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Sharifi A.M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Sharifi A.M.,Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center | Mousavi S.H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Mousavi S.H.,Medical Toxicology Research Center | Jorjani M.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2010

Despite reduction in environmental lead, chronic lead exposure still possess a public health hazard, particularly in children, with devastating effects on developing CNS. To investigate the mechanism of this neurotoxicity, young and adult rats were used to study whether exposure to 500 ppm concentrations of lead could induce apoptosis in hippocampus. 2-4 and 12-14-week-old rats received lead acetate in concentration of 500 ppm for 40 days. Control animals received deionized distilled water. In lead-treated groups, the blood lead levels were increased by 3-4 folds. Light and electron microscopical study of hippocampus revealed increased apoptotic cells. Western blot analysis of Bax and Bcl-2 (pro-and antiapoptotic gene products, respectively) indicated higher expression of Bax protein and no significant change in bcl-2 expression and accordingly increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio compared to control group, confirming the histological study. In conclusion, these data suggest that neurotoxicity of chronic lead exposure in hippocampus in vivo may partly be due to facilitation of apoptosis. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

Saki F.,Shiraz University of Medical Sciences | Dabbaghmanesh M.H.,Shiraz University of Medical Sciences | Dabbaghmanesh M.H.,Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center | Ghaemi S.Z.,Islamic Azad University at Estahban | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Background: Maternal thyroid function alters during pregnancy. Inadequate adaptation to these changes results in thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy complications. Objectives: This prospective study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid diseases in pregnancy and its outcomes in south of Iran. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 600 healthy singleton pregnant women who aged 18 to 35 years old at 15 to 28 weeks of gestation. We investigated the prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions in women. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine the effect thyroid dysfunction on obstetric and neonatal outcome. Results: Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels of 0.51, 1.18, 1.68, 2.4, and 4.9 mIU/L were at 2.5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 97.5th percentile in our population. The prevalence of clinical hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, overt hyperthyroidism, and subclinical hyperthyroidism in all pregnant women was 2.4%, 11.3%, 1.2%, and 0.3%, respectively. In addition, 1.4% of patients had isolated hypothyroxinemia. Clinical hypothyroidism was associated with increased risk of preterm delivery (P = 0.045). Subclinical hypothyroidism had a significant association with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) (P = 0.028) as well as low Apgar score at first minute (P = 0.022). Maternal hyperthyroidism was associated with IUGR (P = 0.048). Conclusions: We revealed that thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy was associated with IUGR and low Apgar score even in subclinical forms. Further studies are required to determine whether early diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases, even in subclinical form, can prevent their adverse effect on fetus. © 2014, Research Institute For Endocrine Sciences and Iran Endocrine Society; Published by Kowsar.

Esteghamati A.,Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center | Khalilzadeh O.,Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center | Meysamie A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Rashidi A.,Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders | Year: 2010

Background: Obesity is a rapidly progressing pandemic and a central feature of the metabolic syndrome. There is no solid evidence on the recent trends of obesity in Iran. In this study we present the secular trends of overweight and obesity among Iranian adults (25-64 years old) within an 8-year period (1999-2007). Methods: The analyses were performed on the datasets of three cross-sectional national surveys: The National Health Survey-1999 (n = 21,576), National Surveys of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases (SuRFNCD)-2005 (n = 70,945), and SuRFNCD-2007 (n = 4,186). Results: The overall prevalence of obesity increased from 13.6% in 1999 to 19.6% in 2005 and 22.3% in 2007 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.08 per year; P < 0.001]. For overweight subjects, the rates were, respectively, 32.2%, 35.8% and 36.3% (OR = 1.02 per year; P < 0.001). During these years, the mean body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) increased from 25.03 in 1999, to 26.14 in 2005, and 26.47 and 2007 (P < 0.001). The increase in prevalence of obesity was seen in both males (OR = 1.09 per year; P < 0.001) and females (OR = 1.07 per year; P < 0.001) and both urban (OR = 1.07 per year; P < 0.001) and rural (OR = 1.10 per year; P < 0.001) residents. Conclusions: In conclusion, the present study highlighted the rapid growth of obesity during recent years in Iran. Our findings indicate the crucial necessity of primary prevention programs to counteract this undesired condition. Copyright 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Mirzaei K.,Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center | Mirzaei K.,Institute of Public Health Research | Hossein-Nezhad A.,Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center | Aslani S.,Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Endocrine Practice | Year: 2012

Objective: To compare the resting energy expenditure in different macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) genotypes and to identify the in vitro effects of Alpinia officinarum Hance extract (AOHE) on MIF expression in obese and nonobese persons.Methods: In the fasting state, obese and nonobese persons were assessed for the measurement of resting energy expenditure rate (REE) by indirect calorimetry. We compared it with the expected amount ([REE measured by indirect calorimetry / predicted REE according to Harris Benedict equations] × 100). Participants were classified into those with normal REE (≥100) vs those with impaired REE (<100). Body composition was analyzed. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed using specific primer pairs for MIF messenger RNA, and β-actin was used as the internal control.Results: The study included 69 obese and 103 non-obese participants. The proportions of MIF genotypes were slightly different in obese and nonobese participants. However, the proportions of MIF genotypes were significantly different in participants with normal REE and those with low REE. The MIF gene was highly expressed in the obese group compared with MIF expression in the nonobese group. Body fat mass and MIF expression were higher in participants with the GG genotype than in the other genotype groups. MIF expression was inversely associated with REE in both groups (r = -0.36, P = .04). After treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with AOHE, MIF expression differed according to MIF genotype.Conclusions: Our results indicate that AOHE is a major modulator of MIF-dependent pathologic conditions in obesity and are consistent with mounting evidence that defines a regulating role for MIF in cytokine production in an inflammatory state in in vitro studies. © 2012 AACE.

Kaviani A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Djavid G.E.,Photobiostimulation Research Group | Ataie-Fashtami L.,Iranian Center for Medical Laser | Fateh M.,Laser in Medicine Research Group | And 5 more authors.
Photomedicine and Laser Surgery | Year: 2011

Background and Objectives: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been shown to promote chronic wound healing in conditions of reduced microcirculation. In this preliminary study, we report the results of using LLLT to heal foot ulcers in patients with diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three patients with a diabetic foot wound for at least 3 months were included in this double-blind randomized clinical trial. Patients were randomized to receive placebo treatment (n=10) or LLLT (n=13) (685 nm, energy density 10 J/cm 2) in addition to conventional therapy. Patients were followed for 20 weeks. Ulcer size reduction and the number of patients with complete healing were compared between the LLLT and placebo groups. Results: There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics of patients and foot ulcers receiving LLLT and placebo treatment. At week 4, the size of ulcers decreased significantly in the LLLT group (p=0.04). After 20 weeks, in the LLLT group, eight patients had complete healing and in the placebo group only three patients experienced complete wound healing. The mean time of complete healing in LLLT patients (11 weeks) was less than that in placebo patients (14 weeks) though the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The study provides evidence that LLLT can accelerate the healing process of chronic diabetic foot ulcers, and it can be presumed that LLLT may shorten the time period needed to achieve complete healing. © 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

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