Section Endocrinology

Rotterdam, Netherlands

Section Endocrinology

Rotterdam, Netherlands

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Porcaro A.B.,Azienda Ospedaliera | Migliorini F.,Azienda Ospedaliera | Romano M.,Azienda Ospedaliera | Petrozziello A.,Section Endocrinology | And 7 more authors.
International Urology and Nephrology | Year: 2010

Objectives: To show that prostate cancer biology is related to serum levels of both free testosterone (FT) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA), that PSA level is linearly related to FT and that the PSA to FT ratio may be considered as the growth rate parameter expressing cancer phenotype biology. Materials and methods: The study includes 135 consecutive patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. Pretreatment simultaneous serum samples for analyzing total testosterone (TT), FT and total PSA levels were obtained. The study was assessed according to a multidimensional approach of the five continuous variables including TT, FT, PSA, AGE and percentage of positive biopsies (=P+). The all sets of data were considered as one-sample with no groupings among the observations. Multivariate analysis included factor analysis (FA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Multivariate inferential statistics for comparing different groups of patients according to the PSA to free testosterone ratio (PSA/FT) included Hotteling's multivariate two-sample T2-Test for comparing two mean vectors as well as Box's M-Test with the chi-square approximation for comparing multiple covariance matrices when patients were sampled in more than two groups. Results: Factor analysis showed the two natural grouping of variables, FT-TT and PSA-P+. PCA assessed FT and PSA as the two variables with large variances having a notable influence on the first two principal components. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that all the income variables, except age, significantly predicted the PSA/FT ratio. Patients were first sampled according to the PSA/FT ratio in group 1 (PSA/FT ≤ 0.20) and group 2 (PSA/FT > 0.20), and Hotteling's multivariate two sample T2-Test was significant (P < 0.01). Patients were then sampled according to the PSA/FT ratio in group 1 (PSA/FT ≤ 0.20), group 2 (PSA/FT > 0.20 and ≤ 0.40), and group 3 (PSA/FT > 0.40), and Box's M-Test comparing the covariance matrices of the 3 groups differed significantly (P < 0.001). Finally, patients were sampled according to the PSA/FT ratio in 6 groups, and Box's M-Test was again significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The PSA to FT ratio is the growing rate parameter expressing different biology patterns and assessing different groups of prostate cancer patients. In our opinion, the results of the present study might have wide applications in understanding, assessing and planning prostate cancer studies including basic science, screening, assessing risk of the disease, predicting disease stage as well natural history after a planned treatment involving biochemical recurrence, progression, hormone refractory prostate cancer and disease-specific survival. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, B.V.


Koper J.W.,Section of Endocrinology | Van Rossum E.F.C.,Section of Endocrinology | Van Den Akker E.L.T.,Section Endocrinology
Steroids | Year: 2014

Cortisol is involved in many physiological processes, including immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory actions, and therefore cortisol and its synthetic analogs are widely used to treat a large number of diseases. In glucocorticoid treatment, a large variability of clinical responses is observed. This variability may, in part, be ascribed to genetic variation in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene. In this review we present a catalogue of the various single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the glucocorticoid receptor gene and their consequences for human health and disease. Many different GR SNP association studies have been described. However, most studies come down to only a few SNPs reported with different annotations. In this review we clarified these different annotations to uniform names. Most associations between GR SNPs and phenotype have been found in body composition, metabolism, the cardiovascular system, the immune system and psychiatric illnesses. However, many associations have not been replicated (yet), and future replication studies and meta-analyses are needed. There is a substantial body of evidence for GR SNPs to have effects on clinical phenotype. However, as most SNP frequencies are low and their variation is within the range of the general population, the impact of a single SNP for health and disease in the general population is probably modest. However, in-depth studying of the molecular mechanisms of repeatedly observed clinical associations could lead to new possibilities for drug development. In particular the development of selective glucocorticoid receptor modulators holds promise. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Gemmel F.,Borniastraat | Bruinsma H.,Borniastraat | Oomen P.,Section Endocrinology | Collins J.,Medical Center Leeuwarden
Clinical Nuclear Medicine | Year: 2010

We report on a male patient, who presented with a locally advanced cancer of the maxillary sinus. For staging purposes, positron emission tomography (PET)/contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) was performed. Incidentally, on the CT portion, bilateral, asymmetric, enlarged adrenal masses were found. Fused PET/CT images demonstrated no significant fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) uptake in those adrenal masses, consisting mainly of cystic, fatty tissue with septae, and low density tissues. Therefore the combined anatomo-metabolic information of the dedicated hybrid PET/CT study reliably unmasked the masses as adrenal myelolipomas, instead of primary malignant adrenocortical or even metastatic disease, with a major impact on further patient management. © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


PubMed | Section Endocrinology and Section of Endocrinology
Type: | Journal: Steroids | Year: 2014

Cortisol is involved in many physiological processes, including immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory actions, and therefore cortisol and its synthetic analogs are widely used to treat a large number of diseases. In glucocorticoid treatment, a large variability of clinical responses is observed. This variability may, in part, be ascribed to genetic variation in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene. In this review we present a catalogue of the various single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the glucocorticoid receptor gene and their consequences for human health and disease. Many different GR SNP association studies have been described. However, most studies come down to only a few SNPs reported with different annotations. In this review we clarified these different annotations to uniform names. Most associations between GR SNPs and phenotype have been found in body composition, metabolism, the cardiovascular system, the immune system and psychiatric illnesses. However, many associations have not been replicated (yet), and future replication studies and meta-analyses are needed. There is a substantial body of evidence for GR SNPs to have effects on clinical phenotype. However, as most SNP frequencies are low and their variation is within the range of the general population, the impact of a single SNP for health and disease in the general population is probably modest. However, in-depth studying of the molecular mechanisms of repeatedly observed clinical associations could lead to new possibilities for drug development. In particular the development of selective glucocorticoid receptor modulators holds promise.

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