Journal of Medical Case Reports | Year: 2014
Introduction: Anterior hypopituitarism is a common complication of head trauma, with a prevalence of 30% to 70% among long-term survivors. This is a much higher frequency than previously thought and suggests that most cases of post-traumatic hypopituitarism remain undiagnosed and untreated. Symptoms of hypopituitarism are very unspecific and very similar to those in traumatic brain injury patients in general, which makes hypopituitarism difficult to diagnose. The factors that predict the likelihood of developing hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury remain poorly understood. The incidence of a specific hormone deficiency is variable, with growth hormone deficiency reported in 18% to 23% of cases.Case presentation: A 23-year-old Hispanic man with a 2-year history of hypertension and diabetes presented with severe closed-head trauma producing diffuse axonal injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage and a brain concussion. A computed tomography scan showed a pituitary macroadenoma. The patient has clinical features of acromegaly and gigantism without other pituitary hyperfunctional manifestations or mass effect syndrome. A short-term post-traumatic laboratory test showed high levels of insulin like growth factor 1 and growth hormone, which are compatible with a growth hormone-producing pituitary tumor. At the third month post-trauma, the patient's levels of insulin like growth factor 1 had decreased to low normal levels, with basal low levels of growth hormone. A glucose tolerance test completely suppressed the growth hormone, which confirmed resolution of acromegaly. An insulin tolerance test showed lack of stimulation of growth hormone and cortisol, demonstrating hypopituitarism of both axes.Conclusion: Even though hypopituitarism is a frequent complication of traumatic brain injury, there are no reports in the literature, to the best of my knowledge, of patients with hyperfunctional pituitary adenomas, such as growth hormone-producing adenoma, that resolved after head trauma. A clear protocol has not yet been established to identify which patients should be screened for hypopituitarism. Predictive factors that might determine the likelihood of developing post-traumatic hypopituitarism have not been clearly established, but there is no evidence of the presence of pituitary adenomas as a risk factor in otherwise healthy patients. © 2014 Cob; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Garcia-Carrazco C.F.,IMSS UMAE No 25 |
Nacud-Bezies Y.A.,IMSS UMAE No 25 |
Espinoza-Velazco A.,IMSS UMAE No 25 |
Rivera-Castillo E.J.,Endocrinologia |
Marquez-Toscano J.R.,IMSS UMAE No 25
Gaceta Mexicana de Oncologia | Year: 2012
The suprarrenal carcinoma is a rare disease. More than 60% of those tumors are functional: Cushing's syndrome (45%), Cushing and virilization (25%), virilization alone (10%, in children more than 85%). Nonfunctional tumors occur as incidentalomas in advanced age and have worse prognosis. It is diagnosed by CT o MRI. Functional tumors must to be show hypercortisolism. Potentially curative treatment is surgical resection. Advanced disease has poor response to mitotane and chemotherapy. Adrenal insufficiency post resection should be avoided with use of steroids. We present a female 34 year-old, whit morbid obesity (BMI: 55 kg/m2), hypertension, hypotiroidism, venous insufficiency and varicose ulcers, amenorrhea, hirsutism and dermatitis acneiform. Laboratories test detected hypercortisolism and an abdominal CT scan showed a giant left adrenal tumor. She underwent left adrenalectomy-nefrectomy, splenectomy and distal pancreatectomy. During postsurgical period developed acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis, which exacerbate the postoperative adrenal insufficiency and died at the five day. It is important detect this condition in early stages due survival rates at 5 years are: Stage I 82%, Stage II 61%, Stage III 50% y Stage IV 13%. Without resection the survival rate is 6-9 months, even whit the use of mitotane; its main benefit is to decrease symptoms of hypercortisolism. Currently the survival has been improved with adequate surgical resection and adjuvant therapy whit mitotane and cytotoxic drugs.
Lavalle-Gonzalez F.J.,Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon |
Eliaschewitz F.G.,lin Clinical Research Center |
Cerdas S.,Research Center Clinica San Agustin |
Del Pilar Chacon M.,Endocrinologia |
And 2 more authors.
Current Medical Research and Opinion | Year: 2016
Objective:This post hoc analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from Latin America.Research design and methods:Analyses were performed in subgroups of patients from Latin America based on data from three individual, 26-week, placebo-controlled studies of canagliflozin (monotherapy [n = 116/584], add-on to metformin [n = 199/918], and add-on to metformin plus sulfonylurea [n = 76/469]) and three individual, 52-week, active-controlled studies of canagliflozin (add-on to metformin versus sitagliptin [n = 240/1101], add-on to metformin versus glimepiride [n = 155/1450], and add-on to metformin plus sulfonylurea versus sitagliptin [n = 156/755]).Main outcome measures:Changes from baseline in HbA1c, body weight, and systolic blood pressure (BP) with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg versus placebo or active comparator (i.e., sitagliptin or glimepiride) were evaluated in the overall study populations and Latin American subgroups. Safety was assessed based on adverse event (AE) reports.Results:Canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg provided reductions in HbA1c, body weight, and systolic BP across studies in patients from Latin America that were generally similar to those seen in the overall populations of patients with T2DM. The AE profile in patients from Latin America was equivalent to that in the overall populations; higher rates of genital mycotic infections and osmotic diuresis-related AEs were seen with canagliflozin versus comparators. Limitations of this study include the post hoc analysis of data and the small sample size of patients from Latin America.Conclusion:Canagliflozin improved glycemic control, reduced body weight and systolic BP, and was generally well tolerated in patients with T2DM from Latin America.Clinical trial registration:NCT01081834; NCT01106677; NCT01106625; NCT00968812; NCT01137812. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.
Umpierrez G.,Emory University |
Povedano S.T.,Endocrinologia |
Shurzinske L.,Eli Lilly and Company |
Pechtner V.,Eli Lilly and Company
Diabetes Care | Year: 2014
OBJECTIVE: Compare the efficacy and safety of monotherapy with dulaglutide, a once-weekly GLP-1 receptor agonist, to metformin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes. The primary objective compared dulaglutide 1.5 mg and metformin on change from baseline glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) at 26 weeks. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This 52-week double-blind study randomized patients to subcutaneous dulaglutide 1.5 mg, dulaglutide 0.75 mg, or metformin. Patients (N = 807) had HbA1c ≥6.5% (≥48 mmol/mol) and ≤9.5% (≤80 mmol/mol) with diet and exercise alone or low-dose oral antihyperglycemic medication (OAM) monotherapy; OAMs were discontinued at beginning of lead-in period. RESULTS: At 26 weeks, changes from baseline HbA1c (least squares [LS] mean ± SE) were: dulaglutide 1.5 mg, 20.78 ± 0.06% (28.5 ± 0.70 mmol/mol); dulaglutide 0.75 mg, 20.7160.06% (27.860.70 mmol/mol);andmetformin, 20.5660.06% (26.1 ± 0.70 mmol/mol). Dulaglutide 1.5 and 0.75 mg were superior to metformin (LS mean difference): 20.22% (22.4 mmol/mol) and 20.15% (21.6 mmol/mol) (one-sided P < 0.025, both comparisons), respectively. Greater percentages reached HbA 1c targets <7.0% (<53 mmol/mol) and ≤6.5% (≤48 mmol/mol) with dulaglutide 1.5 and 0.75 mg compared with metformin (P < 0.05, all comparisons). No severe hypoglycemia was reported. Compared with metformin, decrease in weight was similar with dulaglutide 1.5 mg and smaller with dulaglutide 0.75 mg. Over 52 weeks, nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting were the most common adverse events; incidences were similar between dulaglutide and metformin. CONCLUSIONS: Dulaglutide improves glycemic control and is well tolerated as monotherapy in patients with early stage type 2 diabetes. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.
Kerr N.M.,University of Auckland |
Cassinelli H.R.,Endocrinologia |
DiMeglio L.A.,Indiana University |
Tau C.,Endocrinologia |
And 3 more authors.
Archives of Ophthalmology | Year: 2010
Objectives: To determine the prevalence and spectrum of retinal changes in juvenile Paget disease. Methods: Observational case series and literature review with analysis. Patients with clinical and molecular evidence of juvenile Paget disease were recruited by members of the International Hyperphosphatasia Collaborative Group. Participants underwent ophthalmic examinations consisting of at least best-corrected Snellen visual acuity and dilated fundal examination or color fundus photography. A MEDLINE literature search was performed, and all identified case reports were reviewed for information regarding ocular phenotype. Results: Fourteen eyes from 7 patients were examined. The mean (SD) patient age was 22 (8) years, and 4 patients were female. Retinal abnormalities were evident in 12 of 14 eyes and were reported among an additional 12 patients in the literature. Retinal abnormalities included mottling of the retinal pigment epithelium, peripapillary atrophy, angioid streaks, and choroidal neovascularization. Cumulative number of retinal abnormalities was strongly associated with increasing age. Conclusions: Juvenile Paget disease is associated with progressive retinopathy characterized by the development of angioid streaks, which may be complicated by choroidal neovascularization, the predominant cause of visual loss. Osteoprotegerin or its signaling pathway may have a role in calcification of Bruch membrane and in the pathogenesis of angioid streaks. Retinopathy in patients with juvenile Paget disease may be a sign of a more generalized vascular disorder. ©2010 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.