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Vannucchi G.,University of Milan | Perrino M.,University of Milan | Rossi S.,University of Milan | Colombo C.,University of Milan | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Endocrinology | Year: 2010

Objective: Pregnancy represents a favorable condition for the development of thyroid nodules, likely due to the secretion of hormones with stimulatory activity. In particular, differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) represents the second most frequent tumor among those diagnosed during pregnancy. However, few and discordant data are available about the impact of pregnancy on tumor outcome. Methods: A total of 123 women with DTC were divided into three groups according to the timing of tumor diagnosis (group 1, at least 1 year after the delivery; group 2, during pregnancy or in the first year after delivery; and group 3, before pregnancy or nulliparity) and evaluated according to the international guidelines. Furthermore, immunohistochemical studies of estrogen receptor α (ERα) were performed in 38 papillary thyroid cancer tissues from the three groups. Results: Thyroid cancer diagnosed during pregnancy was associated with a poorer prognosis compared to tumors developed in nongravidic periods (P<0.0001). Accordingly, at the stepwise logistic regression analysis, the diagnosis of DTC during pregnancy or in the first year post partum was the most significant indicator of persistent disease (P=0.001). Interestingly, ERa expression significantly differed among tumors of the three groups, being detected in 31% of group 1, in 87.5% of group 2, and in 0% of group 3 (P=0.01). Conclusions: Present data indicate that pregnancy has a negative impact on the outcome of thyroid cancer. The presence of ERα in the majority of tumors diagnosed during pregnancy indicates that the poorer outcome of these cases could be related to the estrogen-mediated growth stimulus. © 2010 European Society of Endocrinology.

Sitges-Serra A.,Endocrine surgery unit
Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2014

The prevalence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), particularly of low-risk PTC (MACIS <6), is rising due to the increasingly use of neck imaging techniques, fine-needle aspiration and whole body PET scans. Observational cohort studies carried out in the last two decades suggest that low-risk PTC are being overtreated due to the current management paradigm being built on studies done in the 70s and 80s that still echo in some influential guidelines. With the progressive adoption of total thyroidectomy and central neck dissection as the mainstay of treatment for PTC, and suppressed basal thyroglobulin and neck ultrasound once a year as the essential tools for follow-up, the use of radioiodine ablation, body scans and stimulated thyroglobulin concentrations has become obsolete for the vast majority of patients with low-risk PTC. Future guidelines on the management of differentiated thyroid cancer should discuss separately three different diseases: low-risk PTC, high-risk PTC and follicular cancer. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd.

Cirello V.,University of Milan | Perrino M.,University of Milan | Colombo C.,University of Milan | Muzza M.,University of Milan | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2010

Fetal cell microchimerism (FCM) is defined as the persistence, for decades after pregnancy, of fetal cells in maternal organs and circulation without any apparent rejection. We recently reported evidence, in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) tissues, supporting a possible role of FCM in tumor damage and repair. To extend those data at the peripheral level, 106 women with a previous male pregnancy, comprising 57 with PTC and 49 healthy controls were enrolled. The presence of circulating male DNA was assessed by the amplification of the Y chromosome-specific gene SRY, with a sensitivity of 1 male cell per 1 million female cells. Moreover, to compare the microchimeric status in blood and in tumors, the neoplastic tissues of 19 women were studied. At the blood level, a significantly lower frequency of FCM was found in parous women with PTC with respect to controls (49.1% vs. 77.6%; p = 0.002). By PCR, male DNA was identified in the tumor tissues of 6 patients, and FISH analyses confirmed the presence of microchimeric cells (range 2.1-6.9 cells/section). In some patients, FCM was negative in the blood, whereas microchimeric cells were identified in the tumor. In conclusion, the prevalence of FCM in peripheral blood was found to be significantly lower in patients than in healthy controls. The presence of microchimeric cells in the tumors, but not at the peripheral level, supports the hypothesis that fetal cells could reside in maternal niches and could be recruited to diseased areas, where they could differentiate to regenerate damaged tissues. © 2009 UICC.

To assess the immediate and long-term clinical results of 2 different surgical procedures for the treatment of asymmetrical multinodular goiter (AMG). Half of the patients presenting with a single benign thyroid nodule have contralateral subclinical disease. There is a controversy whether these patients should be treated with hemithyroidectomy (HMT) or with a more extensive procedure. Adult patients with a benign unilateral dominant nodule and contralateral nodule(s) with a diameter of less than 10 mm detected on neck ultrasonography were randomized to HMT or Dunhill (DUN). Rates of complications, remnant growth, incidental carcinoma, and reoperation were assessed. A total of 118 patients (F/M:110/8, mean age 43 years) were included and randomized: 65 to HMT and 53 to DUN. After randomization, 28 patients were excluded leaving 47 HMT and 43 DUN long-term (55 ± 35 months) evaluable patients. Mean nodule size was 38 and 6 mm for the dominant and contralateral nodules, respectively. No differences were found in operative time, accidental parathyroidectomy, parathyroid autotransplantation, or wound complications. Transient hypocalcemia was more common in DUN (30% vs 8%; P < 0.001). No permanent complications were observed. At the last follow-up visit, thyroid-stimulating hormone was similar in both groups. Remnant growth (20 vs 0%; P < 0.001), appearance of new nodules (55 vs 14%; P < 0.001), and overall reoperation rate (9.2 vs 1.8%, P = 0.2) were more common in HMT, mostly because of undiagnosed cancer requiring completion thyroidectomy. Thirty percent of HMTs developed hypothyroidism and required long-term T4 supplementation. DUN appears superior to HMT for the treatment of AMG in terms of early reoperation for missed carcinomas and disease progression. Both procedures have a similarly uneventful postoperative course.

Patel H.P.,University of Sheffield | Chadwick D.R.,Chesterfield Royal Hospital NHS Foundation Trust | Harrison B.J.,Endocrine surgery unit | Balasubramanian S.P.,University of Sheffield | Balasubramanian S.P.,Endocrine surgery unit
British Journal of Surgery | Year: 2012

Background: Methylene blue is an intraoperative adjunct for localization of enlarged parathyroid glands. The availability of preoperative and other intraoperative localization methods, and the reported adverse effects of methylene blue make its routine use debatable. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the use of methylene blue in parathyroidectomy. Methods: A systematic review of English-language literature in MEDLINE and Scopus databases on the use of intravenous methylene blue in parathyroid surgery was carried out. Results: There were no randomized clinical trials. Thirty-nine observational studies were identified, of which 33 did not have a control arm. The overall median staining rate for abnormal parathyroid glands was 100 per cent. The median cure rates in the methylene blue and no-methylene blue arms were 100 and 98 per cent respectively. Neurotoxicity was reported in 25 patients, all of whom were taking serotonergic medication. Conclusion: Observational evidence suggests that methylene blue is efficacious in identifying enlarged parathyroid glands. Toxicity appears to be mild in the absence of concomitant use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The effectiveness of methylene blue in the context of currently used preoperative and intraoperative localization techniques has yet to be shown. Copyright © 2012 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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