, thus making the transition to adulthood possible and necessary. An inappropriate transition or the incomplete transmission of data from the paediatrician to the adult Gastroenterologist can dramatically decrease compliance to treatment and prognosis of a young patient, particularly in the case of severe disorders. For these reasons, the Italian gastroenterological societies decided to develop an official shared transition protocol. The resulting document discusses the factors influencing the transition process and highlights the main points to accomplish to optimize compliance and prognosis of gastroenterological patients during the difficult transition from childhood to adolescence and adulthood. © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l..

Vonlanthen J.,University of Zurich | Okoniewski M.J.,ETH Zurich | Menigatti M.,University of Zurich | Cattaneo E.,University of Zurich | And 6 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2014

Background: Biological processes are controlled by transcription networks. Expression changes of transcription factor (TF) genes in precancerous lesions are therefore crucial events in tumorigenesis. Our aim was to obtain a comprehensive picture of these changes in colorectal adenomas.Methods: Using a 3-pronged selection procedure, we analyzed transcriptomic data on 34 human tissue samples (17 adenomas and paired samples of normal mucosa, all collected with ethics committee approval and written, informed patient consent) to identify TFs with highly significant tumor-associated gene expression changes whose potential roles in colorectal tumorigenesis have been under-researched. Microarray data were subjected to stringent statistical analysis of TF expression in tumor vs. normal tissues, MetaCore-mediated identification of TF networks displaying enrichment for genes that were differentially expressed in tumors, and a novel quantitative analysis of the publications examining the TF genes' roles in colorectal tumorigenesis.Results: The 261 TF genes identified with this procedure included DACH1, which plays essential roles in the proper proliferation and differentiation of retinal and leg precursor cell populations in Drosophila melanogaster. Its possible roles in colorectal tumorigenesis are completely unknown, but it was found to be markedly overexpressed (mRNA and protein) in all colorectal adenomas and in most colorectal carcinomas. However, DACH1 expression was absent in some carcinomas, most of which were DNA mismatch-repair deficient. When networks were built using the set of TF genes identified by all three selection procedures, as well as the entire set of transcriptomic changes in adenomas, five hub genes (TGFB1, BIRC5, MYB, NR3C1, and TERT) where identified as putatively crucial components of the adenomatous transformation process.Conclusion: The transcription-regulating network of colorectal adenomas (compared with that of normal colorectal mucosa) is characterized by significantly altered expression of over 250 TF genes, many of which have never been investigated in relation to colorectal tumorigenesis. © 2014 Vonlanthen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Battelli D.,UOC Anestesia e Terapia Intensiva | Riccardi R.,Pharmaceutical Unit | Piscaglia A.C.,Endoscopy and Gastroenterology Unit | Stefanelli M.L.,Endoscopy and Gastroenterology Unit | And 4 more authors.
Minerva Medica | Year: 2015

Aim. Oral medication is of paramount importance for pain treatment. Analgesics, antiulcer (AUDs) and antithrombotic drugs (ATDs) are often coprescribed in elderly people. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) require AUDs to lower the risk of peptic ulcer, and potentially interfere with ATDs. The aim of this study was to quantify the prevalence of NSAID use in patients with gastrointestinal, cardiac or kidney damage in the year 2013, compared to the general population. Methods. We performed a population-based case-control study in the Republic of San Marino to evaluate the Odds-Ratios for upper gastrointestinal damage (gastroduodenal ulcers and/or erosions, GUE), ischemic heart disease (IHD), heart failure (HF), and renal function impairment (assessed using the CKD-EPI formula), in people who had taken AUDs, ATDs, or NSAIDs in the previous 90 days, versus people who had not taken such drugs in the same period of time. Results. We found that AUDs decreased the OR for GUE (OR: 0.762; CI:0.598-0.972), while ATDs and NSAIDs increased the risk (OR: 1.238 and CI: 0.935-1.683; OR:1.203 and CI:0.909-1.592, respectively). NSAIDs seemed to increase the risk of IHD, although this was not statistically significant (OR=1.464; CI=0.592-3.621). AUDs and ATDs significantly increased the risk of renal function impairment (OR=1.369 and CI=1.187- 1.579; OR=1.818 and CI=1.578-2.095, respectively), while this effect was not observed for NSAIDs. Conclusion. NSAIDs may induce gastrointestinal and cardiovascular damage, not only by themselves, but also when used concomitantly with common medications such as AUDs or ATDs, due to additive and/or synergistic effects. We performed a "pragmatic" analysis of the association of organ damage with use of NSAIDs/AUDs/ATDs, including patient age, treatment duration and dose, to allow for an immediate application of our findings to everyday clinical practice.

Cattaneo E.,University of Zurich | Laczko E.,University of Zurich | Buffoli F.,Endoscopy and Gastroenterology Unit | Zorzi F.,Poliambulanza Hospital Brescia | And 10 more authors.
EMBO Molecular Medicine | Year: 2011

Improved colonoscopy is revealing precancerous lesions that were frequently missed in the past, and ∼30% of those detected today have nonpolypoid morphologies ranging from slightly raised to depressed. To characterize these lesions molecularly, we assessed transcription of 23,768 genes in 42 precancerous lesions (25 slightly elevated nonpolypoid and 17 pedunculated polypoid), each with corresponding samples of normal mucosa. Nonpolypoid versus polypoid morphology explained most gene expression variance among samples; histology, size, and degree of dysplasia were also linked to specific patterns. Expression changes in polypoid lesions frequently affected cell-cycling pathways, whereas cell-survival dysregulation predominated in nonpolypoid lesions. The latter also displayed fewer and less dramatic expression changes than polypoid lesions. Paradigmatic of this trend was progressive loss through the normal>nonpolypoid>polypoid>cancer sequence of TMIGD1 mRNA and protein. This finding, along with TMIGD1 protein expression patterns in tissues and cell lines, suggests that TMIGD1 might be associated with intestinal-cell differentiation. We conclude that molecular dysregulation in slightly elevated, nonpolypoid, precancerous colorectal lesions may be somewhat less severe than that observed in classic adenomatous polyps. © 2011 EMBO Molecular Medicine.

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