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Around 1960, it became clear that, with very few exceptions, the treatment of children with diabetes was not in the hands of paediatricians but in those of adult diabetologists. In 1972, Zvi Laron (Tel Aviv), Henri Lestradet (Paris) and Helmut Loeb (Bruxelles) decided that a separate paediatric association for the care and education of children and adolescents with diabetes was needed. The "International Study Group on Diabetes in Children and Adolescents (ISGD)" was born. In 1993, the name was changed to the "International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD)". In 2009, a total of 891 members, from 89 countries, was counted. "Pediatric Diabetes" is the scientific membership journal with an impact factor of 2.424. Source


Laron Z.,Endocrinology and Diabetes Research Unit | Laron Z.,Tel Aviv University
Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews | Year: 2012

Constitutional tall stature can be anticipated from neonatal length (1) and measurement at age 4 and 8 years (2). Mainly of genetic origin (3) it has been shown that tall children and parents have high normal or higher than normal serum hGH and/or IGF-I levels. (4-6). Also in a healthy adult population a significant (p<0.005) association between height and serum IGF-I has been reported (7). These within normal variations in "healthy" individuals should be distinguished from "gigantism" due to excessive GHR-H or hGH secretion (8, 9) and other pathological conditions leading to tall stature (3). Source


Farfel A.,Israel Defense Forces | Derazne E.,Israel Defense Forces | Tzur D.,Israel Defense Forces | Linder N.,Rabin Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
Israel Medical Association Journal | Year: 2012

Background: Measurements of adolescents who at birth were large (long and/or heavy) for gestational age are scant. Objectives: To determine the correlation between birth length and weight in female and male neonates born long and/or overweight for gestational age, with their height and weight at age 17. Methods: We reviewed the records of the Rabin Medical Center for birth data of 96 full-term neonates born long and overweight for gestational age (FT-lo,ow), 33 full-term neonates born long but with normal weight for gestational age (FT-lo,nw), 148 full-term neonates born overweight but with normal length for gestational age (FT-nl,ow), and 401 full-term neonates born with normal birth length and weight (FT-nl,nw). Results: Neonates of both genders born long and overweight at birth (FT-lo,ow) were taller and heavier at age 17 years than those born FT-nl,nw: females 167.8 ± 5.1 cm and 64.6 ± 10.3 kg vs. 162.6 ± 5.5 cm and 59.3 ± 11.1 kg (P < 0.001 for height and P = 0.026 for weight); and males 182.4 ± 8.1 cm and 80.6 ± 20.4 kg vs. 174.5 ± 6.2 cm and 67.4 ± 12.3 kg (P < 0.001). The correlations between birth length and height at age 17 for both genders were statistically significant (P < 0.001), as were those between birth weight and the weight and body mass index (BMI) at age 17 for both genders (P < 0.001). There was no correlation between birth length and weight or BMI at age 17. Conclusions: Full-term neonates of both genders born large for gestational age become tall adolescents and weigh more at age 17 than children with a normal birth length and weight. Source


Laron Z.,Endocrinology and Diabetes Research Unit | Silbergeld A.,Endocrinology and Diabetes Research Unit | Kauli R.,Endocrinology and Diabetes Research Unit
Anthropologischer Anzeiger | Year: 2012

The differential growth effects of hGH and IGF-I on the upper/lower (U/L) body segment in relation to height (Ht) were analyzed in 15 patients with isolated Growth hormone deficiency (IGHD,:7M, 8F) mean age 5.0 ± 3.2 (SD) years treated with hGH; 21 patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency including growth hormone (MPHD: 14M, 7F) aged 10.0 ± 3.8, treated with hGH; 9 patients with Laron Syndrome (LS) (4M,5F) aged 6.9 ± 5.6 years treated with IGF-I; 9 boys with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) aged 6.3 ± 1.25 years treated by hGH; and 22 boys with idiopathic short stature (ISS) aged 8.0 ± 1.55 years treated by hGH. The dose of hGH was 33 μg/kg/day, that of IGF-I 180-200 μg/kg/day. Results: the U/L body segment ratio in IGHD patients decreased from 2.3 ± 0.7 to 1.1 ± 0.7 (p < 0.001), and the Ht SDS increased from -4.9 ± 1.3 to -2.3 ± 1 (p < 0.001) following treatment. In MPHD patients the U/L body segment decreased from 1.1 ± 1.1 to -0.6 ± 1.0 (p < 0.001), and the Ht SDS increased from -3.3 ± 1.4 to -2.5 ± 1.0 (p < 0.009). In the LS group the U/L body segment ratio did not change with IGF-I treatment but Ht improved from -6.1 ± 1.3 to -4.6 ± 1.2 (p < 0.001), The differential growth response of the children with IUGR and with ISS resembled that of the children with LS. Conclusions: hGH and IGF-I act differentially on the spine and limbs. © 2012 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany. Source


Laron Z.,Endocrinology and Diabetes Research Unit | Iluz M.,Endocrinology and Diabetes Research Unit | Kauli R.,Endocrinology and Diabetes Research Unit
Growth Hormone and IGF Research | Year: 2012

Background: Head circumference (HC) is a simple and practical measure of brain size, development and longitudinal measurements of the HC in childhood are an index of brain growth. Objective: To determine the effects of long IGF-I deficiency and treatment on HC in patients with Laron syndrome (LS). Patients: 20 untreated adult LS patients, aged 48.4 ± 11.2. years and 13 LS patients treated between ages of 5.6 ± 4 to 11.3 ± 3. years were studied. 15 patients with congenital IGHD treated between age 6.1 ± 4 and 13 ± 4 by hGH served as controls. Methods: HC was expressed as standard deviation (SD) and Ht as SDS. HC was measured and plotted on Nellhaus charts. Linear height (Ht) was measured by a Harpenden Stadiometer. Results: The mean HC deficit of the adult untreated LS males was - 2.9 ± 0.6 SD compared to a Ht deficit of - 7.0 ± 1.7 SDS. The HC of the LS adult females was - 3.6 ± 1 SD compared to a Ht SDS of - 6.9 ± 1.5 (p < 0.001). IGF-I treatment (150-200 μg/kg once daily) increased the HC from - 3.3 ± 0.9 (m ± SD) to normal values (0.87 ± 1.8 SD) (p < 0.001) in 11/13 children. The Ht SDS deficit decreased only by 1.5 SDS. hGH treatment of cIGHD children increased the HC from - 2.0 ± 1.8 to 0.3 ± 1.2 SD and the Ht SDS from - 4.8 ± 1.6 to 1.6 ± 1.0. Conclusions: a)Untreated children and adults with LS and cIGHD have a reduced HC (i.e. brain size). IGF-I treatment of LS children and hGH treatment of IGHD children induced a fast catch-up growth denoting the role of IGF-I on brain growth.b)Comparison between IGF-I and hGH on linear growth stimulation revealed a greater potency of hGH. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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