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Shen X.-X.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li H.-L.,Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease Clinical Center | Pan L.,Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease Clinical Center | Hong J.,Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease Clinical Center | And 4 more authors.
Endocrine Research | Year: 2012

Aim/hypothesis. The objective of this study was to assess how long-term exposure to high glucose affects the α cell function and whether the increased glucagon secretion is mediated via insulin resistance. Materials and methods. We established a β cell-depleted rat model to obtain pure primary α cells. Furthermore, isolated rat islets and TC1-6 cells (a clonal α cell line) were exposed to high glucose (25 or 30 mmol/L) and low glucose (5.5 mmol/L) for up to 5 days to evaluate the influence of chronic glucose toxicity on glucagon secretion and glucagon gene expression. Moreover, we added insulin and/or Wortmannin to examine if the inhibitory effect of insulin on glucagon secretion was impaired by high glucose via the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/PKB protein kinase B pathway. Results. Both glucagon secretion and glucagon gene expression were increased in response to 5 days exposure to high glucose. While a moderate insulin concentration slightly inhibits glucagon secretion from rat islets and α TC1-6 cells at high glucose, a pronounced increase in glucagon secretion was observed at low glucose. We found that the insulin-mediated activity of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/PKB protein kinase B pathway in the α cell was markedly impaired by chronic exposure to high glucose. Conclusion. The hypersecretion of glucagon induced by glucotoxicity may be secondary to insulin resistance of the α cell induced by impaired activity of the insulin signaling pathway. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

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