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Ymittos Athens, Greece

According to a previously published theory, Socrates was afflicted with temporal lobe epilepsy since his childhood. Plato, Xenophon, and Aristoxenus described Socrates as having exophthalmos, probably diplopia, and some symptoms compatible with hyperthyroidism. Using these data, we theorize that Socrates had Graves’ disease. In order to determine a cause of his temporal lobe epilepsy, we speculate that the philosopher also had autoimmune thyroiditis and Hashimoto encephalopathy during his childhood and his epilepsy may have been a sequel to this hypothesized encephalopathy. © 2015, Hellenic Endocrine Society. All rights reserved. Source

Yacoub T.,Endocrinology
Postgraduate Medicine | Year: 2016

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive disease, and most patients ultimately require two or more antidiabetes drugs in addition to lifestyle changes to achieve and maintain glycemic control. Current consensus statements and guidelines recommend metformin as first-line pharmacotherapy for the treatment of T2DM in most patients. When glycemic control cannot be maintained with metformin alone, the sequential, stepwise addition of other agents is recommended. Agents such as thiazolidinediones or sulfonylureas have typically been added to metformin therapy. Although effective in reducing glycated hemoglobin, these drugs are often associated with adverse effects, most notably weight gain, and in the case of sulfonylureas, hypoglycemia. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, such as dapagliflozin, are the newest class of antidiabetes drugs approved for the treatment of T2DM. Dapagliflozin effectively improves glycemic control by increasing the renal excretion of excess glucose. In clinical trials, dapagliflozin has been well tolerated and has additional benefits of weight loss, low risk of hypoglycemia and reduction in blood pressure. This review discusses the clinical evidence and rationale for the use of dapagliflozin as add-on therapy in T2DM. The results suggest that dapagliflozin add-on therapy is a promising new treatment option for a wide range of patients with T2DM. Results from an ongoing cardiovascular outcomes trial are needed to establish the long-term safety of dapagliflozin. © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source

Mathieu C.,Endocrinology
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice | Year: 2013

After the discovery of insulin in the last century, rapidly efforts were undertaken to prolong the duration of action of injected insulin, in a naïve attempt to achieve physiological insulin profiles by just one injection of insulin a day [1]. However, the insulin profile achieved by beta-cells is quite different from a continuous supply of insulin. Indeed, when reflecting on the gold standard in insulin therapy, the beta-cell itself, one can distinguish between on the one hand the small amounts of insulin being produced almost continuously aimed at keeping anabolism going and on the other hand the peaks of insulin released at moments where meals are entering the system. The main target organ for both the basal and the bolus insulin secretion of the beta-cell is the liver, with a substantial first pass effect. The major asset of the insulin secretion of the beta-cell is that it is glucose-sensitive and thus, in periods without meals, no peaks of insulin release will occur, but more importantly, when metabolism needs to switch to catabolism, also the basal secretion will diminish and shut down, allowing gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in liver to occur. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Cozzi R.,Ospedale Niguarda | Attanasio R.,Endocrinology
Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Acromegaly remains a therapeutic challenge for the endocrinologist. Among the available therapeutic options, octreotide long-acting repeatable (Sandostatin ® LAR ®, Novartis) plays a chief role, both as a primary therapy and as an adjuvant treatment after unsuccessful surgery. A plethora of papers and a meta-analysis have demonstrated its efficacy in: control of clinical picture; achievement of safe growth hormone and normal age-matched IGF-I levels (both factors associated with restoration of normal life expectancy) in 60-70% of patients; control of tumor volume (with real shrinkage in over half of cases); and halt or reversal of most acromegaly-associated comorbidities. Treatment is well tolerated in most patients and can be safely prolonged for many years if required. © 2012 Expert Reviews Ltd. Source

Pellegriti G.,Endocrinology | Frasca F.,University of Catania | Regalbuto C.,University of Catania | Squatrito S.,University of Catania | Vigneri R.,Catania Cancer Center
Journal of Cancer Epidemiology | Year: 2013

Background. In the last decades, thyroid cancer incidence has continuously and sharply increased all over the world. This review analyzes the possible reasons of this increase. Summary. Many experts believe that the increased incidence of thyroid cancer is apparent, because of the increased detection of small cancers in the preclinical stage. However, a true increase is also possible, as suggested by the observation that large tumors have also increased and gender differences and birth cohort effects are present. Moreover, thyroid cancer mortality, in spite of earlier diagnosis and better treatment, has not decreased but is rather increasing. Therefore, some environmental carcinogens in the industrialized lifestyle may have specifically affected the thyroid. Among potential carcinogens, the increased exposure to medical radiations is the most likely risk factor. Other factors specific for the thyroid like increased iodine intake and increased prevalence of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis cannot be excluded, while other factors like the increasing prevalence of obesity are not specific for the thyroid. Conclusions. The increased incidence of thyroid cancer is most likely due to a combination of an apparent increase due to more sensitive diagnostic procedures and of a true increase, a possible consequence of increased population exposure to radiation and to other still unrecognized carcinogens. © 2013 Gabriella Pellegriti et al. Source

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